PPT 301 Pharmacology Week 12
PPT 301 Pharmacology Week 12 PPT 301
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lexie Stenson on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PPT 301 at University of North Dakota taught by James Haselton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Human physiology in Physiology at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
Pharmacology Week 12 Cefotaxime Trade Name: Claforan Therapeutic Class: Antibacterial Therapeutic Use: Treat infections due to bacteria that have developed resistance to earlier generations of cephalosporins and to other classes of antiinfectives; serious infections of lower respiratory tract, central nervous system, genitourinary system, bones and joints Pharmacologic Class: Beta-lactam antibiotic, cell wall inhibitor; third- generation cephalosporin Mechanism of Action: Inhibits cell wall synthesis Erythromycin Trade Name: E-Mycin Therapeutic Class: Antibacterial Therapeutic Use: Treatment of patients who are unable to tolerate penicillins or who may have a penicillin-resistant infection. It has a spectrum similar to that of the penicillins and is effective against more gram-positive bacteria. It is often a preferred drug for infections by Bordetella pertussis (whooping cough) and Corynebacterium diphtheria. Pharmacologic Class: Macrolide; protein synthesis inhibitor Mechanism of Action: Inhibits protein synthesis Penicillin G Trade Name: Penicillin G Therapeutic Class: Antibacterial Therapeutic Use: Drug of choice for streptococcal, pneumococcal, and staphylococcal infections due to non-penicillinase bacteria shown to be susceptible to C and S screening; also drug of choice for susceptible gonorrhea and syphilis Pharmacologic Class: Natural penicillin; cell wall inhibitor; beta-lactam antibiotic Mechanism of Action: Binds to peptidoglycan, a protein that is contained in the cell wall of susceptible bacteria Tetracycline Trade Name: Sumycin Therapeutic Class: Antibacterial Therapeutic Use: Treatment of a broad range of gram-positive and gram- negative organisms, including Chlamydia, Rickettsiae, and Mycoplasma. Also used against H. pylori in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. Pharmacologic Class: Tetracycline; protein synthesis inhibitor Mechanism of Action: Inhibits bacterial protein synthesis, prevents cell replication Ciprofloxacin Trade Name: Cipro Therapeutic Class: antibacterial Therapeutic Use: Treatment of UTI, sinusitis, pneumonia, skin, bone and joint infections, infectious diarrhea, and certain eye infections. More effective against gram-negative than gram-positive bacteria Pharmacologic Class: Fluoroquinolone (second generation); bacterial DNA synthesis inhibitor Mechanism of Action: Inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase, interfering with bacterial replication and DNA repair. Gentamicin Trade Name: Garamycin Therapeutic Class: Antibacterial Therapeutic Use: Broad-spectrum treatment of serious urinary, respiratory, nervous, or GI infections when less toxic antibiotics are contraindicated. Activity includes Enterobacter, E. Coli, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Pseudomonas, and Serratia. Effective against a few gram-positive bacteria, including some strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Pharmacologic Class: Aminoglycoside; protein synthesis inhibitor Mechanism of Action: Inhibits protein synthesis, disrupting cell membrane and killing bacteria Isoniazid Trade Name: INH Therapeutic Class: Antitubucular Therapeutic Use: A drug of choice for the treatment of M. tuberculosis. Bacteriocidal for actively growing organisms but bacteriostatic for dormant mycobacteria Pharmacologic Class: Mycolic acid inhibitor Mechanism of Action: Inhibits synthesis of mycolic acids, which are essential components of mycobacterial cell walls Trimethoprim-sulfa Trade Name: Bactrim Therapeutic Class: Antibacterial Therapeutic Use: Treatment of UTI. It is also approved for the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, shigella infections of the small bowel, and for acute episodes of chronic bronchitis Pharmacologic Class: Sulfonamide; folic-acid inhibitor Mechanism of Action: Inhibits bacterial metabolism of folic acid Amphotericin B Trade Name: Fungizone Therapeutic Class: Antifungal (systemic) Therapeutic Use: Treatment of most of the fungi pathogenic to humans; the preferred drug for many systemic mycoses. Also indicated as prophylactic antifungal therapy for patients with severe immunosuppression Pharmacologic Class: Polyene Mechanism of Action: Binds to ergosterol in fungal cell membranes, causing them to become permeable or leaky Fluconazole Trade Name: Diflucan Therapeutic Class: Antifungal Therapeutic Use: Treatment of Candida albicans. Infections in the CNS, bone, eye, urinary tract, and respiratory tract Pharmacologic Class: Inhibitor of fungal cell membrane synthesis; azole Mechanism of Action: Interferes with the synthesis of ergosterol Nystatin Trade Name: Mycostatin Therapeutic Class: Topical antifungal Therapeutic Use: Primarily used topically for candida infections of the vagina, skin, and mouth. It may also be used orally to treat candidiasis of the intestine. Pharmacologic Class: Polyene Mechanism of Action: Binds to sterols in the fungal cell membrane, causing leakage of intracellular contents as the membrane becomes weakened Chloroquine Trade Name: Aralen Therapeutic Class: Antimalarial Therapeutic Use: Prophylaxis and treatment of malaria. (Effective in treating the erythrocytic stage, but has no activity against latent Plasmodium.) Also used off-label for the treatment of rheumatic and inflammatory disorders, including lupus, erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis Pharmacologic Class: Heme-complexing agent Mechanism of Action: Concentrates in the food vacuoles of Plasmodium residing in red blood cells, where it is believed to prevent the metabolism of heme, which them builds to toxic levels within the parasite. Mebendazole Trade Name: Vermox Therapeutic Class: Antihelminthic Therapeutic Use: Broad-spectrum; treatment of a wide range of helminth infections, including those caused by roundworm (Ascaris) and pinworm (Enterobiasis). Pharmacologic Class: Antihelminthic Mechanism of Action: Inhibits microtubule formation and glucose uptake Metronidazole Trade Name: Flagyl Therapeutic Class: Anti-infective, antiprotozoan Therapeutic Use: Treatment of both the intestinal and hepatic stages of amebiasis. Drug of choice for giardiasis and trichomoniasis. Also has antibiotic activity against anaerobic bacteria and thus is used to treat a number of respiratory, bone, skin, and CNS infections Pharmacologic Class: DNA synthesis inhibitor Mechanism of Action: Disrupts DNA and inhibits nucleic acid synthesis Acyclovir Trade Name: Zovirax Therapeutic Class: Antiviral for herpesviruses Therapeutic Use: Drug of choice for the treatment of herpesvirus infections; most effective against HSV-1 and HSV-2, and effective only at high doses against CMV and varicella zoster Pharmacologic Class: Nucleoside analog Mechanism of Action: Prevents viral DNA synthesis Efavirenz Trade Name: Sustiva Therapeutic Class: Antiretroviral Therapeutic Use: A preferred drug for the initial therapy for HIV infection; used in combination with other antiretrovirals in the treatment of HIV infection Pharmacologic Class: Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) Mechanism of Action: Denatures the catalytic site of reverse transcriptase, inhibiting reverse transcriptase Lopinar with ritonavir Trade Name: Kaletra Therapeutic Class: Antiretroviral Therapeutic Use: A drug of choice for the initial therapy of HIV infection Pharmacologic Class: Protease inhibitor Mechanism of Action: Prevents production of mature vision Zidovudine Trade Name: Retrovir Therapeutic Class: Antiretroviral Therapeutic Use: Used in combination with other antiretrovirals for both symptomatic and asymptomatic HIV-infected patients, as well as for postexposure prophylaxis in HIV-exposed health care workers. Pharmacologic Class: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) Mechanism of Action: Structurally, it resembles thymidine, one of the four nucleoside building blocks of DNA. As the reverse transcriptase enzyme begins to synthesize viral DNA, it mistakenly uses the drug as one of the nucleosides, thus creating a defective DNA strand.
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