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World War I

by: DrPhilGood

World War I hist 1031

GPA 3.4

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These notes cover World War I and the relevant documents assigned
World Civilizations Since 1500
Michael B Gross
Class Notes
World War I, World War 1, Storm of Steel
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by DrPhilGood on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to hist 1031 at East Carolina University taught by Michael B Gross in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations Since 1500 in History at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 04/05/16
World War I A) Factors  Colonial Rivalry  European countries were in competition for colonies overseas (a) Grew stronger over the period of New Imperialism  European countries share borders in Africa as well as Europe now (a) Caused tensions on borders for each  Alliance Systems  Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria­Hungary, Italy)  Triple Entente (France, Russia, Great Britain)  Alliance systems mean partners will come to the aid of the country in danger (a) This meant if and when war came that it would be a world war.  Nationalism  Belief that one’s country (and country’s nation­states) were superior to all other  countries.  “It is sweet and proper to die for one’s country.” (a) Used as a rallying cry for Europeans when war came. (b) Europeans were eager to show their national pride.  Militarization of Europe  Made possible because of the Industrial Revolution  Countries developed massive land armies  Countries also developed large navies (a) Especially large for Great Britain and Germany  Germans created the HMS Dreadnought in 1906 (a) Large battleship built with large turrets  Germany was closing in on Great Britain’s naval superiority B) Franz Ferdinand  Heir to the throne of the Austria­Hungarian Empire  Assassinated in the Summer of 1914 by Gavrilo Princip  Was a terrorist from Serbia  In a short period of time, all countries were at war  Austria­Hungary prepares to attack Serbia (a) Because the nationalism of Serbians, the country supported the assassination of  Ferdinand  Russia prepares to defend Serbia  Germany prepares to defend Austria­Hungary as well as attack France  Soon after both alliances were warring against each other  Germany was prepared to fight against France before the assassination of Ferdinand  German high command had already created a fixed war plan to mobilize against  France C) Trench Warfare  Europeans expected a short war that would deal a great deal of damage to the enemy  War quickly turned to a stalemate and had a large amount of casualties  Long line of trenches were formed from Switzerland to the English Channel D) Total War  Industrial Revolution helped created the machine gun and heavy artillery (howitzer)  Battle of Somme  21,000 British soldiers died (40,000 wounded) in an afternoon  Battle of the Verdaun  Longest battle of the war (a) Lasted over a year though ended in a stalemate  Over a million casualties  Heavy artillery destroyed forests and reduced whole towns to rubble E) Home Front F) War’s impact on Women  “New woman”  Represented the “emancipation of women”  Women were employed in jobs formally seen to be only for men  Ex. Rode motorcycles, wore hair short, wore short dresses, lived independently, etc.  Women’s right to vote (Great Britain, Austria, Germany)  Given immediately after the war G) Death Toll  1,500 days of war  Over 8.5 million killed (60,000 killed each day)  Little over 37.5 total casualties  Over half of those mobilized were casualties (57.6%)  Brought economic ruin and had a strong psychological impact as well H) Document: Storm of Steel by Ernst Jünger (1920)  Ernst Jünger  Born in Germany  Went to war at the age of 19 during WWI for Germany  Enlisted in WWII and involved with an aborted attempt on Hitler’s life  Became an active campaigner for peace after WWII  Describes his experience at the Battle of Somme  Observes of the destruction caused by artillery (a) Smell of dead bodies (i) Some civilians had not been able to escape in time (b) Destruction of whole homes by one or two shells (c) Sound of explosions became so rapid it was impossible to distinguish one artillery shell from another  Described his time in WWI as “an incomparable schooling of the heart.”  Had become desensitized to death.  Generation of 1914  Pessimistic about the future


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