World Geography 1310.257
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claire on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1310.257 at Texas State University taught by Dr. Springer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geography at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
World Geography 2/4/16 Concepts of World Geography o Studying regions and places o Globalization and diversity o Culture and migration o Population o Economic and Social development o Geopolitics Economic and social development: The Geography of Wealth and Poverty o More and less developed countries o Living on less than $2 per day is the international definition of poverty o Extreme poverty is living on less than $1 a day Demographic Transition Model o Death rates: (Purple) Stage 1 Preindustrial: High Stage 2 Transitional: Decreased Stage 3 Transitional: Remained low Stage 4 Industrial: Low Stage 5 PostIndustrial: Declined/very low o Birth rates: (Green) Stage 1: High Stage 2: High/Stable Stage 3: Decreased Stage 4: Low Stage 5: Declined/very low o Natural Increase: Stage 1: Low growth/population Stage 2: Rapid Increase Stage 3: Increase but slightly Stage 4: Low high overall population Stage 5: Decline/negative growth, overall population decline o Reason for change in Birth Rates: Stage 1: N/A Stage 2: Help with agriculture/working, health care, religion, role of women Stage 3: Women joined work force, Education, advance in health care, economy Stage 4: Infertility Stage 5: More Infertility, women careers, not wanting children o Reason for change in Death Rates: Stage 1: N/A Stage 2: Advances in Medical Technology Stage 3: Stage 4: Stage 5: Globalization o Technology o Social patterns (role of women in society) o Education o Communication o Environment o Information Geopolitics 2 o Sovereignty: ability of a government to control activities in its borders o Nation: large group of people with shared sociocultural traits o State: internal political entity with clear boundaries, control over internal space, and recognition by external powers o The Kurdish people: A nation without a state (Watch Turtles Can Fly) o What does Top Gear have to do with geopolitics? Car enthusiasts Falkland Islands off of South America Episode Aired December 28, 2014 License plate says H982 FKL (1982 Falkland Islands) o This started a riot because of the War of 1982 This was the war of who does FKL belong to o Cars pelted with stones and eggs Colonialism: the formal establishment of rule over a foreign population. Are part of England but still rule themselves in a way Unlike the Falkland Islands, other territories… French Spanish Russia England o Decolonization Process of a colony gaining (or regaining) control over its territory and establishing independence o Neocolonization Term from 1960s 3 Newly independent states, that were once colonized, felt were still under Western control in economic and political matters Insurgency: A political uprising or rebellion, targeted toward military or government Terrorism: use of violence at nonmilitary targets to gain political or cultural control Counterterrorism: Neutralizing terrorist control and activities Counterinsurgency: Multilayer strategy that uses military/warfare, social/political activities to take away insurgents political base Culture o Learned behavior of a group of people that is accepted as a common way of life o Includes language. Religion. Livelihood, values, housing, food, technology, music, etc. o Dynamic and processoriented o Always tensions between traditional elements and newer forces Cultural Hearths Area of historical significance from which new cultural ideas, innovations and technologies diffused to other parts of the world. Early centers of civilization, agriculture, and major world religions Several of world’s greatest ancient civilizations River Valleys: Mesopotamia, Nile River Valley Geography of World Religions Universalizing religions o Applied to all people o Proselytizeseek new converts 4 Ethnic religions o Identified closely to specific ethnic, tribal, or national group o Typically born into Monotheistic, polytheistic, atheistic World Religions: Islam o Sunni About 89% of Muslims Follow tradition of 1 four successors of Muhammad Dominant in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Syria o Shi’a or Shiite About 11% of Muslims Believe Muhammad’s soninlaw, Ali, is rightful successor Dominant in Iran and southern Iraq o In both forms revival of fundamentalist Want to maintain purity of faith Separate from western influence World Religions: Buddhism o Four Nobel Truths Life involves suffering (Truth of Suffering) Cause of suffering is desire (Truth of Cause of Suffering) Elimination of desire ends suffering Right thinking and behavior eliminate desire Secularism 5 o Practice of no religion o Belief that religion should be separate from government, public education, and civil affairs o Causes of Migration Push Factors Civil unrest/war Environmental degradation Unemployment Oppressive governments Pull Factors Economic opportunity Safety Health services Family Climate o Migration Rates North America U.S. 2 people per thousand Canada 7 people per thousand Mexico 2.5 people leaving Highest Qatar 19 Kuwait 15 Lowest Tonga 15.4 people leaving Somoa 13.5 people leaving 6 Micronesia 12.8 people leaving 1/3 of immigrants in the world live in: Japan, Germany, France, Canada, U.S., Italy, and United Kingdom o When cultures intersect Cultural imperialism Active promotion of one cultural system at the expense of another Cultural nationalism Process of protecting and defending a local or national cultural system against another culture Done formally or informally Cultural hybridization Blending of two or more cultures Geology of Earth’s Fractured Surface o Distribution of Volcanoes o Internal Processes Tectonic plates Is a section of the Earth’s lithosphere o Crust(rock) + upper mantle Fault is a crack in the crust and doesn’t go all the way down to the mantle Plate boundary is a crack that goes all the way down to the mantle Divergent plate boundary Energy source and convection currents (decay of Uranium) heats the magma and makes the convection cells Jokulhaulp Meltwater causing huge volumes of glacial flood water 7 A volcano erupts under the glacier and melts the glacier from underneath causing a giant flood. o Insulation: incoming solar radiation: solar energy o Short wave radiation > absorbed > long wave radiation (infrared) o Warm temperatures come from long wave radiation LEARN THE MOUNTAIN RANGES FOR TEST 8
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