Lecture & Textbook Notes Ch12
Lecture & Textbook Notes Ch12 PSY 150A1
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorelei Wong on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Adam Lazarewicz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Structure of Mind & Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz Lecture Notes Chapter 12: Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology – social, physical, emotional, cognitive change across a person’s lifespan Prenatal Development o 3 stages Zygote – fertilized egg 23 pairs of chromosomes o Each parent is responsible for half (sperm & egg) XX – female XY – male 100 zygote cells by week 1 o Differentiation in the cells begins Zygote begins to attach to the uterine wall days 10-14 Embryo Weeks 8-10 st 1 signs of organ development Fetus 9 weeks until birth th By the 6 month organs are developed enough to stand a chance at survival if born prematurely Sensitivity to light and sound during this stage o Learning fetal stages DeCasper & Fifer (1980) – read Cat in the Hat aloud twice a day for 6 weeks before giving birth Few hours after birth after all regular checkups on baby are done, they are fitted with headphones and given a pacifier that will play either the mother’s voice vs. another woman depending on how fast they suck the pacifier o Babies chose the speed that produced their mother’s voice o Chose speed that had mother reading Cat in the Hat vs. another story o Threats to prenatal development – environment & genetics Environment Teratogen – any agent that can harm the zygote/embryo/fetus o Ex: hormones High cortisol levels during pregnancy growth genes operate slower o Ex: viruses HIV, rubella o Ex: drug use Nicotine, alcohol Genetics Down syndrome PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz o Age of mother could be critical 20-24 years: 1/14900 40 years: 1/60 49 years: 1/11 o Symptoms Heart, eye, & ear defects Sleep apnea Poor muscle tone, short limbs Facial abnormalities Intellectual disability (avg. IQ=50.55) The Newborn o Human newborns less competent than many other species Traditional view incompetent, confused, passive beings Modern view active, engaged beings from birth o Reflexes – many of them Ex: stepping, swimming, sucking, eye blinking, etc. o Preference to be social – turning toward human voice, gaze longer at face like patterns vs. not face like patterns o Brain development Prenatal: neuron development At peak, 250,000 new neurons per minute! Newborns & children: neural connections Development of neural networks Adolescence: pruning process of neural connections Cognitive Development in Childhood o Jean Piaget – thought children were active learners and thinkers Children struggle to understand experiences develop schemas Schema – concept or framework that organizes and interprets information o Assimilation – uses existing schema to understand and interpret new experiences Ex: furry, 4 legs & tail = dog, but not horse o Accommodation – schemas adapting to incorporate new info Ex: furry, 4 legs, tail, paws, short nose = doggy Furry, 4 legs, tail, hooves, long nose = horsey o Assimilation & accommodation drives children through the 4 stages Simple & tangible abstract & conceptual o Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development 1. Sensorimotor Birth age 2 World knowledge = sensory info motor activities Object permanence – awareness that objects continue to exist even when you cannot see them PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz o Approx. 8MO Living in the moment 2. Preoperational stage Ages 2-7 years Kids are egocentric! –difficulty taking others points of view o They assume everyone sees what they’re seeing o Can’t quite understand that people have different perspectives Conservation – quantity stays the same even though the shape may change Theory of mind – the developed ability to recognize mental states to yourself and others o Allows us to Infer feelings, perceptions, & thoughts Understand others, take their perspective, predict behavior o Ex: Jenkins & Astington (1996): ask what is in the Band-Aid box (actually pencils) What would someone else guess if they had never seen this box before? 3 year olds: “pencils” 4-5 years old: “Band-Aids” o Autism – diagnosed during infancy normally, brain development disorder Based on: No babbling/gesturing by 12MO No single words by 16MO No two-word phrases by 24MO 4-5 times as common in men 3 classes of autism 1. Social interaction impairments o Impaired theory of the mind Difficulty understanding social emotions, considering others’ viewpoints o Little eye contact and smiling o Unlikely to approach others socially 2. Communication impairments o Delayed onset of babbling o Decreased responsiveness o Repeating heard sounds o Difficulty understanding 3. Repetitive behaviors o “useless” movements PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz o Preference for sameness, restrictive behavior o Compulsive behaviors (patterns repetition, organization) What causes autism? We don’t know yet… but it is not vaccines Could have multiple aspects with independent causes that just happen to co-occur Potential causes of autism Genetics? o Runs in families Disruptions of mirror neuron system? o Strong negative correlations between mirror neuron activity & severity of autism symptoms 3. Concrete operational stage Age 7-12 Ability to engage in concrete operations o Manipulate their mental images of a concrete object o Emergence of logic, reversibility 4. Formal operational stage Age 12-adulthood Expansion of logical capabilities o Concrete (actual experience) formal (abstract, imagined realities & symbols) o “what is” vs. “what could be” Ex: 2x+5=15 o Not necessarily reality-bound o Ex: Shaffer (1973) Given an activity where school kids get to draw, choose, and explain why and where they would put it th 4 graders didn’t like the activity and every single one of them put the 3 eye in between their two eyes th 6 graders liked the activity and there were a multitude of answers and places o Assessing Piaget’s Theory The good: Cross-cultural evidence of how cognition develops in childhood o Major influence on developmental psychology research The bad: Continuous, not stages, possibilities for development throughout life Are there other “adult” cognitions besides abstract logic? Social development in childhood o Attachment – emotional connection with another person (attachment figure = AF) PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz Seek closeness to AF When separated there is distress Harry & Margaret Harlow – research on monkeys Attachments to blankets Created 2 “mothers” – one of just wire and one of softer material Food given from either or “mother” Monkeys had strong preference for cloth mother o Cling onto them when anxious o Became their base for exploring, would return or stay touching when checking new things out Similar importance for humans Stronger attachment to parents who have more contact with kids Touch therapy used on premature babies to help them recover We become attached to those around us during critical times of need or certain periods of time This is especially strong in some species Imprinting – especially strong attachment to those around in a critical period of time o Ex: ducklings & mother o Ex: Konrad Lorenz Wanted to see what would happen if he was the first thing ducklings saw Ducklings imprinted on him and followed him around Humans don’t imprint like ducklings but we still get attached to familiar people or things o More exposure effect – repeated exposure to something increases the liking of it Ex: that really catchy song they won’t stop playing on the radio that you hated to begin with now you like Ex: Panic! At the Disco’s “Hallelujah” o 4 attachment styles 1. Secure attachment Approx. 65% of 1YO Actively explore surroundings when with AF Separation may upset them but doesn’t linger once AF returns o If distressed they seek physical contact Outgoing with strangers esp. when AF is present Ex: my brother o He would talk to everyone and anyone o Go explore and even got lost in a department store & LEGOLAND 2. Resistant attachment 10% of 1YO PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz These are the kids that are constantly glued to their parent Don’t explore much Separation causes much distress and upon return kid is a bit weary and worried they’ll leave again Wary of strangers even with AF present Ex: my neighbor growing up o Would not even let me see his face when we first met in kindergarten o I ended up chasing him around his mom’s legs trying to talk to him 3. Avoidant attachment 20% of 1YO Separation leads to little distress and return tends to cause them turning away from or ignoring AF They often ignore and avoid strangers Uninterested 4. Disorganized/Disoriented attachment 5% of 1YO Most insecure style? o Combo of resistant & avoidant Confusion about whether to approach/avoid AF o Where do these different styles stem from? Caregiving hypothesis – attachment style depends on parenting 3 types of parents o 1. Secure: sensitive, synchronous, interactive, reliable parenting (not too much, not too little) o 2. Resistant: inconsistent parenting (leads to child seeking attention) o 3. Avoidant: overzealous parenting (always there, never give kid space) o 4. Disorganized/Disoriented: often the result of abuse or neglect, cycles of acceptance/abuse (kid doesn’t know whether to accept or reject) Adolescence o Neural development 1. Priming of neural connections 2. Myelin growth Limbic system (emotions) before frontal lobe (control, judgement) o Basically saying “why am I so emotional?!?!” Emotions of an adult without the control of an adult o Impulsiveness, risky behaviors in adolescence o Brain continues to mature until approx. 25 YO o Lawrence Kohlberg – moral development studies PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz Built upon Piaget’s ideas Moral thinking stages (depends on stage of cognitive development) Kohlberg’s 3 stages of moral development 1. Preconventional stage: morality of self-interest 2. Conventional stage: care for others, follow rules because they are rules 3. Post conventional stage: broad, abstract ethical principles of right and wrong o Haidt (2001,2002) – moral feeling comes before moral reasoning Emotions are instantaneous Reasoning is used to convince self & others of what you intuitively feel Old age o Life expectancy & gender – 1950 (49 years) vs. 2013 (71 years) 80+ years in some developed countries Males more prone to dying 126 male embryos per 100 females o Ratio at birth 105:100 st Infant death rate (1 year) approx. 25% higher in boys than girls Worldwide lifespan for women is 4-6 years longer than men Why do men have the shorter end of the stick? More alcohol, nicotine, other drug use More likely to commit suicide More aggressive, likely to be in violent confrontations More likely to be in the military More risks when driving cars or motorcycles General rule among mammals: smaller individuals have longer lifespan o Physical changes in old age Dementia – decline of cognitive functioning beyond normal aging Disorientation in time, place, & person 60-70% of cases caused by Alzheimer’s disease o Alzheimer’s disease – progressive brain disorder Deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and physical functioning Confusion and irritability, mood swings Average life expectation is 3-9 years after diagnosis Causes are unclear 70% of risk may be genetic Loss of brain tissue Deterioration of neurons that produce acetylcholine (memory/thinking deficits) PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz Textbook Notes Nature vs. nurture issue – debate between how much environment and hereditary influence behavior Identical twins – twins that are genetically the same; same zygote cell split into two and both attached to uterine wall & developed Cross-sectional research – comparing people of different ages at the same period of time Longitudinal research – observes and researches people’s behavior as they grow and mature Chromosomes – they contain all the basic genetic information that a person will have Genes – where genetic info is transmitted Age of viability – when the fetus could survive if born premature Neonate – newborn Habituation – less responsive to a stimulus after being exposed to it multiple times Authoritarian parents – demand full respect and unquestioning obedience from children Permissive parents – demand little from children, are loving with them, but inconsistent with direction Authoritative parents – clear rules and limits, but reason and explain things to children Uninvolved parents – have little interest in kids and are emotionally detached Temperament – innate characteristic and way of responding Trust-versus-mistrust stage – birth to 1.5 YO where infants begin to either trust or distrust people Autonomy-versus-shame-and-doubt stage – 1.5-3YO begin to create their own way and explore things around them, but will self-doubt if overprotected Initiative-versus-guilt stage – 3-6YO inner conflict between doing their own thing and punishments for doing so Industry-versus-inferiority stage – 6-12YO when kids begin to interact socially with others and some will either have positive experience or a negative one that may lead them to feel inadequate and less social Cognitive development – kids beginning to process and understand how the world changes as they grow up Preoperational stage – characterized by language development in kids 2-7YO Concrete operational stage – characterized by loss of egocentricism and development of logical thought in kids 7-12YO Formal operation stage – abstract thought dominates this stage ages 12-adulthood Informational processing – taking in, using, and storing information Metacognition – understanding and being aware of one’s own mental processes Zone of proximal development – Vygotzky believed the gap between what kids can manage to do on their own versus what they cannot Adolescence – stage between childhood and adulthood Puberty – sexual organs begin to develop Identity-versus-role-confusion stage – when adolescents are trying to find out who they are and their unique characteristics PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz Identity – who a person is, what they stand for and believe; distinguishing characteristics of someone Generativity-versus-stagnation stage – middle adulthood when we make note of our family, accomplishments, and contributions Emerging adulthood – late teenage years to mid-20s Menopause – period begins to decrease and stop because women stop menstruating and are no longer fertile Genetic preprogramming theories of aging – human cells have a set life span to their reproduction and can no longer recreate and divide after a certain amount of time Wear-and-tear theories of aging – mechanical functions our body does decrease in efficiency or stop completely Disengagement theory of aging – successful aging is considered to be a gradual withdrawal from the world on different levels Activity theory of aging – to be successful at aging, must continue in interests and activities of earlier stages of life Life review – examining and evaluating your life
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