History 112 Notes
History 112 Notes History 112
Popular in American History Since 1865
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sequoia Brown on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 112 at University of South Carolina taught by Foxworth in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see American History Since 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
History 112 America and the Vietnam War April 5, 2016 Why and how the US got involved in the Vietnam War? Vietnam as French Colony - Became French colony 1884 as part of Indochina: Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia - Japanese occupation during WWII; questions after WWII about French occupation or independence o French wants their colonies back o Decolonization movement during this time A lot of colonies are throwing off their colonial power - Emperor Bao Dai (last of Nguyen dynasty) acted as French colonial liaison - Ho Chi Minh declares independence 9/2/45 for Democratic Republic of Vietnam; leads to military conflict between France and Vietnamese nationals - U.S. advocates containment over self-determination Dien Bien Phu and Geneva Accords - French army humiliated by Ho Chi Minh’s forces at Battle of Dien Bien Phu, May 1954 - Geneva Accords split Vietnam into: o North (led by Minh) o South (led by Bao Dai) Means communism is a real threat because Vietnam has a communist government - Ngo Ding Diem appointed leader of South Vietnam, June 10954- Catholic and anticommunist o American thinks that Diem will resist any government that would corrupt his religion o BUT he became a very corrupt leader - National Liberation Front forms in South Vietnam to oppose Diem regime, 19 o Gets its ideas from Northern Vietnam and get pockets of support from South Vietnam America Becomes Involved - Continued protest of Diem presidency leads to visible US presence by 1963 - Diem assassination after US- backed coup leads to political instability in South Vietnam - LBJ vows not to send troops to Vietnam in 1964 campaign o On Buddhist birthday the police order fire to the parade marchers o NO RELIGIOUS FREEDOM Self-immolation (burning oneself) peaceful Buddhist monk burning themselves as a visible symbol of what the dictatorship is doing to them o VERY SYMBOLIC o Cause: Diem Regime US was backing this government but when it became corrupt US had something to do with replacing him An American War - Gulf of Tonkin Resolution leads to war resolution and formal US entry, 1964 - Operation Rolling Thunder, 1965-1968; bombing attacks result in massive destruction - Search and Destroy; find NLF and North Vietnamese sympathizers in South Vietnam - 500,000 troops by 1968 Test Offensive, 1968 - Vietnamese New Year, cease-fire - January 30,1968: 100 simultaneous attacks in South Vietnam, including invasion of US embassy - South Vietnam and US troops able to retaliate and inflict casualties - Causes Americans to question US progress despite government claims of steady wins o From coast to coast o From North to South Role of the Media - Who went to Vietnam? - The draft effects men from 18+ - Men 18 and older drafted based on classification 1. “delinquents”- people who had avoided the draft - If you are caught – you will be the first to ship out 2. volunteers 3. non-volunteers - Lottery system established in 1969-randomly selected birth dates and years for induction - Exemptions and deferment result in predominantly blue-collar soldiers - Draft Dodgers purposefully avoided draft of destroyed draft card (made illegal after 1965) o Working in a defense plant, service in the National Guard, physical handicaps, conscientious objector status o Student deferment- you are of more value with an education Protest: Hey, hey, LBJ… - High casualties, stalemate provoked opposition to war - Shaped American society in the 1960s - “truth Squads” vs “Teachins” on college campuses - Broadens to protest of intervention in Cambodia Kent State Massacre, 1970 - Killed 4 student - Wounded 9 students - Students from everywhere come in and blame Nixon for war and feels like it’s a Civil War for firing at our own people Vietnamization Fails, 4/30/75 - 1972 “Christmas Bombing” leads to preliminary peace accord between North and South Vietnam - “Vietnamization” builds up South Vietnamese military strength to prepare for gradual American withdrawal over interim period 1973-1975 - Saigon falls to North Vietnam on April 30, 1975 - Cambodia also ‘falls’ to communism in 1975