History of Dance notes -Lectures 1-8
History of Dance notes -Lectures 1-8 Dan 250
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Harley Dante on Sunday February 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Dan 250 at University of Miami taught by Professor Guy in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see History of Dance in Dance at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/01/15
r Unit 3 October 28 1 Modern dance a quotmd To me md is a license to do what I feel is worth doing without somebody saying that I cant do it because it does not t into a categoryquot Paul Taylor b gravitation falling i use gravity to project themselves c Isadora Duncan mother of modern dance i Plate 32 by Abraham walkowitz 1 Does many sketches of Isadora in motion ii Free amp energy is going out iii Neutral position asymmetry opposition iv quotwoman of the centuryquot v hair down amp bare feet 1 dance on carpet bare foot not stage 2 basic characteristics difference of modern dance amp baet a md i revolutionary form of dance against tradition fo classical style of ballet ii expression of one s own individualism and creative ideas around the turn of 20th c Isadora iii more receptive to possibilities of unorthodox movements to serve for creative needs 1 graham s quotcontraction and releasequot 2 humphrey s quotfall and recoveryquot a one of the 1st books of choreography iv oor was a source of stability and strength and attempt to derive energy from it through use of bare feet v torso supple strength to the spine vi freedom to use legs in normal walking stance in turned out or even turned in vii doesn t use stories but when it has used them it generally sought out tales from antiquity middle eastern or indian sources or legens from western hemisphere viii md company an ensemble treating the members of a particular company as equal amp giving all members opportunities to perform solo parts ix collaborative environ b Ballet i Offshoot of baroque court dancing in the 17th century Louis XIV ii Set of positions and movements iii Attempt to rise from oor to defy gravity use of point shoes Di cation of woman with man as support iv Torso strongly controlled w high arch to spine v Legs rotated outward to be seen in pro le vi Sources of romantic ballet are found from European fairy tales and folk stories quotgisellequot vii Traditional ballet company was hierarchically arranged 3 quotprime purpose was not spectacle but to communicate emotional experiences intuitive perceptions and elusive truthsquot john martin a 1st dance critic of NY times 4 American modern dance a Martha graham b Doris Humphrey amp Charles Weidman c Denishawn ted shawn ruth st denis d Isadora Duncan e Francois desarte amp emie Jacque dacroze 5 Francois desarte a 18111971 b French teacher of musicart in uenced American and European dancers amp choreographers c quotscience of applied aestheticsquot i complex system of gesture based on zones of body and human expression 1 mental or intellectualhead or neck 2 emotional or spiritual torso and arms 3 physical lower trunk and legs ii divided movement into 3 major orders or types 1 oppositions paraeisms successions iii his followers used his methods in evolving modern dance technique 6 Emilie Jacques dacroze 18651950 a Swiss composer musician and music educator b Eurhythmics method of learning and experiencing music through movement c 1910 institute in Dresden was where he trained important german modern dancers mary wigman amp hanya holm d 2 books i rhythm music and edu 1921 ii eurythmics art amp education 1930 7 introduction video a twya tharpchoreographer i thrusting through space b exchange merce Cunningham language of movement challenge existing order U3L2 1 Isadora Duncan 18781927 a Returned to the natural movements of the body the use of the quotWave principlequot Mother of modern dance Born in san Francisco into artistic family Studied ballet but broke away bc it didn t suit her spirit 18 traveled to Chicago gave conerts in NY at Carnegie hall studios 1890 left us for Europe and fame began to spread 1905 1st performance in Russia stimulated controversy bwn traditional balletomanes and critics an those who proposed reform diaghlev and Fokine h her dance quotdance of the futrequot art of personal expression She was the barefooted and barelegged performer in lmy short Greek Tunic i movementsimple amp heroic ii personal vision of America dancingquotgreat strides leaps dancing the language of our pioneersquot i contributions to modern dance i danceharmonious re ection of nature and governed by nature laws ii didn t use stylized technical medium returned to natural movements of body use of quotwave principlequot 1 gradual accumulation of force and climatic expenditure iii 1st dancer ot use symphonic music chopin s mazurkas bach Beethoven Mozart Scriabin Schubert Tchaikovsky iv setup principle of movement study in general education so all children could dance schools in paris berlin NY Moscow v removed setbackdrops from concert stage preferring to ance in front of simple draped curtains vi experimented w lighting for dance vii used dance as political force j no lms of her only sketches drawings and writings k La Marseillaise i 1st performance 1915 ii places 1 trocadero paris 2 metropolitan opera 3 house1915 4 new york iii choreography lsadora duncan DPPPquot LOT 5 iv music rouget de lisle v photo Arnold genthe vi insipiration was WW1 marche slave L apdl261917 ii metropolitan opera house iii choreography Isadora iv music peter yich Tchaikovsky v ispired by Russian revolution and peasants struggle for freedom soul of spontaneity essence of extemporaneous in her life in her art no work that can be performed no school of techniques no pupil of distinction what she left was notion that dance can be life a religion torchbearer of dance of 20th century 1913 her 2 small children drowned when car they were riding in plunged over a bridge and into seine in paris amp Duncan herself was seriously injured in accidents in 1913 amp 1924 September 14 1927 Isadora Duncan is strangled in Nice france when enormous silk scarf she is wearing gets tangled in rear hubcaps of her open car Ruth st denis18771968 i Tagore poem 1929 2 Ruthie denis born in new jersey a b Toured vaudeville circuit in us and Europe as actress skirt dancer amp toe dancer Costumesauthentic but not the music which had an oriental avor but played on western instruments Her dance movement consisted of poses manipulation of scarves draperies The dances were not authentic but gave an accurate picture of dance styles of exotic lands In uenced by spiritual quality and emotional force of Isadora Duncan Gift for movement and facility or improvisation developing a choreographic technique of music visualizations Incense 1906 i Musicexotic inspired score western instruments ii Choreography ruth st denis 3 Ted shawns a b Kinetic molpai 1935 i Ensemble of men dancers ii Male dancers strong and workinglabor symphonies Born n edqin myers shawn in Kansas city Missouri Studied ministry in Denver then contacted diphtheria and took up dancing as remedial exercise 191432 met st denis married her and danced as team until separation 1932400 formed famous men s group i developed male dancing and gouht to obtain recognition for dance as a worthy art for men on concert stages colleges and universities foundeddirected Jacobs pillow school of dance in lee mass g cocept of dance training consisted of barefoot adaptation of classical ballet ethnic and folk dance steps and dalcroze training 4 denishawn 191432 a b e f contributions to modern dance organized 13 major tours helping ot bring about a recognition of American dance as an independent art form created new audiences for dance among middle class theatergoers who had only seen European ballet founded 1st schools in la and ny w other brances and teachers of denishawn method in smaller cities before denishawn Americas dance art consisted of vaudevillians hoofers skirt dancers acrobatic dancers major contribution provided a training ground for great modern dancers to follow 5 german modern dance hanya holm b mary wigman l modern of german modern dance ii quotdancing is a living language which speaks directly to all mankind wo any intellectual detours The mediator of this langaue is the human body the instrument of dancequot iii artist of certain nation and of a particular era 1 affected by the disillusionment amp suffering of a defeated fermany in post ww1 iv Began w emotional experience and effect on individual v Concerned with use of space vi Age 24 began studies vii Graduated dalcroze s school viii Assisted Rudolf von laban in developing his dance notation system ix 1914 presented her rst solo concert x 1920 opened school in Dresden 1 taugh her technique which was built on structured improvisations xi xii xiii xiv xv xvi xvii xviii excelled in solo choreography 1 witch dance1926 i choreographer performer mary wigman ii music percussion instruments amp sHence 2 monotony whirl 1926 totenmal1929 group work 1930 toured us 3 times 1931wigman school opened in ny and run by hanya holm 1933 wigman remained in Germany after Nazis came to power 1936 comissioned to stage Olympic youth pageant 1942 sstaged her last concert and moved to Leipzig until end of ww11 relocated ot west berlin and reopened her school 19705 with rise of tanztheater her work was rediscovered c ted shawn d Rudolph von laban I ii iii iv v vi vii viii X 18791958 dancer choreographer and dancemovement theoretician one the founders of European modern dance raised the status of dance as an art form explorations into theory and practice of dance transformed the nature of dance scholarship established choreology discipline of dance analysis invented labanotation or kinetography laban a system of dance notation 1st person to develop community fance reformed roll of dance edu 1 Emphasized belief that dance should be available to everyone 1948 opened the art of movement studio in Manchester e Francois delsarte f Emilie Jacque dalcroze g Charac of german modern dance iv Natural movement Subjective amp expressionistic Owed much spirit and character of delsarte and Duncan Affected scienti c theories of dalcrose and laban v Enriched by art of st denis in prewar pd of European tours h Enrst Ludwig kirchner i German expressionist ii Painter and printmaker i Karoline sopgie marie wiegmann i Mary wigman studio pics 1 Martha set a fashion with respect to stage design and costuming by comissiionning a Leading artists and sculptors to design her sets i Introduced staging techniques symbolic props or sets ii Sculpturally designed props as an integrated part of movement design of the dance work 1 isamu noguchi designer of sets and props night journey sculpture 2 night journey a graham s version of Oedipus myth features queen jocasta as potagonist b quot the action of the dance turns upon that instant of her death when she relives her destiny sees with double insight the triumphant entry of Oedipus their meeting courtship marriage their yrs of intimacy which were darkly crossed by blind seer Tiresias until last truth burst from himquot may 3 1945 choreography Martha graham composer William schuman set design isamu noguchi 3 most dances one act 4 choreogpahic changes in 605 70s a dance dramas became abstractsatirical i ex Acrobats of god b impressive nancial support i lila Acheson Wallace foundation ii grants from national council on arts iii bethsabee bathsheva rothchild 19141999 donor amp most loyal patron nanced her schoolcompany c 1972 2 major decisions i not to perform again ii reconstruct her old works d at age of94 continued to direct her company for its new season at nyc center e may 2000 ron protas photographer and who was also heir to her estate suspended operatiosn due to a law suite against the company members i Legal dispute over ownership of graham s works ii Graham copany won dispute that choreography belonged ot parent organization Martha graham dance company 5 Description a Strong dynamic sharp movements a symmetry b rhme AGE OF INNOVATION IN BALLET Ballet in Europe reached a low at end of 19th century It had become stereotyped and lacking in inspiration Only in ussia had ballet retained its former grandeur under 3 russians who made radical reforms and restored the stature of serge diaghileff Michel Fokine choreographer of batrushka George Balanchine Serge Pavolvich Diaghilev 18711929 Member of Russian nobility Studied law music and was very interested in ballet and opera 1908 became impresario for Russian artists stagining exhibitions in st Petersburg and paris 1909 assembled leading Russian dancers and presented a season in paris during sumer vacation i resulting in the rebirth of ballet in a new 20th century form ii sophisticated controversial exotic collaborated w composers designers artists and choreographers company stood for new esthetic in dance never to be seen in Russia troupe troupe lasted until death in Venice on gusut 19 1929 1 2 3 peUpa 4 ballet a b c 5 a b c d e f g 6 ballet goom Tth russe 19161929 transformed tastes in art showcased unqieu forms of choreography set stage for new age of modern dance and neoclassicism dancers Karsavina pavlova bolm markova dolin DanHova painters bakst benois Picasso Chirico Cocteau composers stravinsky ravel glazounov proko eff Debussy satie and Milhaud 7 Michel Fokine goom Tth Born in st Petersburg 1889 entered imperial school of ballet famous dancerteacher w maryinsky ballet in st Petersburg disturbed by rigidity of Russian ballet which he criticized in his writings impressed by lsadora Duncan on her visit to russa 1909 joined Russian company to perform and choreograph in paris with serge diaghileff s Russian dancer 19091914 i les sylphides 1909 h j k ii rebird 1910 iii petrouchka 1911 iv le spetre de la rose 1911 v l apres midi d un faune 1912 1 the rite of spring 2 choreogrephay Fokine 3 music claude Debussy 4 design by leon bakst 1912 replaced by Nijinsky as choregrapher 1914 left to work with opera ballet throughout Europe and hten created his own company in nc 1914 manifesto was revealed in a letter lodnon times 1942 died in America 8 Michel Fokine Letter London times1914 a Q Outlined 5 major principles that should govern choreography and production of ballet thus making it fully expressive art that mirrored life New movement themes created for each dance suitable to subject matter not from repetition of readymade movements straight from classical tradition Dramatic action should be continuous and uninterrupted 1 act ballets Gesturepantomime should be abandoned Entire group of dancers used ot develop theme and not ornamental like corps de ballet Unity an equal cooperation of all arts music scenery dancing and costuming 9 Petrouchka F T39T39P39thfDPPFTP June 13 1911 Theatre du chatelet paris diaghilev s ballet russes Michel Fokinechoreography Igor Stravinsky composer Alexander benois scenery amp costumes Comic ballet in 4 scenes Shrovtide fair act 1 Patrouchkas room act 2 Moors room act 3 Grand carnival act 4 Characters i Petrouchka clownlike peasant like ii ballerina rigid bc of the turn of century iii magician iv moor playful strong U36 1 Tensile movements a b c d From props masks mobiles 1953 Choreography sound score lighting and costume design by alwin nikolais Premiere at henry street playhouse jan 26 1953 2 Merce Cunningham 19192000 a b c h Born in Centralia Washington April 16 Age of 12 began dance studies 193739 enrolled in Cornish school of ne arts in Seattle to become actor i Changed major to dance to study with bonnie bird ii Met john cage who became his lifelong partner and collaborator Mills college Oakland CA furthered his studies Accepted an invitation from Martha to join her company 193945 Studied at school of American ballet g 1942 gave own recital which marked the beginning of his collaboration with john cage 1953 established merce Cunningham dance company i dancers Carolyn brown viola farber remy charlip paul taylor ii musicians john cage and david tudor iii art directors Robert raushenberg and jasperjohns credo included in his 1st printed programs i quot dancing has continuity of its own that need not be dependent upon either the rise and fall of sound or the pitcha dn cry of words lts force of feeligns lies in the physical image eeting or static It can and does evoke all sorts of individual responses in the single spectatorquot quot its hard for many ppl to accept that dancing has nothing in common with music other than the element of time and the divison of timequot In his productions dancing music and stage design do not provide 1 another with mutual support instead they coexist Theory paralleled john cages belief that any sound can be a piece of music i Prepared piano piano with objects palced on keys to make different sounds ii Famous piece 4 33 iii john cage 1 Born in la 1912 80 in nyc 1992 invented prepared piano lnterscape april 6 2000 i Kenney center ii Cunningham dance company iii Backdrop by Robert Rauschenberg believed any space can be danced in and any pt in space can be of interest title of dancequotpoints in spacequot taken from einstein s assertion i there are no xed pts of view afforded by the medium points in space i 1986 ii choreographer merce Cunningham iii composer john cage s quotvoiceless essayquot iv video dance directed Elliot caplan and merce v sets William anastasi vi costumes Dove bradshaw Vll Paul taylor 1 quotI make dances because I believe in the power of contemporary dance its immediacy its potency its universality I make dancs because that s what ive spent many years teaching myself to do and its become what im best atquot 2 Choreographed over 120 dances 3 Early years a Born july 29 1930 in pitssburh b Father was physician mother managed a dining room in DC c Parents divorced when he was young d Studied painting at Syracuse Athletic and received a scholarship for swimming e Asked to sere as a partner in a program by the campus modern dance club i Sparked his interest in taking dance seriously f Told his coach he wanted to become a professional dancer i Coachgt understanding than frat bro 4 Young performer a 1953 studied atJulliard earn BS in dance under Martha hill b 195562performed w companies of graham and Cunningham while working on his own choreography c 154 jack and the beanstalklst professional work collaborated with rob Rauschenberg d 1956 3 epitaphs revied in 1960 to four i march 27 1956 ii music recording of old new Orleans funeral music iii designer rob Rauschenberg 1 depicted bizarre creatures encased in black costume e 1957 7 dances 1st full evening of his own choreography i entire program based on walking and running steps and simple changes of positions ii October 20 1957 iii Epic a dance where he remainedstanding for the whole dance iv Louis horst s review in dance observer was just a blank space with his initial at bottom of it v quotthey called me the naughty boy of modern dance early on Martha graham was the one who started that f 19580 george Balanchine created a solo especially for paul in Episodes 5 paul taylor dance company a 1966 established paul taylor dance foundation b c d e 6 philos 0390 00 7 contri a 00 1978 1 of 8 appearances on PBS tv s dance in America series 2003 best foreign dance company 200450 state tour to celebrate 50 yrs of company 201460 years of excellence ophy no rules just decisions style strong physicality and great movement invention ignores restrictive compositional theories developed diverse repertoire for his company very unpredictable and tries to make each work have a new form and style i quotStylized lies novelistic truths for the stage are what the medium demands I love tinkering with natural gesture and pedestrian movement to make them read from a distance and be recognizable as a revealing language that we all hav ein commonquot in my writing one of the things I try to do is to present questions rather than answers and I do that in my dances as well bquns isolated human postures in order to examine them out of their conventional context used heartbeats wind rushing and diff sounds for his accompaniment 1st person to introduce a dog on stage as a performer 1st modern dancer to re ect on sustained scale an approach to choreography which t the personalities of his ancers opened up the performing area by dispensing the hierarchy of center stage and acknowledged everyone as a wole quotI get my energy from being afraid to choreograph being afraid to failquot 8 esplanade DP00quot march 1 1975 music johann Sebastian bach costumesjohn rawlings lighting Jennifer tipton inspired by sight of a woman running for a bus From entirely ordinary movementswalk run fall jump taylor constructs a startingly virtuoso dance that speaks eloquently of the human conditionquot VIDEO i Fourth section ii Shade of pink dresses 9 promethean re 10 11 12 13 hrD goom DP00quot 3 00 a june 6 2002 music js bach orchestrated by leopold Stokowski set and costume santo loquasto lighting Jennifer tipton PF examines a Iaeidoscope of emotional colors in the human condition Central due depicts con ict and resolution following a cataclysmic event But if destruction has been at the root of this dance renewal of the spiritis its overriding message Banquet of vuture October 29 2005 Music Morton Feldman Costumes santo loquasto Lighting Jennifer tipton Paul taylor might be the only American choreographer that I would trust with the subject of war Late rlife 19740 retires from dancing after dramtic collapse on stage continues to create profound works 1993 creates taylor 2 i a second company ii linda hodes is director 1996 performs for the 1st time in the people s republic of china 1998 dancemaker appeared on PBS series quotAmerican mastersquot lm by matthew diamond nominated for an Oscar 2003 PF is claimed by NYTimes to be greatest work yet get nominated for britains Olivier award for best new dance in 2003 legacy known as 1 of the foremost American choreographers of the 20th and 21st century last of living choreographers who continues to create American modern dances knows how to please the eye and test the audience s powers of perception most dance critics and profesionals have the upmost respect for taylor continues to receive awards and choreograph i 2012 lifetime achievement award at bessies awards picture on phone lester Horton 19061953 1 intro an D Alvin Ailey 19311989 studied art and ballet and involved in theater activities in his home town of Indianapolis choreographic individualist on west coast American indian culture fascinated him 1928 he was invited ot caliornia to stage henry wadsworth longfellow s song of Hiawatha as a bohemian he kept hair long and bush and favored indian shirts huaraches directed plays and pageants and worked with michio ito 1932 ester Horton dancers were organized staged dances on Mexican Haitian American indian themes 1937 choreographed his own version of le sacre du printemps 1934 created his 1st saome another version was tityled face of violence which was forceful macabre 19340 association with bella lewitzky i dramatic performer and leading lady for 1 5yrs ii together they developed a systematized plan of teaching laying the groundwork of what came ot be known as quotHorton techniquequot modern dancers often had to work in commericial theater to earn appearing in stage shows and Hollywood lms Horton struggled ot make ends meet but survive by demonstrating that NY didn t have to be the only home for modern dance in America 2 Introduction a an 1960 alvin was 29 yr when he choreographed his signature work quotrevelationsquot which re ects his personal experiences of life in rural south born in texas 1931 and died at age of 58 in NYC on 1989 traveled ot LA at 12 discovered conert dance attending the performances of i ballet russe de monte carlo ii Katherine dunham dance company 1949 scholarship to study with Horton soon joined the company 1954 horton died and Alvin became director of ester Horton dance theater 1954 travel to NYC dance with his friend and partner Carmen de lavallade on broadway in quot hosue of gardensquot by Truman capote 3 Alvin ailey American dance theater 1958founded i carry out vision of a company dedicated to enriching the American modern dance heritage and preserve the uniqueness of afrian American cultural expenence 1960 created revelations 1965Judith Jamison joined him and performed cry solo dedicated to mom and other black American mothers 19892011 Judith became the artistic direction of the company she succeeded to keep his legacy alive 2011 robert battle at 37 became 3r artistic directing i growing up in liberty city Miami ii attended new world and laterJulliard iii 19942001 member of parsons dance company iv 1998 founded his own dance company 4 Alvin American dance center a d Promotes his legacy i His humanity and courageous stand for multiracial brotherhood which came from Horton 1969 1st school was in Brooklyn and then other locations in manhattan 2004 dance center on 55th st and 9th avenue which is 77000 sq feet i 12 climate controlled studios ii underground theater seats 255 extension classes offered to community i African ii Afro carribean 5 Revelations a b c Jan 31 1950 i 92nCI st YNYWCA in NYC alvins signature work to traditional black spiritual music live music sung by soloists and assisted by music masters guild of harlem branch of YMCA under direction of frank Thomas 7 dancers john derby Minnie marshall merle derby dorene Richardson jay etcher Nathaniel horne herman howell 3 sections i 1st Pilgrim of Sorrow ii 2nCI That Love MyJesus Gives Me iii 3rCI Move Members mOVE NY public library of performing arts lm i March 4 1962 ii Telecast on quotlamp unto my feetquot WCBSTV NY iii Performed by ailey truitte hall and Thelma hill 19241977 6 revelations 1960 choreographeralley music traditional black spiritual music originally live music sung by soloists and assisted by music master guild of harlem branch of YMCA goom December 4 1 Twyla tharp a Art is the only way to run away without leaving home b lntro i Born in Indiana move to cali ii 1963 graduated from barnard with a degree in art history iii 196365professional debut was with paul tayor ance company iv 1965 found her 1st company v 196570created 22 works c early workscontrolled living spaces i 1965tank dive 1 choreographytwyla tharp 2 music pop songs 3 performed hunter college small theater 4 her rst work and the rst of her linear patterns in 3 sections ii 1966 removes iii 1969 after suite iv 1969 medley d in addition to extensive choreography for her company she also choreographed joffrey ballet abt john curry Olympic medalist and Martha graham company i 1971eightjelly rolls 1 music jelly roll Morton ii 1971 bix pieces 1 one of her best known works 2 music bix beiderback joseph haydn thelonius monk 3 conveys her ideas and reactions in a variety of dance styles iii 1973 deuce cope 1 music beach boys 2 created for joffrey ballet company amp her modern dance company 3 backdrop lgraffiti iv 1976 push comes to shove 1 choreographed by Mikhail Baryshnikov amp ABT v 1981 catherine wheel 1 howed decay of family social and political life vi 1993 demeter and Persephone 1 Martha graham dance company 2 1st choreographer to work with that group who had no previous ties with it sue s leg 1975 i music classicjazz differentiates bwn commerce and art i quotcommercially when work I serve my audienceswhen lm working for my company and for myself im an artist and I do what I feel in necessaryquot lms i hair ragtime Amadeus white nights hines and Baryshnikov broadway i quotmovin outquot billy joel 2001 ii quot the times they are achangin bob Dylan 2005 1 failed piece 2 last a month iii quotcome y awayquot frank Sinatra 2010 4 week engagement i demonstrate versatitlity ii range of dance movements iii wore pointe shoes and sneakers stompers and squatters 1988 disbanded her modern dance company i major career decisions ii joined American baet theater as associate and resident choreographer iii billing shared with English choreographer Kenneth macmillan style i rich in musicality ii underlying structure iii casual loosejointed quickly shifting enery which often presents a non chaant meandering view of the dancer push comes ot shove i musicfranz joseph haydn and joseph amb ii performed by American baet theater iii soloist Mikhail Baryshnikov iv choreographytwyla tharp v
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