World Geography Latin America
World Geography Latin America 1310.257
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claire on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1310.257 at Texas State University taught by Dr. Springer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geography at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
World Geography Exploration, Settlement, Diversity Indigenous Populations (estimated 12,000 years prior to Europeans) Vikings (around 1000 AD in North America) Other Europeans (1400s and 1500s) Slave Trade Indigenous/Native settlement patterns Many different native cultures, lifestyles, Different economies, housing, foods, etc. Dense population in California, Pacific Northwest and Southeast Some cities >30,000 In 1500, estimated to be: In Canada and Greenland, First Nations, 1.2 million In United States, Native Americans, 3.2 million European Exploration to North America late 1400s Portuguese French Russian Spanish Dutch British Occupying the land: Imperialism and Colonization st European settlement expansion: 1 stage (16001750) 90% of indigenous population gone. Why? Colonial settlements French – St. Lawrence Valley, to interior English – east coast Spanish – southwest, Florida European settlement expansion: 2 stage (17501850) Westward expansion, post Revolution (1776) Agricultural settlement Two great forced migrations Great Acadian Expulsion (17551778) Slave Trade rd European settlement expansion: 3 stage (18501910) Continues westward expansion Agriculture established, gold/silver rushes Legacy French language spread in the United States. Counties marked in yellow are those where 612% of the population speak French at home Brown is 1218% Red is over 18% Population and Settlement: Reshaping and Continental Landscape Four centuries of human change Some of the world’s most affluent and highly mobile populations US population: 50% within 100 miles of coast Canada population: majority within 150 miles of US/Canada border Culture and Place in North America Cultural homeland: distinctive settlement with own way of life in a welldefined geographic area, and its ethnicity has survived over time, stamping the landscape with an enduring personality FrenchCanadian Quebec Hispanic Borderlands Acadia Native American populations Cultural Coherence and Diversity: Shifting Patterns of Pluralism Multicultural character Globally dominate culture Ethnicity: people with common background and history who identify with one another Cultural assimilation: process of immigrants absorbed by larger society Peopling North America The Canadian pattern Early European immigration was dominated by the French Today 60% of Canada’s immigrants are Asian Culture and Place in North America North America’s cultural diversity is expressed geographically in two ways People with similar backgrounds congregate near one another Distinctive cultures leave their mark on the everyday scene Patterns of Ethnicity: Regional and Local Scales Ethnic enclaves Immigrants becoming more dispersed, why? The Globalization of American Culture Mixed influences flowing in many directions at once Spanglish Internet access and social media The United States shapes contemporary culture around the world Resistance to US cultural influence Urbanization and Internal Migration modern spatial and demographic patterns Megalopolis NYC: 22 million Baltimore/Washington DC: 8.6 million Boston: 7.6 million Philadelphia: 6.5 million Other cities LA: 18 million Chicago: 9.7 million Dallas: 7.4 million Vancouver: 2.4 million Modern Spatial and Demographic Patterns Large metropolitan areas dominate North America’s population geography Uneven pattern of distribution Megalopolis North Americans on the Move 1. Westward moving population 2. Black exodus from the South 3. Rural to urban migration 4. Growth of the Sunbelt South 5. Nonmetropolitan growth Settlement Geographies: The decentralized metropolis Growth of the American city Changing transportation technologies Evolving from concentric zones to urban realms Urban decentralization Edge cities Gentrification Displacement of lower income residents of central city neighborhoods by higher incomes residents and constructions New urbanism City development design that is high density and mixed use Settlement Geographies: Changing urban structures Pre 1888: compact, foot/horsecar, 34 mile radius 1888: electric trolley, 510 mile radius, star shaped 19201945: cars mass produced, auto city, 4060 mile radius 1950s: freeway systems Some impacts Suburbs were born Development of inner city social issue Settlement Geographies: Rural North America Simple, rectangular pattern of the federal government’s townshipandrange survey system Population decline in many rural areas while in others population growth Geopolitical Framework: Patterns of dominance and division North America is home to two of the world’s largest states Longest peaceful boundary in world – US/Canada border Coexist in a close relationship of mutual economic and political interdependence Federal states (shared power) and unitary states (centralized power, like France) North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Political Systems: Federal States United States Presidential republic 3 branches of government Legislative and executive completely separate President: voted in based upon Electoral College State government rule where federal not given explicit power Canada Commonwealth of UK Queen: official head of state Prime Minister: makes decisions 3 branches of government Legislative and executive overlap Prime Minister: depends upon majority in House of Commons Regional governments greater autonomy A Global Reach Historical: The Monroe Doctrine (1824) Post WWII US emerged as the world’s dominate political power NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 1949) military alliance United Nations (1949): promote social progress, peace, human rights, justice, security Headquarters in New York (Geneva and Vienna) Current examples of US global political presence An Abundant Resource Base Direct extraction of natural resources makes up 3% of the US economy 6% of the Canadian economy Energy and industrial raw materials Creating a Continental Economy Connectivity and economic growth The sectoral transformation Regional economic patterns Persistent Social issues Wealth and poverty Gender equity Health care and aging The Politics of North American Immigration Four Key Issues 1. Disagreements concerning how many legal immigrants should be allowed into the country 2. Tightening daily flows of undocumented immigrants 3. Drug related violence along the border of Mexico and US 4. There is no political consensus on a policy to deal with existing undocumented workers North America and the Global Economy Creating the modern global economy WTO (World trade organization): reduce global trade barriers G8: collection of economically powerful nations that meet to discuss global economic and political issues G8 members: total GPD is 50% of world economy Doing business globally Outsourcing International Connections Houston South Louisiana NY, NJ Long Beach, CA Miami Summary North America possesses a highly educated population and considerable natural resources, and it remains a seat of global corporate and political power The region faces significant environmental challenges, including soil erosion, acid rain, and air/water pollution In a remarkably short time period, a unique mix of varied cultural groups from around the world has contributed to the settlement of a huge and resourcerich continent that is now the world’s most urbanized region North Americans produced two closely intertwined societies that still face distinctive national political and cultural issues In Canada, the nation’s identity remains problematic For the US social problems linked to ethnic diversity, immigration issues, healthcare costs, and enduring poverty remain central concerns The global economic downturn of the late 2000s profoundly affected North America’s economic geography, particularly in many regions that were hit hardest by the housing crisis and by rising rates of unemployment