Music as a World Phenomenon: Unit 2- Notes
Music as a World Phenomenon: Unit 2- Notes Mus 22121
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carla Notetaker on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Mus 22121 at Kent State University taught by Andrew Shahriari in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Music as a world phenomenon in Music at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
Music as a World Phenomenon -1 Unit 2: Notes Ethnic Groups Shona ethnic group o From Zimbabwe Mbuti ethnic group o pygmy Zulu ethnic group o South Africa Instrument Classifications Aerophone o air is vibrating (flutes, reeds, trumpets) Membranophne o stuck with hand, struck with a stick or other device, "rubbed" or "singing" membranes Idiophone o thing itself is vibrating (plucked, struck, or shaken) Lammellophone o idiophone with a tongue Notes Oceania: Australia, Pupa New Guinea, Hawaii, Kiribati Pacific islands are divided into 3 subregions: o Melanesia (darks islands) o Micronesia (small island) o Polynesis (many islands) Most of Oceania is tropical or subtropical Close relationship w/ nature Australia, Papua New Guinea, and the island of the Pacific provide some of the world’s most fertile soil for linguistic and anthropological studies. Music of Oceania is primarily Vocal therefore requires specialized linguistic study. o Most instruments are idiophones or membranophones. Melanesia commonly uses slit drums called Garamut. o Few aerophones found: of those primarily flutes Most famous instrument is the Australian didjeridu which is a long trumpet with low, rumbling drone sound. o This instrument is found among the Aborigines (people native to Australia) Totemism: beliefe system- relationship of an individual or group w/ animals or natural objects or elements Animism: belief system- all living things as well as natural phenomena (wind/fire) have a spirit Dreamtime- describes the Australian aboriginal spiritual belief system and concept of creation. Music as a World Phenomenon -2 Unit 2: Notes For the Didjeridu, one may force sudden burst of air through the instrument to increase the volume of air through the instrument to increase the volume or alter the pitch and timbre. Performers may also add vocalizations such as humming or growling to change the sound of the instrument. Circular breathing- technique used to maintain a continuous exhaled airflow in aerophone performance. Susap- a bamboo mouth harp commonly played for self entertainment by people in Papua New Guinea. o Has a twangy timbre (sound), belong to a subcategory of idiophone known as lamellophones. Hawaiian drum – dance chant : one voice and 1 or 2 drums o Syllabic- only one pitch per syllable Portamento- smooth, uninterrupted glide from one pitch to another. Pahu- single headed drum (membranophones) Kilu- a small drum (membranophones) Kiribati- collection of Micronesia divided into 3 groups: Line Islands (east), Phoenix Islands (central), and Gilbert Island (west). Caste system- a hierarchical system of social organization based on one’s hereditary status at birth found in India and associated w/ Hinduism. o Population in India organizes by this system from highest or priestly class to the lowest or “untouchable” class. Images o ud - lute o kanun - zither Music as a World Phenomenon -3 Unit 2: Notes Santur Kora darabukka Music as a World Phenomenon -4 Unit 2: Notes Takht Ensemble Talking Drums Ney Music as a World Phenomenon -5 Unit 2: Notes Questions how do sufi's use music and how is it different? o sufi's seek union with Allah through musical trance, music is essential for them to connect with Allah. Suni's and Shii's think music is secular and that is distracts from the divine how is history of European music influenced by the middle east? o Bulgaria- tuning system and shared musical instruments and rhythm complexities blended with European harmonies Spain- gypsies brought improvised dense noted on the guitar, decorated melodies, rhythmic complexities and vocal is very melismatic how is polyrhythmic music created in Sub-Saharan Africa o there are three layers in the Ghana polyrhythmic ensemble, the master drummer who signals everything that happens, the support drums, and the bell that plays timeline pattern for rhythm. Highlife music creates polyrhythm with 2 guitars and percussion what are the linguistic elements that make the drums talk? o tonal languages, master drummer also matches rhythm of speech what defines music as classical or folk in European context? o classical in paneuropean but folk is usually specific to one culture, biggest influence classical has on folk is tonal harmonies, folk provided a wealth of melodies and dance rhythms for classical why are Muslim and Jewish chanting not considered music? o it's a form of heightened speech and it done out of respect for G-d and the holy texts A Hindustani instrument raga performance has two major sections known as ____ and ___. o Alap and Gat The tala is best describes as a(n) _____. o Rhythmic cycle The sarod is a fretless plucked lute ____. o With three sets of strings: melody, jhala (rhythm), and sympathetic. ____ refers specifically to the Australian aboriginal cosmology. o Dreamtime ____ is a type of popular music in Thailand. o Luk thung ____ is a technique used to maintain a continuous airflow on the didjeridu. o Circular breathing The sound of the didjeridu is considered a(n) ___ manifestation of the creative energy of ancestral spirits. o Aural Raga is typically defined as ___, which can be thought of as a “composition kit” for performance. o mode
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