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World Geography

by: Claire

World Geography 1310.257

Texas State

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About this Document

Notes for exam 2 covering Latin America
World Geography
Dr. Springer
Class Notes
geography, world, Latin America, exam
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claire on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1310.257 at Texas State University taught by Dr. Springer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geography at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 04/05/16
World Geography 3/3/16 Latin America  TEST  NA slide 21  Learning Objectives   Explain the relationships among elevation, climate, and agricultural production,  especially in tropical highland areas  Identify the major environmental issues of Latin America and how countries are  addressing them.  Summarize the demographic issues impacting this region, such as rural­to­urban  migration, urbanization, smaller families, and emigration.  Describe the cultural mixing of European and Amerindian groups in this region and  indicate where Amerindian cultures thrive today  Describe the colonial settlement of the region and how it affected the formation of  today’s modern states   Identify the major trade blocs in Latin America and how they are influencing  development   Summarize the significance of primary exports from Latin America, especially  agricultural commodities, minerals, wood products, and fossil fuels  Describe the neoliberal economic reforms that have been applies to Latin America and  how they have influenced the region’s development   Key Concepts   Altitudinal zonation  Altiplano  Treaty of Tordesillas  Syncretic religions   Urban primacy   Megacity   Squatter settlement   NAFTA   CAFTA  Mercosur   Supranational/Subnational   Maquiladoras  Drug cartel  Neoliberalism  Dependence theory   Remittances   Physical Environment   Western Mountains and Eastern Lowlands   The Andes  The uplands   The shields  Large upland plateaus   Patagonian wildlife  Bolivian Altiplano   Climate and Climate change in Latin America   Altitudinal zonation   Environmental lapse rate  Tierra Caliente Sea level – 2999 ft.  Sugar cane, tropical fruits, lowland tubers, maize, rice, poultry, pigs, cattle  Tierra Templada 3000 – 5999 ft.  Coffee, maize, warm weather, vegetables, cut flowers, short horn cattle  Tierra Fria 6000 – 11,999 ft.  Wheat, barley, maize, tubers, sheep, guinea pigs, llama, alpaca, vicuna   Tierra Helada 12,000 – snowline   Highland grains and tubers, sheep, guinea pigs, llama, alpaca vicuna   Destruction of tropical rain forests   Tropical rain forests  Cover 6% of Earth’s landmass  50% of the world’s species are found in this biome  Agricultural frontier  Brazilian Amazon  Gasification  Changing the forest into pastures for cattle   Export oriented   Urban environmental challenges   Air pollution   Water   Working towards sustainable cities   History and Culture  Historical geography   1. Pre­Colonial (indigenous people)  Native or aboriginal peoples; often used to designate the inhabitants of areas that  were conquered and colonized by the imperial powers of Europe   Mayans, Aztecs, Incas  2. Colonization  3. Independence and isolation  4. Indigenous Re­awakening and economic integration  Cultural Hearths: heartland, source area, or innovation center; place of origin of a major  culture  Mayan, 200BC to 900 AD  Meso­America, sophisticated lowland culture  Aztec, 1300­1500s  Middle area Mexico, well developed  Crop trilogy: corn, beans, squash  Sweet/white potato – S. America; tobacco and peanuts – Europe   Inca, 1200­1500s  Andes Mountains, flat basins   Bridge builders, constructors, connected through mountains with stations  (sophisticated)  Decline of Native Populations   1500­1650  The indigenous population shrank to one­tenth its pre­contact size  Epidemics of influenza and smallpox, warfare, forced labor, and starvation   Geopolitical Framework: Redrawing the map   Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)  Revolutionary movements and independence   Persistent border conflicts   Trends toward democracy   Patterns of Ethnicity and Culture  Interactions among European, African, and indigenous populations resulted in   Complex ethnic patterns  Persistence of indigenous languages  Syncretic religions   Blend of religious practices   Acculturation   Blend of two cultures   Cultural Coherence and Diversity: Repopulating a Continent   Not a simple transplanting of Iberia across the Atlantic   Blended European and Indian traditions   Forced assimilation   Some Indian cultures proven resilient   Decline of Native populations   Indian survival   Close association between identity and territory   Population growth and movement (continued)  European migration  Asian migration   Latino migration and hemispheric change   Remittances   Population   The Latin American City   Three­quarters of the population live in cities   Cultural and economic fact  Urban primacy   Condition in which a country has a primate city 3­4 times larger than any other  city in that country   Santiago, Buenes Ares, Lima, Guatemala City  Megacities   More than 10 million people   Sao Paulo   26 million  Brazil, Mexico, Columbia, Argentina   Make up 75% of the population   Reflects colonial origins and contemporary growth   Squatter settlements   Slums   Build shacks that ring around the city   Don’t have any services   The poor   Mexico City   Population estimated 30.3 million   Core area  Marks “boundary” for regional disparities   Dry lake bed  Earthquakes   Liquefaction   Population growth and movement   Rapid growth in 1960s and 1970s  Flows within and outside of Latin America   Political economy   Regional organizations   Supranational   Trade blocs  Subnational   Ethnicity/ideology   The USA – Mexico Border  NAFTA   North American Free Trade Agreement   Ports of entry   Tijuana­San Ysidro   Busiest in world  In 2011, 50k vehicles, and 25k pedestrians into US each day  Border with greatest contrast in world   Maquiladoras   Modern industrial plants along Mexico­US border zone which are foreign­owned. These factories assemble imported materials and then export finished  manufactured products, primarily to the US  Colonias – US side   Latin America in the global economy   Dependency theory   Dependent economies are export­oriented and vulnerable to fluctuations in the  global market  Neoliberalism as globalization   Policy reforms that emphasize  1. Privatization   2. Direct foreign investment   3. Free trade  Dollarization   Global linkages  Foreign investment and remittances   1995   FDI  Mexico   $9.5 B  Brazil  < $5 B  2010  FDI  Mexico  $20B  Brazil  $48B  1  US (state) nd  2  EU  2  (state) China   2012 China was Brazil’s largest trading partner   Summary   Latin America and the Caribbean were the first world regions to be fully colonized by  Europe  Resulted in an unprecedented level of racial and cultural mixing   Most people in Latin America live in cities. The cities are large and combine aspects of  the formal industrial economy with an informal one  Compared to Europe and Asia, Latin America is still rich in natural resources and  relatively lightly populated. However, there is particular concern for the relentless cutting or tropical rain forests   Uneven development and economic frustration have led many Latin Americans to  consider emigration as an economic option. Today Latin American emigrants send  billions of dollars in remittances back to Latin America each year  Most Latin American governments have embraced neoliberal policies in an attempt to  foster economic development. As a result, exports have surged, along with direct foreign  investment in the region. Although the region experienced growth from 2000 to 2010,  there is still stubbornly high income inequality.  Latin American governments were early adopters of neoliberal economic policies.  Although some states prospered, others faltered, sparking popular protests against the  negative effects of globalization. It does seem, however, that new political actors are  emerging­from indigenous groups to women­who are challenging old ways of doing  things 


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