World Geography 1310.257
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claire on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1310.257 at Texas State University taught by Dr. Springer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geography at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
World Geography 3/3/16 Latin America TEST NA slide 21 Learning Objectives Explain the relationships among elevation, climate, and agricultural production, especially in tropical highland areas Identify the major environmental issues of Latin America and how countries are addressing them. Summarize the demographic issues impacting this region, such as ruraltourban migration, urbanization, smaller families, and emigration. Describe the cultural mixing of European and Amerindian groups in this region and indicate where Amerindian cultures thrive today Describe the colonial settlement of the region and how it affected the formation of today’s modern states Identify the major trade blocs in Latin America and how they are influencing development Summarize the significance of primary exports from Latin America, especially agricultural commodities, minerals, wood products, and fossil fuels Describe the neoliberal economic reforms that have been applies to Latin America and how they have influenced the region’s development Key Concepts Altitudinal zonation Altiplano Treaty of Tordesillas Syncretic religions Urban primacy Megacity Squatter settlement NAFTA CAFTA Mercosur Supranational/Subnational Maquiladoras Drug cartel Neoliberalism Dependence theory Remittances Physical Environment Western Mountains and Eastern Lowlands The Andes The uplands The shields Large upland plateaus Patagonian wildlife Bolivian Altiplano Climate and Climate change in Latin America Altitudinal zonation Environmental lapse rate Tierra Caliente Sea level – 2999 ft. Sugar cane, tropical fruits, lowland tubers, maize, rice, poultry, pigs, cattle Tierra Templada 3000 – 5999 ft. Coffee, maize, warm weather, vegetables, cut flowers, short horn cattle Tierra Fria 6000 – 11,999 ft. Wheat, barley, maize, tubers, sheep, guinea pigs, llama, alpaca, vicuna Tierra Helada 12,000 – snowline Highland grains and tubers, sheep, guinea pigs, llama, alpaca vicuna Destruction of tropical rain forests Tropical rain forests Cover 6% of Earth’s landmass 50% of the world’s species are found in this biome Agricultural frontier Brazilian Amazon Gasification Changing the forest into pastures for cattle Export oriented Urban environmental challenges Air pollution Water Working towards sustainable cities History and Culture Historical geography 1. PreColonial (indigenous people) Native or aboriginal peoples; often used to designate the inhabitants of areas that were conquered and colonized by the imperial powers of Europe Mayans, Aztecs, Incas 2. Colonization 3. Independence and isolation 4. Indigenous Reawakening and economic integration Cultural Hearths: heartland, source area, or innovation center; place of origin of a major culture Mayan, 200BC to 900 AD MesoAmerica, sophisticated lowland culture Aztec, 13001500s Middle area Mexico, well developed Crop trilogy: corn, beans, squash Sweet/white potato – S. America; tobacco and peanuts – Europe Inca, 12001500s Andes Mountains, flat basins Bridge builders, constructors, connected through mountains with stations (sophisticated) Decline of Native Populations 15001650 The indigenous population shrank to onetenth its precontact size Epidemics of influenza and smallpox, warfare, forced labor, and starvation Geopolitical Framework: Redrawing the map Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) Revolutionary movements and independence Persistent border conflicts Trends toward democracy Patterns of Ethnicity and Culture Interactions among European, African, and indigenous populations resulted in Complex ethnic patterns Persistence of indigenous languages Syncretic religions Blend of religious practices Acculturation Blend of two cultures Cultural Coherence and Diversity: Repopulating a Continent Not a simple transplanting of Iberia across the Atlantic Blended European and Indian traditions Forced assimilation Some Indian cultures proven resilient Decline of Native populations Indian survival Close association between identity and territory Population growth and movement (continued) European migration Asian migration Latino migration and hemispheric change Remittances Population The Latin American City Threequarters of the population live in cities Cultural and economic fact Urban primacy Condition in which a country has a primate city 34 times larger than any other city in that country Santiago, Buenes Ares, Lima, Guatemala City Megacities More than 10 million people Sao Paulo 26 million Brazil, Mexico, Columbia, Argentina Make up 75% of the population Reflects colonial origins and contemporary growth Squatter settlements Slums Build shacks that ring around the city Don’t have any services The poor Mexico City Population estimated 30.3 million Core area Marks “boundary” for regional disparities Dry lake bed Earthquakes Liquefaction Population growth and movement Rapid growth in 1960s and 1970s Flows within and outside of Latin America Political economy Regional organizations Supranational Trade blocs Subnational Ethnicity/ideology The USA – Mexico Border NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement Ports of entry TijuanaSan Ysidro Busiest in world In 2011, 50k vehicles, and 25k pedestrians into US each day Border with greatest contrast in world Maquiladoras Modern industrial plants along MexicoUS border zone which are foreignowned. These factories assemble imported materials and then export finished manufactured products, primarily to the US Colonias – US side Latin America in the global economy Dependency theory Dependent economies are exportoriented and vulnerable to fluctuations in the global market Neoliberalism as globalization Policy reforms that emphasize 1. Privatization 2. Direct foreign investment 3. Free trade Dollarization Global linkages Foreign investment and remittances 1995 FDI Mexico $9.5 B Brazil < $5 B 2010 FDI Mexico $20B Brazil $48B 1 US (state) nd 2 EU 2 (state) China 2012 China was Brazil’s largest trading partner Summary Latin America and the Caribbean were the first world regions to be fully colonized by Europe Resulted in an unprecedented level of racial and cultural mixing Most people in Latin America live in cities. The cities are large and combine aspects of the formal industrial economy with an informal one Compared to Europe and Asia, Latin America is still rich in natural resources and relatively lightly populated. However, there is particular concern for the relentless cutting or tropical rain forests Uneven development and economic frustration have led many Latin Americans to consider emigration as an economic option. Today Latin American emigrants send billions of dollars in remittances back to Latin America each year Most Latin American governments have embraced neoliberal policies in an attempt to foster economic development. As a result, exports have surged, along with direct foreign investment in the region. Although the region experienced growth from 2000 to 2010, there is still stubbornly high income inequality. Latin American governments were early adopters of neoliberal economic policies. Although some states prospered, others faltered, sparking popular protests against the negative effects of globalization. It does seem, however, that new political actors are emergingfrom indigenous groups to womenwho are challenging old ways of doing things
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