FDNS Metabolism Notes
FDNS Metabolism Notes FDNS 2100
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by alk88738 on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FDNS 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Tracey Brigman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition and Food in Child and Family Studies at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
Metabolism Extraction of energy from food (absorbed molecules) Energy: Fuel for Work • Energy source Chemical energy in carbohydrates, fat, protein • Food energy to cellular energy Stage 1: digestion and food Stage 2: absorption and transport of molecules to tissues and organs Stage 3: breakdown of molecules and production of energy within cells What is Metabolism? • Catabolism Reactions that break down compounds into small units • Anabolism Reactions that build complex molecules from smaller ones Chemical Reactions in the Body Transfer of Energy in the Body Coupled Reactions: energy released from the breakdown of one compound is used to create another compound Energy can be captured by some molecules and transferred to other molecules e.g. ATP (cell’s energy source; “the currency of cells”) What is Metabolism? • Cell is the metabolic processing center Nucleus Cytoplasm Cytosol + organelles • ATP is the body’s energy currency Form of energy cells use • NAD and FAD: transport shuttles Accept high energy electrons for use in ATP production Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Breakdown and Release of Energy • Extracting energy from carbohydrate Glycolysis Pathway splits glucose into two pyruvate Transfers electrons to NAD Produces some ATP Pyruvate to acetyl CoA Releases CO2 Transfers electrons to NAD No energy produced Glycolysis Breakdown and Release of Energy • Extracting energy from carbohydrate Citric acid cycle (=TCA cycle) Releases CO2 Produces GTP (like ATP) Transfers electrons to NAD and FAD Electron transport chain Accepts electrons from NAD and FAD Produces large amounts of ATP Produces water End products of glucose breakdown ATP, H2O, CO2 Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA Breakdown and Release of Energy • Extracting energy from fat Split triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids Beta-oxidation Breaks apart fatty acids into acetyl CoA Transfers electrons to NAD and FAD Citric acid cycle Acetyl CoA from beta-oxidation enters cycle Electron transport chain End products of fat breakdown ATP, H2O, CO2 Triglyceride Hydrolysis Fatty Acid Oxidation Breakdown and Release of Energy • Extracting energy from protein Split protein into amino acids Split off amino group Converted to urea for excretion Carbon skeleton enters breakdown pathways End products ATP, H2O, CO2, urea • Can enter at numerous spots of the cycle depending on the amino acid • Can produce glucose Urea Excretion Urea Synthesis Break- down and Release of Energy Biosynthesis and Storage • Making carbohydrate (glucose) Gluconeogenesis: uses pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, certain amino acids • Storing carbohydrate (glycogen) Liver, muscles make glycogen from glucose • Making fat (fatty acids) Lipogenesis: uses acetyl CoA from fat, amino acids glucose • Storing fat (triglyceride) Stored in adipose tissue Biosynthesis and Storage • Making ketone bodies (ketogenesis) Made from acetyl CoA Inadequate glucose in cells • Making protein (amino acids) Amino acid pool supplied from Diet, protein breakdown, cell synthesis Special States • Feasting Excess energy intake from carbohydrates, fats, proteins Promotes storage Special States • Fasting Inadequate energy intake Promotes breakdown Prolonged fasting Protects body protein as long as possible