Bio 311D Week Notes
Bio 311D Week Notes BIO 311D
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liam Murphy on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 311D at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Mark Bierner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
Being an Animal; Being Terrestrial Vocab: Tissues: any of the distinct types of material of which animals or plants are made, consisting of specialized cells and their products. Larva: the active immature form of an insect, especially one that differs greatly from the adult and forms the stage between egg and pupa, e.g., a caterpillar or grub. Hox genes: group of related genes that control the body plan of an embryo along the craniocaudal Amniotes: a group of tetrapods whose extant members are the reptiles (including birds) and mammals Clade: a group of organisms believed to have evolved from a common ancestor, according to the principles of cladistics. Amniotic egg: Ratites: ostrich, rhea, kiwi, cassowary, and emu Key Concepts: Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic layers. Amniotes are tetrapods that have a terrestrially adapted egg. Although some animals, including humans, develop directly into adults, the life cycles of most animals include at least one larval stage. The amniotes are a group of tetrapods whose extant members are the reptiles (including birds) and mammals. Take a look at the next slide (slide 29) Amniotes are named for the major derived character of the clade, the amniotic egg Phylogenetic analyses of birds and reptilian fossils indicate that birds belong to the group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs called theropods (Tyrannosaurus rex is a member of this group). Questions: How do plants get their food? o Photosynthesis → make their own food How do fungi get their food o Decomposers o Put out enzymes and break down food around them, through external digestion o Heterotrophic o They don't need a digestive system like we do o Must get food somehow through external source (same as animals) How do animals get their foods? o Internal digestion o We have to go out and get out food and ingest it Take in things that we can’t digest (digestive system) What is there about cell structures that differentiates animals from plants and fungi? o At the cellular level → cell wall, central vacuole If the cell wall provides structural support to plant and fungal cells and connects them to one another, what is the major thing that provides structural support to animal cells and connects them to one another? o Extracellular matrix → its proteins are on the outer surface of the plasma membrane; microtubules Collagen is a central molecule that gives rigidity to the cell kind of like the cell wall does Animals have two types of specialized cells not found in other multicellular organisms. What are they? o Nerve cells and muscle cells What are tissues? What are the tissues into which these cells are organized and what doe these tissues do? Tell me about what is happening during early embryonic development in animals? o Identical twins→ zygote, then mitosis, then symmetrical division of the egg o Stages: zygote → 8cell stage → blastula → gastrulation (now you have blastocoel, endoderm, ectoderm, archenteron, and blastopore) What is a larva? o the active immature form of an insect, especially one that differs greatly from the adult and forms the stage between egg and pupa, e.g., a caterpillar or grub. What is the development transformation by which an animal larva turns into a juvenile that resembles an adult but is not yet sexually mature? We will cover Hox genes in more detail at another time, but what in general are Hox genes? o Homeotic genes that produce/control the body plane, where parts are located on a body and the development of those parts in the right places o group of related genes that control the body plan of an embryo along the craniocaudal o Plants → matchbox, animals → hox o Gene products → they code for transcription factors (which then control the turning on and off of other genes that control the production of other parts on the body) o Basically master control genes What is a clade? o a group of organisms believed to have evolved from a common ancestor, according to the principles of cladistics. What is an amniotic egg? What are the four specialized membranes that surround the embryo? o Amphibians need to live near water Gas exchange: occurringfor mostthrough their skin Need to be near mostly wet areas o Reptiles: scale skin o Amniotes do not need to do this Moving air in and out of the organism, solves problems of how you do gas exchange with water proof skin and have an egg that does not require water Big adaptations → but the youngest stages you still need to be wet but this is possible with the amniotic sac o 4 membranes: 1. amnion 2. chorion 3. Yolk sac 4. Allantois Why are they called extraembryonic membranes: o Because they are outside the embryo What are the main functions of amnion, amniotic cavity, and amniotic fluid? o Protection What are the functions of the allantois and the membrane of allantonis o Taking in things o Places to put waste → waste storgae (keeps away from everything else so you don’t ruin the embryo) What is the function of the yoke sac and yoke? o Provide nutrition What did Hylonomus(reptiles) have that amphibians do not? o Scaly covering o Amphibians are restricted to wet areas due to the inability to protect their water in skin What are a couple of other characteristics of early amniotes? o What distinguished synapsids from diapsids? o Synapsids (humans) only have one opening behind eye socket and has to do with anchoring muscles that articulate the jaw o Diapsids have two openings behind eye/jaw What are some unifying characteristics of reptiles? o Lay eggs not in water o Cold blooded, so they can not control their body temperature internally, they need other things to protect them o For an endotherm (people) metabolism creates heat Takes more energy to maintain an endotherm than an exotherm Costs more energy, but you can adjust to temp. What about skin of reptiles? o Scaly skin made of keratin (in humans, keratin located in nails and hair) Where do most of them lay their eggs? o On land How about how they control their body temperature? o Ectothermic/coldblooded o Temperature regulation controlled by surroundings of environment o Metabolically, it takes less energy to be an ectotherm versus endotherm How about the skull? o How do birds fit in? o What are the two major lineages of the reptiles? o Diapsids What are the two major lineages of the diapsids? o Archosaurs and Lepidosaurs What do you see in the diapsid lineage? What are the lepidosaurs? What are the archosaurs? o Crocodilians, pterodactyls, dinosaurs What is this thing? o Tuatara → Lizard So squamates include? Turtles are a very large group of reptiles, but what are they related to? o Ancestral to crocodiles and birds? o See the three hypotheses How do crocodilians fit So birds are classified as dinosaurs o Wow!!! lol What are the adaptations in birds associated with? o Flight Premium on weightsaving modifications for flight include o Lack of urinary bladder o Only one ovary in the females of most species o Small gonads in both males and females o Lack of teeth What is a wing as far as overall general structure concerned What are feathers composed of? Where else is that found? What does internal structure of bones have to do with anything? Archaeopteryx is the earliest known bird. What are some of it’s characteristics that relate it to both dinosaurs and birds? o Teeth, vertebrae in tail, claws Flying birds show great diversity in their adaptations. What do you see in the following slides? Mammals and Hominins Vocab: Synapsids: group of amniotes that mammals are in Convergent evolution Monotremes: Eutherians: Hominins: Key concepts: Mammals are amniotes that have hair and produce milk Humans are mammals that have a large brain and bipedal locomotion Mammals belong to a group of amniotes known as synapsids. The greatest diversity of marsupials is in Australia, which has not been in contact with another continent for about 65 million years. In Australia, convergent evolution has resulted in a diversity of marsupials that resemble eutherians in similar ecological roles in other parts of the world. Two major trends developed during the evolution of Australopiths: complete bipedialism and tool use Questions: What are the major derived characters of mammals that distinguish them from the other amniotes? o What does hair and a fat layer under the skin do for mammals? o Warmth via insulation What about the production of milk in mammary glands? o Antibodies, good bacteria in the milk, proteins How about brain size? How about the duration of parental care? How about teeth? o Humans can cut and grind (omnivore teeth) Without going into details, what are these lineages? o Monotremes o Marsupials o Eutherians/placental mammals What are the characteristics of monotremes? o Lay eggs i.e. echidna and platypus o Hair and produce milk but mammary glands do not have nipples What are the main ways in which marsupials and eutherians differ from monotremes? o Young start off in uterus versus starting in an egg o Mammary glands with nipples Along with lining of uterus, what do the extraembryonic membranes that arise from the embryo form in marsupials and eutherians? o Marsupials do have a placenta, but it is much more reduced o Placentas What is a marsupium, and how does the birth of marsupials differ from the birth of eutherians? o Marsupial young do not stay in uterus for long because they migrate to the pouch o Eutherian young are in the uterus and then are born and survive on their own What is convergent evolution? (See slide 26) o Animals that occupy similar niches (thing of how something fits in, includes habitat and what something is near) How do eutherians differ from marsupials? o No pouch, so young go through early development in uterus Are marsupials and eutherians more or less related to each other than monotremes? o Marsupials and eutherians are more closely related to one another than either is to monotremes o Molecular evidence indicates that marsupials and eutherians are more closely related to one another than either is to monotremes. What are the major derived characters of primates? o Many have to do with the structure of hands and feet How about finger and toe nails? o Flat fingers and toe nails How about grasping? o Due to the fact that they were treedwelling How about the big toe and the thumb? o Thumb and big toe are distinctly different than the other fingers and toes How about the brain and jaw and the shape of the face? o Brain is getting larger o Jaw and face move back and get flatter How about overlapping visual fields? o Gives depth perception How about parental and social behavior? o More care of the young, which improves fitness and chance of survival o Period of learned behavior and passing on of knowledge Tell me about the phylogenetic tree of primates in the next slide? o What are the three main groups of living primates? o Lemurs o Tarsiers o Anthropoids (Great Apes) Major differences between humans and nonhuman arthropods include o Lemurs, loris, bush babies=most primitive of primates o How about the mode of locomotion? o Bipedal locomotion (shows up very early in human lineage) How about brain size and capabilities that come along with having a larger brain? o Brain size increases throughout human lineage o Reasoning and communication How about the jawbone and jaw muscles? o Less pronounced and less strong o More omnivorous existence How about the digestive tract? o Shorter How about expression of regulatory genes? o What are hominins? o Distinguishes humans from other anthropoids What characteristics made early hominins such as Sahalanthropus tchadensis and Ardipithicus ramidus more humanlike than chimpanzeelike? o How about their canine teeth and shape of the faces? o Reduction in canine teeth o Flatter face How about their mode of locomotion? What does the foramen magnum have to do with this? o On the flip side, what were some of the more “primitive” characteristics of the early hominins? o How about their brains? o How about their overall size? o Smaller How about their teeth and jaws? o Large molars for grinding o Projecting jaw What’s a common misperception relating to the evolution of hominins and the evolution of chimpanzees? o That we are related? What’s a common misperception relating to the evolution of homo sapiens? o What does this look like? (slide 72) o Know the rest of the information from this power point, besides 106!!! Animal Form and Function Vocab: Key Concepts and Statements: Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization Feedback control maintains the internal environment in many animals Physical laws also influence animal body plans with regard to maximum size o Need nutrients, pressure on deep sea animals Whether an organism is singlecelled or multicellular, all cells must obtain nutrients and get rid of wastes o Cells form a functional animal body through their emergent properties o Cells to tissues to organs to organ systems o Differentiation exists An animal’s tissues, organs, and organ systems must act in concert with one another o Coordinating activity across an animal’s body requires communication between different locations in the body o Two major systems for this=nervous system and endocrine system An animal achieves homeostasis by maintaining a variable, such as body temperature or solute concentration, at or near a particular value, or set point o Example would be a thermostat o If something goes up, feedback brings it back down The set points and normal ranges for homeostasis can change under various circumstances. In fact, regulated changes in the internal environment are essential to normal body function Questions: What kind of physical laws limit the range of animal forms? Tell me about properties of water and body shape in waterdwelling organisms as shown in the next slide. o Seals, penguins, tuna o Fusiform (tapered body form at both ends) is an example of convergent evolution o Example is when swimmers shave their entire bodies What’s the deal for a singlecelled organism? o Mostly aquatic, or they go dormant (during dry times) o Matter of diffusion Oxygen dissolves in water, carbon dioxide dissolves in water What’s the deal for a simple multicellular organism with only two cell layers? o Both layers in direct contact with environment...what?? What’s the deal for a complex multicellular organism? o Needs a circulatory system Internal body fluids link exchange surfaces to body cells. What’s this all about? o What is the hierarchy of organization of body plans? o Cells to tissues, tissues to organs, organs to organ systems o Digestive system, circulatory system, reproductive system, etc. What are the four main types of animal tissues? (Just know functions) o Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissues What are the general functions of epithelial tissue? o Skin and coverings of internal organs o Protection, conservation of water, regulation, diffusion What are the general functions of connective tissue? o Holds everything together What are the general functions of muscle tissue? o Movement (voluntary and involuntary) What are the general functions of nervous tissue? o Communication, reaction to stimulus How does this work during long dives by harbor seals? o Collapse their lungs What are the two major systems for controlling and coordinating responses to stimuli? In general, how do they work? o Endocrine and nervous systems An animal is said to be a regulator for a particular environmental variable if...what? o They have internal control to maintain internal environment that is different from environment, river otter An animal is said to be a conformer for a particular environmental variable if...what? o They allow the internal conditions to vary with the environment, fish How do some organisms (i.e. spider crab) conform to more constant environments, such as the relatively stable solute concentration (salinity) of the ocean environment? o How can an organism (i.e. bass) be both a regulator and a conformer? Think about internal versus external temperature, and internal versus external solute concentration. o Temperature conformer, but maintaining constant solute concentration What is homeostasis, and what are a couple of examples that we just discussed? What are some examples of homeostasis in humans? o Maintaining internal environment that remains constant o Temperature and endotherms o Salinity What is negative feedback? o Feedback to make something stop (temperature is increasing, so thermostat stops it from continuing) o Blood sugar increases after you eat, signals go to Pancreas, insulin is secreted (beta cells), which then causes the liver and other cells to take up glucose (used for metabolism, or stored as glycogen/starch in liver) What is positive feedback? o Birth example o Nerve impulses go to brain, releases oxytocin, increases contractions, more contractions means fetus pushes harder on cervix, more painful contractions Does positive feedback really maintain homeostasis? o If the stimulus stops, the feedback stops o No, but it eventually comes to an end What are a couple examples of regulated changes in the internal environment? o Puberty and woman’s menstrual cycle How about puberty? How about a woman’s menstrual cycle? What is circadian rhythm? o Sleep cycle o Variation in core body temperature What is acclimatization? Tell me about the example of an elk or other mammal moving into mountains from sea level? o Higher atmosphere, less oxygen How about humans ascending a high peak? o Like climbing Everest, you have to climb a little, then chill at a base. You keep doing that up and up o Adaptation is a species changing genetically o Adjustment that you make in your own body during lifetime in response to environmental condition Hormones Vocab: Hormone: chemical compound produced in one part of the body that has an effect on another part of the body Hormone cascade: Key Concepts and Statements: Feedback regulation and coordination with the nervous system are common in endocrine signaling. Diverse functions have evolved for many vertebrate hormones. The hypothalamus plays a central role in integrating the endocrine and nervous systems. Questions: What is the endocrine system and what does it regulate? o Production of hormones o Endocrine glands (ductless) o ‘Damn near everything’ Chart on slide o Hypothalamus o Pituitary gland Anterior Posterior o Thyroid gland o Pancreas What is a simple endocrine pathway? What is the o Secretin signaling o Hormone affects one area/endocrine gland/organ with endocrine cells directly o Does not involve nervous system Why are insulin and glucagon considered to be an antagonistic hormone pair? o If glucose goes below the normal level, it involves glucagon o Secretion of glucagon by alpha cells of the pancreas, breakdown of glycogen and release of glucose into blood, blood glucose level rises, goes back to normal What types of pathways are these? What type of feedback is involved in each? o Simple endocrine How is insulin doing o Insulin causes glucose to be pulled out into body cells for metabolism, or to the liver for storage as glycogen What’s the deal with glucose uptake by cells? o Not much stored, except for in the liver What’s the deal with the liver and glycogen in the presence of insulin? o Glycogen is stored in the liver in presence of insulin How is glucagon doing it’s job… What’s the deal with o Broken down What causes diabetes mellitus? o Too much glucose in the blood, removed via secretion of insulin (so maybe you’re not making enough insulin and glucose isn’t removed, or What happens with regard to glucose? What can happen when fat becomes the main substrate for cellular respiration? o Diabetic ketoacidosis, pH goes low What happens in the kidneys? What kind of disease is type 1 diabetes (insulindependent diabetes)? o Autoimmune disease since you’re attacking your own tissues What significantly increases the risk of type 2 diabetes? When does type 2 diabetes show up? o 40 years or older What exactly is the hypothalamus doing? Where does the hypothalamus receive hormones from? Where does the hypothalamus send signals to? Is the posterior pituitary and endocrine gland unto itself? Where do posterior pituitary hormones come from? Is the anterior pituitary an endocrine gland unto itself? Where do anterior pituitary hormones come from? Where are the posterior pituitary hormones oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) being synthesized? Where are the posterior pituitary hormones oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) being synthesized? Where are they being stored? How do they get from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary? What stimulates their release from the posterior pituitary? What does oxytocin do? o Uterine contractions o One more thing What does ADH do? Where are the anterior pituitary hormones being synthesized? o Anterior pituitary How is the secretion is the anterior pituitary hormones regulated? What is a hormone cascade in general? o Going from the top of a hormone chain to the bottom What is hypothyroidism? o Low thyroid use → low blood pressure What is hyperthyroidism? o High thyroid use → faster heart rate, higher blood pressure What are thyroid hormones? o What does dietary iodine have to do with anything? What does normal thyroid function lead to in humans and other vertebrates. What are tropic hormones? What are nontropic hormones? Why are FSH, LH, TSH, and ACTH tropic hormones? Why are MSH and prolactin nontropic hormones? Why is GH both tropic and nontropic? What’s the deal with the liver and insulinlike growth factors (IGFs)? o Involved mainly with bone and ligament growth What is the result of hypersecretion of GH in humans? o They keep growing for a while to be really tall “gigantism” What is the result of hypersecretion of GH in humans? o dwarfism What is the common role of thyroxine across many evolutionary lineages? What is the role of thyroxine in frogs? Tell me about the functions of prolactin What does it do in mammals? o Milk production What does it do in birds? What does it do in amphibians? Freshwater fishes? What does all of this suggest about prolactin from an evolutionary point of view? What are the diverse functions of melanocytestimulating hormone (MSH)? o Memory and suppresses appetite What does it do in amphibians, fishes, and reptiles? What does it do in humans? How might the specialized action of MSH that has evolved in the mammalian brain prove to be of medical importance? What is cachexia? Osmoregulation and Excretion What is osmosis? What is osmolarity? What’s going on here? An animal can maintain water balance in two ways. What are osmoconformers? What kinds of animals are they? o They go with their environment, so whatever osmolarity of environment is, they have the same o Marine invertebrates What are osmoregulators? What kinds of animals are they? o They regulate their osmolarity o Marine vertebrates and freshwater vertebrates Most marine invertebrates are osmoconformers Many marine vertebrates and some marine invertebrates are osmoregulators. Compared to the osmolarity of the surrounding water, what must the body fluids of most marine animals be? o Hypoosmotic (lower than outside) What do you see here? (Slide) o Osmoregulatory challenges and mechanisms o Solute inside is lower than outside, so you have relatively higher water inside versus outside o Problem waterwise is that you’re losing water to the outside via o Active transport of ions gets rid of the ions What is anhydrobiosis? What’s the deal with tardigrades? What is trehalose? o Life without water How do animals maintain osmotic gradients? o Active transport What does the energy cost of osmoregulation depend on? o Surface area of exchange How do many animals minimize energy costs associated with osmoregulation? How does this work in vertebrates and other animals with closed circulatory systems? What are transport epithelia? How is it possible for the albatross to survive on sea water? What is the problem with How do aquatic organisms deal with ammonia? o They get rid of ammonia ions via water since they live in it Why is ammonia such a problem, especially for terrestrial animals? o It’s very toxic and interferes with oxidative phosphorylation How is urea made? What are its advantages o Less toxic o Soluble in water o Excreted in urine
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