Child Development and Family Relations Notes
Child Development and Family Relations Notes CDFR 1103
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CDFR 3150 Introduction to Early Childhood Intervention
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by AmberNicole on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDFR 1103 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Alan C. Taylor in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 130 views. For similar materials see Marriage and the Family in Child Development at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
Child Development and Family Relations Chapter 11 Base Goals of Parenting Survival needs of infants Food Shelter Safety Security Love: has not had as much attention as it should in this society Socialization needs of children Ensuring they become productive, contributing members of society Parenting Eight essential parenting responsibilities o Providing a safe environment o Providing basic needs o Providing self-esteem o Teaching children morals and values, o Developing mutual respect o Providing effective and age-appropriate discipline o Being involved in the child’s education o Knowing the child by communicating with him/her Parenting Styles Research by Diana Baumrind Styles decided by warmth and control (two dimensions) Children will survive better in different environments so no one is better than the other (except for uninvolved) 1. Uninvolved parenting o low in responsiveness, high levels of warmth, affection o Parents may reject and neglect their children 2. Permissive parenting o indulgent parents, high levels of warmth, affection and responsiveness toward their children o set low limits on children o accepted the child’s impulses o Adequate to high levels of parent/child communication Two dimensions Warmth/affection/responsiveness Control Parenting Styles 1. Authoritarian parenting: authority and control Obedience and status oriented Demanding and controlling of children Not very warm of affectionate Rigid rules Parent child communication low Power is the key 2. Authoritative Parenting: flexibility but boundaries Parents are responsive but demanding Does not use shame, withdrawal of love, guilt to control behavior Flexible, but boundaries Authoritative Parenting Provides children with balance of control and warmth Research shows children raised in this style o Exhibit more social competence than others o Lower levels of problem behavior at all levels o Able to balance the demands of conforming to others’ expectations with their own needs o Perform better in school if reared by authoritative parents Parenting goals influence parenting style Cost of having children Average cost of raising a child from birth to first birthday: $7500- $10,000 o Food: $1100-$3000 o Diapers: $700-$900 o Clothes: $350-$550 o Furniture: $1200-$1400 o Bedding/Bath: $400-$500 o Med/Dr. Visit: $500-$600 o Toys: $200-$300 o Day Care: $1000-$2500 Average cost of raising a child 0-17 in 2004 o $184,328 ($134,000-$269,000) (not including college expenses) o Parenting forego income and investment when they raise their children o Parents work additional hours and have less leisure time Factors that make Parenting Difficult Employers place work demands before parenting demands Parenting requires learning new attitudes and techniques Society is characterized by diverse and conflicting values Emphasis on the malleability of children making parents feel anxious and guilty Child-rearing experts sometimes disagree among themselves Parents are given full responsibility for raising successful or good children, but their authority is often put to question Many parents are responsible for working, raising children and caring for aging parents Differing family forms can cause parents special difficulties because they are different form the idealized norm of the intact, nuclear family Options for Dealing with Problem Behaviors 1. Natural consequences a. Direct result of a physical act (i.e., don’t eat dinner, go hungry) 2. Logical consequences a. Events that follow a social act b. Consequence is directly related to the act itself (i.e. If you forget to get gas for the family car, you lose driving privileges) c. Parents have to be willing to follow through with the consequence d. Natural and logical consequences put the parent in the role of advisor, not judge Rules without a relationship breed rebellion Options for Dealing with Problem Behaviors 1. Mutual Problem Solving a. Trying to find a win-win situation b. Parents present the problem, everyone gets to give their opinions on how to solve it 2. Behavioral Contracts a. Child will do something parent wants for desired rewards 3. Negative Consequences a. Negative consequences are used to decrease behaviors that are not desired Six Principles of Negative Consequences 1. Intervene early a. Don’t the situation get out of control 2. Stay as calm and objective as possible 3. State the rule that was violated 4. Use a mild negative consequence 5. Use negative consequences consistently a. Misbehaviors continue when they are sometimes punished and sometimes not 6. Reinforce positive social behaviors as they occur afterward Forms of Negative Consequences 1. Ignoring behavior a. Effective for whining, sulking or pouting 2. Social disapproval a. Expressing disappointment coupled with loss of privilege 3. Time Out a. Best used for aggressive, destructive behaviors. b. Doesn’t have to be long: amount of minutes same as child’s age 4. Loss of Privilege or Extra Chores a. More effective than time out for older children Problems with Disciplining Children 1. Inconsistent Discipline a. On the part of one parent of two b. Examples? 2. Irritable, Harsh, Explosive Discipline a. Frequent hitting and threatening 3. Low supervision and low involvement 4. Inflexible, rigid discipline All four of the above are related to increases in children’s aggressive, rule-breaking behavior Spanking More than 90% of U.S. parents spank their children o This could be only spanking the child one time in their life, or five times a day. Therefore, this provides a wide range of data. Boys under the age of two are spanked most often Spanking is linked to depression, suicide, alcohol, or drug abuse, and physical aggression against parents and intimate partners o Those individuals who were spanked leads to mental disorders. o Most parents call spanking disciplinary instead of abusive Who Spanks? Parents who are young, single and under financial stress are more likely to spank Still, somewhat between 65-94% of middle income parents have spanked Mothers are more likely to spank than fathers People who live in rural areas and in the south Religious conservative people more than those not claiming to be religious conservative Why when both parents and children consider spanking to be something they do not like and not an effective form of discipline is it still so prevalent Boys are more spanked than girls Preschoolers more than older children o Spanking becomes less common after age 6 or it often escalates into abuse Children described as having difficult temperaments Children whose parents have fewer supports Families in which parents and children argued Parents often say that they do not like to spank, but will still often does it. Why do so many parents spank if they do not feel like it is effective? o Social learning theory: the child will model what they have been exposed to. Therefore, a child who has been spanked will more likely have a chance of growing up to spank their children. so Four Factors Related to Parents’ Spanking 1. Parents’ belief in its usefulness 2. Parents’ own experience with it as a child 3. An authoritarian style of parenting 4. Children’s problems with aggressiveness and acting out Effects of Spanking on Children Many studies say that the effects of a (mild) spanking depends on the context of the parent-child relationship: when spanking is accompanied by warmth and reasoning, children view it as a disciplinary tool, not rejection Spanking increased behavioral problems over time No Detrimental Effects, if Spanking… Was not severe Did not involve anything but the hand Was used less than weekly Was used with young children, age 2-6 Was accompanied by reasoning Was used as a backup to other strategies Was used by parents who were not violent to other family members Choosing to be Childfree Why couples choose the no-kids track o Time o Freedom o Financial benefits/security o Dual careers o Can’t change your mind o Overpopulation and environment resources Social Factors linked to No-kids Track Increase in women’s education levels Participation in the job market Changing social values Decreasing importance of religion Access to legal abortion Effective contraceptives Financial security Job security Categories of Childless Women 1. Hedonists a. Are not willing to sacrifice money, energy, time or themselves for childrearing 2. Emotional a. Choose not to become parents because of lack of maternal instincts 3. Idealistic a. Feel the world is not a safe place in which to bring children 4. Practical a. Remain childfree to pursue educational or career goals Delayed or Deferred Childbearing 1. Postponing childbearing for a definite period of time – intentionally delay to achieve certain goals 2. Postponing childbearing for an indefinite period of time – reasons for not having children become unclear, timing just not right 3. Weighing the pros and cons of being parents – couple deliberates the costs and benefits of parenthood 4. Coming to terms with being childless – couple realize they have become childless by default, postponing too long Theories of Child Development Psychoanalytic theories – Sigmund Freud Development through psychosexual stages 1. Oral – birth- age 1 2. Anal – ages 1-3 3. Phallic – ages 3-6 4. Latency – ages 7-11 5. Genital – ages 12 and beyond Erik Erikson: 8 stages of development over a lifetime (Chapter 6) Learning Theories B.F. Skinner o Operant conditioning o Rewards reinforce behavior (reward vs. punishment) o Punishments decrease likelihood that behavior will be repeated John B. Watson o Classical conditioning o People make associations between two events Cognitive Theories Focus on how children think and understand their world Jean Piaget o 1. Sensorimotor stage: birth – 2 years puts a child’s toy under a blanket and a child will not know where the toy is o 2. Preoperational stage: 2-6 years o 3. Concrete operational: 7-11 years o 4. Formal operational: 12 and beyond Sociocultural Theories Children do not progress through stages Child’s development is result of interaction with culture, parents engage in activities to help their child develop new skills Single Parents 26% of households with children headed by single mothers 4% of households with children headed by single fathers Increase in divorce rate results in single parents Marriage later in life Acceptance of single-parent adoptions Single Family Models Family Deficit Model o Single parent households were negative because the family structures was not nuclear Risk and Protective Factor Model o Every family has its own risk factors (potentially negative impact) and protective factors (potentially positive impact on the family) Women as Single Parents 79 million single-parent households headed by women 43% have never been married 1/3 of these live below the poverty level Divorced single mothers fare better than never-married single mothers White single mothers are more likely to have been married Men as Single Parents 2 million single parent households headed by men more factors rearing children by themselves 4 factors make this possible o 1. Current divorce laws make it easier o 2. Mothers may grant custody to fathers o 3. Divorce courts have favorable view of father’s role o 4. Fathers are more willing to take an active role in parenting Characteristics that Differentiate Single Fathers from Single Mothers Single fathers o Less likely to live below poverty line o More likely to be employed o Tend to be younger than married fathers, but older than single mothers o Do not have as many children as married fathers but more than single mothers o More likely to live with other relatives in the household o Very few receive child support from the mother o Tend to suffer more work-family conflicts than married fathers or single mothers New Parenting Environments Gay and Lesbian parents o Number of children of gay and lesbian parents ranges from 6-14 million o Polls show that 36% of American and 90% of gays and lesbians believe that gay couples should be able to adopt children o Why is there concern over gay/lesbian parenting o Options for becoming parents “natural” methods of conception Arificial reproductive technology Either or both may bring children from a previous marriage Adoption o 6-14 million children have gay and lesbian parents o nearly 10 million children are reared in a gay or lesbian household Grandparent parents o Over 4 million children under 18 are living with grandparents. Single mothers working Teen pregnancy Incarceration Drug abuse Low interest of parent Foster parents Issues Regarding Children Gender identity Few differences exist between children reared by same sex parents and those reared by heterosexual parents Sexual orientation Being raised by homosexual parents does not increase the likelihood a child will be gay or lesbian Children’s well-being Having gay or lesbian parents is less of an indicatior than parenting styles on the quality of the parent-child relationship Parenting Choice Factors Family roles will be realigned Family system will be out of balance Role conflict and role strain are inevitable Responsibilities of parenthood will restrict a couples’ freedom Marital satisfaction will change Financial strains will increase Factors in good parenting Adequate economic resources Being involved in a child’s life and school Using supportive, rather than negative communication between partners in the family Support from family and/or friends Bringing up Baby Primary responsibility is the mother’s Father’s perceptions higher than mother’s report Ideal-actual gap: mothers view fathers parenting involvement less than ideal Maternal gate-keeping: mother has difficulty in relinquishing her traditional role Juggling Parenting and Household Chores Second shift: mothers who work outside the home and still have the majority of the household task Routine housework: House cleaning, meal preparation, grocery shopping, laundry Residual tasks: bill paying, yard work, chauffeuring children Household Chores Factors that contribute to division of household chores o Women’s employment: the more hours women work outside, the more men share household tasks o Men’s employment: men who work fewer hours outside the house, tend to share more in childrearing and household tasks o Education: the higher the education, the fewer household tasks women perform, more often they will hire outside help; men with higher levels of education engage in more household labor o Presence of children: when children enter relationship, household labor is less frequently shared Work-Family Conflict Inter-role conflict: family demands are incompatible with stresses of work-role o Time based: demands from the work domain and the family domain vie for parent’s time and attention o Strain based: when demands of one domain make it difficult to carry out roles of the other domain o Behavior based: behaviors of job and home are incompatible Family and Medical Leave Act Federal and state employees and those who work for employers with 50 or more employees are able to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave in order to care for an ill child, parent or spouse or for one’s own serious illness without fear of losing their job, benefits or status Work-Family Spillover/Conflict Dual earner couples are vulnerable to work-family conflict Family to work spillover: parent has an argument with a teenager before leaving for work and has a bad day at work Work-to-family spillover: bad day at the office and ends up being a bad day for the entire family Parent Role Changes 27% of children under 18 live in single parent homes 2 million babies a year born to unmarried women over 2 million fathers are primary caregivers for their children over 2 million grandparents are primary caregivers for their grandchildren Teen Parents 1 million teenagers will become pregnant in the next year 500,000 teenagers will give birth: about 1 per minute Impacts of Teen Pregnancy on Mother and Baby Increased risks o Medical/psychological o Pregnant teens more likely to develop anemia o More likely to develop pregnancy-related high blood pressure o Risk of dying during labor 2-4 times greater for women under 17 o Poor maternal weight gain and nutrition o More likely to deliver low birth weight babies o More likely to have had multiple partners increasing risks of STD’s o More likely to engage in activities resulting in significant health problems Smoking Abusing alcohol Abusing drugs o Developmental Difficulty forming and maintaining stable interpersonal relationships Continue dependence on family rather than becoming independent o Social-Economic Adolescent parenting is associated with poverty 80% of teen parents depend on welfare Teen mothers more likely to drop out of school o Impact of Children- Medical Increased risk for growth delay, infection More likely to die before age 5 More likely to die before age 1 if mother did not receive prenatal care More likely to suffer permanent brain damage due to substance abuse o Impact of Children: Psychosocial Inadequate parenting Experience developmental delays Greater risk of being abused or neglected Higher incidence of depression Intervention for Teen Parents Comprehensive school based programs o Keep pregnant and parenting teens in school Comprehensive family support programs o Help develop parenting and coping skills Expansion of government programs o Improve medical and psychological health Comprehensive community programs o Designed to enhance parenting skills Cognitive vs social learning theory
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