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PSY 426 Health Psychology Book Notes Chapter 1 An Overview of Psvchologv and Health What is Health IllnessWellness Continuum Has death at one end and optimal wellness at the other end Health a positive state of physical mental and social wellbeing not simply the absence of injury or disease that varies over time along a continuum Illness today and in the past Dietary diseasesresult from malnutrition Infectious diseases are acute illnesses caused by harmful matter or microorganisms such as bacteria or viruses in the body Native Americans were more susceptible to disease brought over by European settlers because they had less genetic variation and they lacked the natural immunity that develops after lengthy exposure to most diseases Consumption tuberculosis Chronic diseases degenerative illness such as heart disease cancer and stroke that develop or persist over a long period of time Reason why there is more of this now is because people are living to an old enough age where you are more likely to contract them Viewpoints from History Physiology Disease Processes and the Mind Early Cultures Trephination holes drilled into the skull to release evil spirits done when someone was ill Ancient Greece and Rome Hippocrates humoral theory of illness body contains four uids called humors MindB ody problem Middle Ages The church regarded human beings as a creature with a soul so they began a prohibition against dissection Sickness was seen as God s punishment for doing evil things Priests became involved in treating the ill The Renaissance and After Scholars became more humancentered than godcentered Descartes believed in mind and body separation but that they could communicate through the pineal gland Mid19th century field of surgery ourished after antiseptic techniques and anesthesia were introduced Biomedical model proposes that all diseases of physical disorders can be explained by disturbances in psychological processes Which result from injury biochemical imbalances bacterial or viral infection and the like Seeing a need Psychology s Role in Health Problems in the Healthcare System The Person in Health and Illness Lifestyle and Illness Risk factors characteristics or conditions that are associated With the development of a disease or injury Five behavioral risk factors Heart disease smoking high dietary cholesterol obesity Cancer smoking high alcohol use and diet Stroke smoking high dietary cholesterol and lack of exercise COPD chronic lung diseases smoking Accidents alcoholdrug use and not using seat belts Personality and Illness Personality a person s cognitive affective or behavioral tendencies that are fairly stable across time and situations People With high levels of positive emotions tend to live longer People With low levels of conscientiousness measured in childhood or adulthood are more likely to die at earlier ages How the role of psychology emerged Psychosomatic medicine studies the interplay between emotional life and bodily processes Psychosomatic Medicine Formed in the 1930s Psychosomatic mind and body are both involved Behavioral Medicine and Health Psychology Behavioral medicine its membership is interdisciplinary Behaviorism people s behaviors results from two types of learning classical conditioning in which a stimulus gains the ability to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits the response and operant conditioning in which behavior is changed because of its consequences reinforcement strengthens the behavior and punishment suppresses it Biofeedback a person s physiological processes are monitored by the person so that he or she can gain voluntary control over them Health Psychology To promote and maintain health To prevent and treat illness To identify and diagnostic correlates of health illness and related dysfunction To analyze and improve health care systems and health policy Health Psychology the profession Current Perspectives on Health and Illness The Biopsychosocial Perspective Expands the biomedical views by adding to biological factors connections to psychological and social factors Biological factors genetics preexisting medical conditions etc Psychological factors cognition emotion and motivation Social factors family friends community The concept of systems System is a dynamic entity With components that are continuously interrelated Life span and gender perspectives Lifespan perspective characteristics of a person are considered With respect to their prior development current level and future development Pediatrics and geriatrics Health and Psychology across cultures Sociocultural differences in health Sociocultural differences in health beliefs and behavior Research Methods Experiments Comparing experimental and nonexperimental methods in nonexperimental they either do not manipulate an independent variable or do not equate the groups Correlational Studies Correlation coefficient 1 to 1 Quasiexperimental studies Look like experiments but subjects were not randomly assigned Retrospective and prospective approaches Retro procedures that look back at histories of subjects Pro look forward in the lives of individuals Developmental Approaches Crosssectional approach different individuals of different ages observed at the same time Longitudinal approach repeated observation of the same individuals over a long period of time SingleSubject approaches Case study Genetics Research Genetic materials and transmission Twin and adoption studies Much of research on hereditary factors done on twins Adoption compares traits of children with both birth and adoption parents Linking specific genes with diseases Epigenetic Effects Epigenetics a process in which chemical structures within or around the DNA govern how when and how much a gene acts Which research method is best The most suitable method to answer the specific question is the best method Chapter 2 The Body s Physical Systems The Nervous System How the Nervous System Works Neurons specialized nerve cells Neurotransmitter chemicals that can excite the receiving neuron or inhibit it Glial cells service and maintain the neuron Myelin white fatty substance increases speed of nerve impulses Multiple sclerosis attacks myelin sheaths and severs nerves At birth brain is 25 of the weight it will be as an adult As you age there is a decline in the number of synapses which lead to a decline in the ability to send nerve impulses Central nervous system brain and spinal cord Brain forebrain cerebellum and the brainstem Forebrain telencephalon which consists of the cerebrum and the limbic system and the diencephalon which includes the thalamus and hypothalamus Cerebrum largest portion of the human brain includes the cerebral cortex controls complex motor and mental activity Left hemisphere reasoning spoken and written language and numerical skills Right hemisphere visual imagery emotions and the perception of patterns such as melodies Limbic System seems to be important in the expression of emotion Thalamus important in the ow of information in the nervous system Hypothalamus affects eating drinking and sexual activity Cerebellum coordinates our movement and maintains body balance Ataxia an injury to the cerebellum that causes a person s movements to become jerky and uncoordinated Brain Stem consists of midbrain pons reticular system and medulla Midbrain receives information from the visual and auditory systems and is especially important in muscle movement Pons Reticular System a network of neurons that extends from the bottom to the top of the brainstem and into the thalamus Medulla contains vital centers that control breathing heartbeat rate and the diameter of blood vessels The Spinal Cord a major neural pathway that transmits messages between the brain and various parts of the body Peripheral nervous system remaining network of neurons throughout the body Somatic nervous system sensory and motor functions Autonomic nervous system activates internal organs Sympathetic nervous system fight or ight Parasympathetic nervous system rest and digest Vagus nerve Endocrine System The Digestive System The Respiratory System The Cardiovascular System Blood circulates through arteries capillaries and veins in a closed system All transfers of oxygen nutrients and waste products occur through membranes separated by uidfilled spaces The Heart and the Blood Vessels Beats 100000 times a day Myocardium muscular part of the heart wall Arteries carry blood from the heart and veins carry blood to it Complete cycle takes one minute in resting person The Immune System