Intro to Cultrual Anthropology- Ch. 11 Notes
Intro to Cultrual Anthropology- Ch. 11 Notes ANTH-18210-49
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Angelo on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH-18210-49 at Kent State University taught by Jeanne M. Stumpf-Carome (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cultural Anthropology in Human Development at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
Cultural Anthropology Chapter 11 Marriage What is marriage? - No definition is broad enough to apply easily to all societies or situations - Establishes legal percentage of children - Gives spouses rights - Genitor- biological father of child - Pater- socially recognized father Incest and Exogamy - Marriage is one primary way of converting strangers into friends, of creating and maintaining personal and political alliances and creating relationships of affinity - Exogamy: practice of seeking a spouse outside one’s own group Pink triangle: - Nazi concentration camps - Homosexual prisoners Sex is contested - until the 21 century sodomy (anal or oral sex with opposite sex, or having sex with the same sex) was deemed illegal - homosexual and hetero sexual - Texas and America Elsewhere - Islam- high sodomy - Homosexual activity is high - Abuse of young male-students- sodomizing Malaysia- Anwar Ibrahim- sentenced to 5 years in prison in 1999- he was ordered to be released in 2004- corruption verdict – never lifted- no political posts till 2008 Incest: forbidden sexual relations with a close relative - Varies widely country to country Parallel cousins: children of two brothers or two sisters Cross-cousins: children of a bother and a sister Lakher of Southeast Asia- strictly patrilineal Bilateral cross-cousin marriage: The Yanomamo follow a bilateral cross-cousin marriage system Lineage Exogamy: members of the same localized lineage are forbidden from marriage Exogamy and incest prohibitions among agnates (patrilineal relatives) mark the patrilineages as a significant units in the mutual exchange of marriage partners and in the consequent formation of alliances Yanomami: - Bilateral cross-cousin marriage - Partners are doubly related - Matrilineal and patrilateral cross- cousins – consequence of similar marriage among their parents Moieties- a half- intermarrying- co-reside- village settlements Lakhers: guy and girl courting- share work in the field- suitor sleeps in the girl’s house –gradually advance with consent of girl- anyone who accuses them of intimate relations is fined even if it’s true or not- brides selected by parents- marriage generally outside of family- maternal uncle’s daughter considered a favorable match Incest and its avoidance - Human behavior with respect to mating with close relatives may express generalized primate tendency with urges and avoidances - Cross- cultural findings show incest and its avoidance shaped by kinship structures - Father/daughter incest least likely when there was substantial paternal parenting of daughters Why do societies discourage incest? - Following rules of exogamy - Specific kip types included within the incest taboo have a cultural rather than biological basis - Human marriage patterns based on specific cultural beliefs rather than universal concerns about biological degeneration Endogamy: marriage of people from the same group – U.S. – classes and ethnic groups are – quasi- endogamous groups Homogamy: to marry someone similar – one factor in sharpening contracts in household income between richest and poorest quintiles Caste: - India’s caste system is extreme exogamy - 5 major categories of Varna - Occupational specialization often sets off one caste from another - Although Indian castes are endogamous groups, many of them are internally subdivided into exogamous lineage Royal endogamy: similar to caste endogamy Inca Peru, ancient Egypt, and traditional Hawaii allowed royal brother-sister marriage Manifest function: reason given for a custom by its natives Latent function: effects custom has that are not explicitly recognized by the natives Ancient Hawaii- brother/ sister marriage was part of what cultures beliefs about mana and sacredness European Loyalty: the practice of endogamy was based on cousin marriage Royal Endogamy: also had latent economic functions - Political repercussions - Economic functions Marital Rights and Same- sex marriage Edmund Leach- argued that the rights allocated by marriage included: - Established legal mother/ father - Giving a monopoly in sexuality of the other - Giving rights to the labor of the other - Giving rights over the other’s property - Establishing a joint fund of property - Establishing a socially significant “relationship of affinity” Could Same-sex marriage- establish legal parentage of children born to one or both partners after partnership is formed? - Same-sex- legal – social constitution of kinship easily makes both partners parents - Cam give each spouse rights to the other spouses labor and its products Outside industrial societies, marriage often relationship between groups than one between individuals - Diffusion of Western ideas about importance of love for marriage affects marital decisions in other cultures - People assume obligation to a group of in-laws when they marry Gifts at marriage - Lobola( bride price/ bride wealth)- substantial marital gifts from husband and his kin to the wife and her kin - Dowry: marital exchange in which wife’s group provides substantial gifts to husbands family - Price-Bride- Lobola- Africa- price paid in cows/ money by the groom to the parnets of the bride- Uganda- violates constitution of Uganda Moroccan- Berber- Marriage / Wedding Practice -parents have considerable influence over the choice of children’s spouse - Bride-price - Dowry - Woman- virgin - Wedding- during summer months – usually 2-3 days depending on money Islam- Muslim women= Muslim man Muslim man= non- Muslim woman Normally only husband can initiate divorce- except if he has an erectile dysfunction- children remain with the father Most industrial food- producing societies unlike most foraging societies and industrial nations, allow plural marriages Plural Marriage: being married to more than two spouses simultaneously (polygamy) Polygyny: a man has more than one wife- most common Polyandry: a woman has more than one husband- rare Durable alliances: Group- alliance nature of marriage seen in practice of constitution of marital alliances when one spouse dies Sororate: husband may marry the wife’s sister if the wife dies Levirate: right to marry husband’s brother if the husband dies Divorce: more common in matrilineal than in patrilineal societies - Cross- culturally, high divorce rates correlated with a secure female economic position - Political and economic factors complicate the divorce process U.S. - one of the world’s highest divorce rate -large percentage of gainfully employed women Americans value independence Polygamy - Even when encouraged most men remain monogamous - Equal sex ratios - Custom- men marry later than women- promotes polygamy - Some agreement among existing spouses when another is added - NO SINGLE EXPLANATION 4 wives and one husband- Polygamy in Iran Intimate portrait- polygamist family- bitter rivals/ conspirators/ against abusive husband Polyandry: - Quite rare and practice under specific conditions - Most live in South Asia - Ensures there will be at least one man at home to accomplish male activities within a gender- based division of labor Fraternal- Polyandry: - Brothers share wife to secure family land - Why? Tradition/ economics- difficult terrain