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Bio 1306 Week 7 Notes

by: Kimberly Rodriguez

Bio 1306 Week 7 Notes Bio 1306

Kimberly Rodriguez
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover 3/28/2016-3/30/2016
Organismal Biology
Class Notes
Biology, Organismal Biology, bio1306
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Rodriguez on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1306 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Science at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 04/05/16
Bio 1306 Dr. Carl S. Lieb 3/28/16-3/3/16 Chapter 25 Nutrients Absorbed in ionic form from the soil and transported by the xylem Macronutrients Essential, at least 1 gram per 1kg of dry weight of plant body 1) Nitrogen Absorbed as nitrate or ammonium ions. Ammonium ions come from ammonia that’s produced by nitrogen fixation from nitrogen gas. Certain soil bacteria are nitrogen fixers. Others occur endosymbiotically in the roots of plants (ex: legumes). In aquatic systems, cyanobacteria fix nitrogen. Bacteria nitrifiers convert ammonium ions to nitrate and others nitrite to nitrate 2) Phosphorus Absorbed as phosphate ions. Source of phosphate is phosphate-containing sedimentary rock. May be a limiting factor in some soils. Second source of phosphate is animal excrement (aka: guano). 3) Potassium Absorbed as potassium ion. Source of potassium is from the weathering of sedimentary rocks and granite Not as rare as phosphorus in soil. 4) Sulphur Absorbed as sulfate ions and reduced to sulphide. Sources are parent rock (gypsum rocks) and organic materials (manure). 5) Calcium Absorbed as calcium ions. Source: rocks of earth’s crust, “carbonate rocks” including limestome. Prokaryotes and fungi in soil release carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide reacts with water to produce carbonic acid which dissolves limestone and releases calcium ions. 6) Magnesium Absorbed as magnesium ions. Sources: manure and dead plant material. Abundant in Earth’s crust. Micronutrients Concentrations of less than 1g/1kg of dry plant and usually less than .1g/kg. Iron, chlorine, manganese, zinc, copper, nickel, boron, and molybdenum. Bio 1306 Dr. Carl S. Lieb 3/28/16-3/3/16 Osmosis How water moves in and out of the cell. Water Potential Whether water moves in or out of the cell. Measured in megapascals. (MPa) Water Observations 1) Water moves from an area of high water potential to an area of low water potential. 2) Pure water will have a water potential of 0. 3) Physical pressure on water increases water potential. Water will move to a location where theres less pressure. Physical pressure on water is from the weight on the atmosphere. 4) Any value higher than .1 MPa is increasing water potential. Any value less than .1 MPa is lowering water potential. 5) Dissolving anything in water lowers water potential below zero. Transpiration-Cohesion- Explains how water and substances get from the root xylem Tension Hypothesis up to the stem xylem and to the leaves. Mechanisms for how water 1) Air pressure on the surface of the ground but the moves up the xylem pressure only moves it a few inches up. 2) Capillary action in tubes caused by cohesion of water molecules but there is always less than a foot of rise. 3) Transpiration- Cohesion-Tension Hypothesis  Transpiration: Water coats photosynthetic cells to allow CO2 in through the stomata. The photosynthetic cells have wet surfaces that evaporate. The water loss is replaced by water from inside.  Cohesion: Water molecules stick together because of polarity  Tension: The loss of water and cohesion of water creates a negative pressure potential. Tension pulls water upwards. Water potential difference is -100 MPa. Plant Stomata Open or close in response to light. In the daytime, the guard cells swell with water an open allowing in CO2. In the nighttime, guard cells relax and close. Bio 1306 Dr. Carl S. Lieb 3/28/16-3/3/16 Phloem Transport Can be in more than one direction. Phloem cells need to be alive to perform their function. What moves through the phloem is 90% sucrose and the rest is amino acids, viruses, and small minerals. Sucrose is translocated from sources to sinks. Sources Plant organs where carbohydrates are released into the phloem (these are excess carbs). The leaves and roots are the principal two sources of carbohydrates. Sinks Places in the plant where carbs are being expended or where they are being stored as starch. Pressure Flow Model Explains how sugars move through the phloem. Columns of xylem and phloem cells lie next to each other. Xylem cells are empty and dead. Phloem columns are composed of end to end cells connected by openings so that phloem cytoplasm can flow between cells freely. Sucrose Sucrose is transported from a source cell into companion cells and then passively flows into sieve tube cells. The high negative water potential of having dissolved sugar in these cells affects surrounding cells drawing out water from them and xylem cells. As water moves from the xylem to the sieve tubes it creates physical pressure and the sucrose moves up or down toward a sink where the sucrose will be stored as starch. Chapter 26- Plant Hormones Hormones Substances that are produced in one part of the plant boy that move through the body to have an effect on another part of the body. Animal hormones travel through the circulatory system. 1) Auxin  Substance that causes elongation of cells in a stem on the opposite side upon which light is shining causing the stem to bend toward the light source  Promotes lateral development of roots  On stems, it prevents leaf abscission (leaf drop)  Parthenocarpy- an auxin treated fruit will develop without any seeds (ex: seedless grapes) Bio 1306 Dr. Carl S. Lieb 3/28/16-3/3/16 2) Gibberellins  Discovered in 1962 by botanist Elichi Kirosawa.  Are secretions of a fungus that cause bakanae (foolish seedling) in which a plant grows very tall very quick and then dies.  It promotes stem growth, seed germination, and fruit development. 3) Cytokinins  Isolated from corn plants.  With auxin: rapid cell proliferation  High cytokinins/auxin ratio: stimulates formation of shoot cells  Low cytokinins/auxin ratio: stimulates proliferation of root cells  Counteracts gibberellins by inhibiting stem elongation, apical dominance of auxin by side branch formation, delays aging of leaves 4) Brassinosteroids  Discovered in wild mustard plant  Promotes seed germination, apical dominance, leaf aging, cell elongation, and division in stems/leaves, growth of pollen tubes, xylem development 5) Abscisic Acid  Prevents seed germination, promotes seed dormancy, and closes the stomata when plant is water stressed 6) Ethylene  Gas that promotes fruit ripening and leaf aging and abscission  Produces more ethylene  Spreads through the air Chapter 23- Animals Animal Cells Lack cell walls. Cells are held together by collagen. Muscular System Movement of the body, adaptations for locomotion. Nervous System Result of adaptations to locomotory systems that drive evolution of control mechanisms and sensory functions.


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