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This 10 page Reader was uploaded by Amanda Marie on Sunday February 1, 2015. The Reader belongs to POL237 at Purdue University taught by in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 96 views.
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What is Karma?
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Date Created: 02/01/15
STUDY GUIDE FOR FINAL EXAM 1 Essay Question The exam will have two 2 to three 3 essay question options 50 of the grade for the exam will be based on the essay question The following are examples of essay questions for the exam a Discuss the two stages of the Iraq War Then discuss the implications of both stages for the impact of RMA on warfare and US national security policy 0 No need for simultaneous groundair war Air first then if needed move to ground war 0 Air Campaign five weeks no ground war Two elements of air campaign 0 Decapitation operation instant thunder targets in Iraq used to attack military related industrytargets in Iraq 0 Denial theater air campaign targets in Kuwait prevent them from moving within or out of Kuwaitprevent resupply 0 Ground War Iraqi forces surprised by flank night visionGPS advantage but retreated and attacked along Highway of Death with devastating toll US victory after Iraqi retreat o RMA impact 0 new technologies work surveillancetargetingstealth via air power 0 more targets were hit in 24 hours in Iraq than all German targets hit in 19421943 0 Potential of parallel warfare Versions of Materialdestroy vs cripple Conservative war fighting doctrine with extremely advanced war fighting technology b Discuss the evolution of American military reforms from the end of Vietnam to the end through Kosovo and the First Gulf War What changes were made that led to the fruition of a Revolution in Military Affairs Evolution of Reforms technologicaldoctrinalorganizational changes 0 Technological reduced two problems fog of war and target acquisition 0 Doctrinal concept of parallel warfare without fronts and attack simultaneously a large number of targets over a large battle space 0 Organizational reduce size of military professionalism end of conscription and integration of servicesnotjust a collection of forces and weapons systems Altered conduct and character of warfare PostVietnam defense policy and RMA depends on reconstrike complexarchitecture speed of action precision attack Limits detection not possible andor destruction not critical or counterproductive ONLY WARS BEING REVOLUTIONIZED ARE THOSE INVOLVING THE UNITED STATES C Using examples from Afghanistan and the Iraq War what is an insurgency and how does one beat it What are the implications of this type of warfare for the Revolution in Military Affairs Insurgency a condition of revolt against a government that is less than an organized revolution and that is not recognized as belligerency Bagan in Jordanian Embassy followed by attacks on UN international NGOs US forces and Iraqi helping US Forces Attacks were coordinated with strategic goal in mind Goal of Insurgents draw out war impose costs undermine legitimacysupport for government POLITICAL CONTEST FOR SUPPORT NOT MILITARY CONTEST insert CIA agents and special forces operations make connections with Northern Alliance and local antitaliban tribal leaders Insurgency and Warfare EXAMPLE LIGHT FOOTPRINT Train Iraqi forces to battle insurgents effect reduced American exposure and casualties but increase in Iraqi casualties Due to Iraqi forces unable or unwilling to take on insurgents Insecurity and lack of services undermine govtoccupation legitimacy Iraqi forces not ready to deal with violence fighting had to be precise insurgents made connections to find enemy forces Revolution in Military Affairs and Insurgency Information dependentgive aid and intelligence Precison Air Powernew tech and weapons Fewer forces on ground Technology as a force multiplier d Why does it matter for understanding the future of warfare the impact of RMA and debates over a nation s defense policy if the future of conflict looks more like Afghanistan and Iraq or confrontations among great powers such as the United States China and Russia Understanding RMA Impact over nation s defense policy Major change in nature of warfare brought about by new technology Dramatic changes in military doctrine type of fighting who you can fight or trust Organizational conceptshow to organize fighting and intelligence Concept of parallel warfarewar without fronts and simultaneous attacks Information and precision dependent Revolutions do not revolutionize everythingie Middle East Technology compared to US Future looks more like AfghanIraq or Confrontations of Great Powers e Reduction in size more like AfghanIraq Integration of services remember outcome of conflictsuccess dependent on determined ability to destroy targets Based on the historical record between the end of the Vietnam War and the present how revolutionary is the Revolution in Military Affairs RMA rests technology on robust reconnaissancestrike complexarchitecture persistent surveillancereconnaissance information dominant communication dependent speed of action and efficient taskattack allocation precision attacknumber of targets included Not that revolutionaryonly wars revolutionized are those involving US ONLY MILITARY CAPABLE OF POSSESSING FULL RANGE OF TECHCAPABILITIES Most wars around world not revolutionary at all 2 Term Identification The exam will have 10 to 20 options for term identifications In a very short paragraph students will identify and explain the importance of five 5 Term IDs UAV unmanned Aerial Vehicle sustained in flight by aerodynamic lift over most of flight path without an onboard crew can fly autonomously or piloted remotely expendable or recoverable in areas of intelligence surveillancerecon preferred for missions too dull dirty or dangerous reduction in casualties increase in information can also be used on rescue missions to find best method to do so may be JDAMS Joint Direct Action Munition Holy Grail cheap accurate all weather used from a distance Cost 17000 convert cheap gravity bomb Accuracy outperforms laser guided or satellite guided cruise missiles vast majority of weapons would be precision delivered via air power Kosovo importanceUsed during KosovoSerbian 2 objectives of insurgents 1 2 draw out the war impose costs to erode political will of opponents US in this case undermine legitimacysupport for government occupy forces by demonstrating failure of government to provide basic security and essential services Define insurgency o armed rebellion against a constituted authority 0 can be fought as a counterinsurgency warfare o a condition of revolt against a government that is less than an organized revolution and that is not recognized as belligerency o Bagan in Jordanian Embassy followd by attacks on UN international NGOs US forces and Iraqi helping US Forces Attacks were coordinated with strategic goal in mind Goal of Insurgents draw out war impose costs undermine legitimacysupport for government 0 POLITICAL CONTEST FOR SUPPORT NOT MILITARY CONTEST 3 problems with invading Afghanistan 1 location and terrain 2 winter approaching 3 not really friendly neighbors 4 no contingency plan for invasion 3 weapons and technologies associated with RMA 3 revolutions that make up RMA o Technological reduced two problems fog of war and target acquisition 0 Doctrinal concept of parallel warfare without fronts and attack simultaneously a large number of targets over a large battle space 0 Organizational reduce size of military professionalism end of conscription and integration of servicesnotjust a collection of forces and weapons systems 0 Altered conduct and character of warfare o PostVietnam defense policy and RMA depends on reconstrike complexarchitecture speed of action precision attack 0 all volunteer force Parallel warfare application of combat power simultaneously as strategic operational and tactical levels of war are to effect paralysis on the enemy s ability to function can reduce the time and manpower invested in conflict fewer troopsmore precision attacks applied during air campaign in Desert Storm not widely known under that name at the time in Gulf War airpower simultaneously attacked strategic targets such as Saddam Hussein s chemical weapons factories operational targets of command and control nodes and tactical targets such as aircraft shelters and tanks importance if successful it is that a force can significantly degrade or paralyze an opponent s ability to fight with reduced or no risk to friendly forces allows force to isolate enemy elements and render them ineffective SIMULTANEOUSLY destroying enemy capability to continue to fight analogy starfish cuf off a leg does not kill it destroy center starfish dies cutoff legs and continue to cut off legs each time they attempt to grow back and starfish dies highway of death refers to a sixlane highway between Kuwait and Iraq officially known as Highway 80 American and British forces used in initial stages of 2003 invasion of Iraq death to unknown and controversial engagement was not publicly known until two weeks later Organski s four sets of nations in the world 1 Powerful and satisfiedmost powerful United States Britain France West Germany and Japan More satisfied with existing international order play peacekeepers Powerful and dissatisfiedchallengers who seek to upset the existing international order and replace with a new order in its place Trouble expected here Weak and satisfiedmiddle and small powers many accepted existing international order or have it imposed upon them and now accept it without question Canada Australia Argentina Belgium NonNay Switzerland South Korea Jamaica and Liberia No trouble from these nations If they did desire to make changes upsetting other they would lack the power to do so Weak and dissatisfied many in Asia and Africa today resent current international order Stir up ruckus in their corner Only dangerous if the join up with a major challenger Organski s power transition pyramid Dominant Nationpowerful and satisfied Great Powerspowerful and satisfied or unsatisfied challengers and compliances Middle Powersweak and satisfied Sma Powersweak and satisfied or unsatisfied Dependenciesthey provide spoils Identify and explain the two elements of the Desert Storm Air campaign Decapitation operation instant thunder targets in Iraq used to attack military related industrytargets in Iraq Denial theater air campaign targets in Kuwait prevent them from moving within or out of Kuwaitprevent resupply fog of war and RMA information technologies that radically improve knowledge of the battlespace eliminate no significantly reduce yes uncertainty in situational awareness experienced by participants in military operations regarding one39s own capability adversary capability and adversary intent during an engagement operation or campaign enemies resort to irregular warfare rather than fight on US terms change in how we fight the enemy difficulty relaying information to front line forces on the move in inhospitable settings Force multiplier 0 technology called for fewer troops fewer weapons fewer munitions have more devastating effect yet had 650000 troops on the ground new weapons but still thinking in old ways about waging war Mogadishu Somalia 1993 Blackhawk Down humanitarian missionwar involvement embarrassing defeat and withdrawl what did we get out of iturban battle space vs desert non traditional military opponent vs military reduces utility of technical intelligence asssets Identify 3 ethnicsectarian groups in Iraq Role of air power during the war in Kosovo NATO increasing critical of Serbian actions pressure builds for action but no genocide desire to stop but aversion to ground war and casualties solution aerial bombing priority minimize casualties each NATO country has veto on target selection military targets Serbian troops in Kosovo bases and supplies Economic and political targets inconvenience not kill Serb people and political leaders No NATO casualties500 civilian casualties Not very effectiveweather and terrain problems mingling among civilians planes fly high to avoid defenses and NATO casualties One Percent Doctrine Written by journalist Ron Suskind about America s hunt for terrorists since September 11th 2001 assessses ways in which American counterterrorism agencies arw working to combat terrorist groups Based on political goals rather than geopolitical realities there s a 1 chance that Pakistani scientists are helping AlQeda build or develop nuclear weapons and we have to treat it as a certainty in terms of our response It s not about analysis it s about our response The Notables those who talk to us about the threat of terrorismBush Cheney Condoleezza Rice The Invisibles those who are fighting the terrorists CIA agents FBI agents and all the foot soldiers Objective Peach Largest Iraqi counterattack of warApril 3 near Euphrates River Bridge outside Baghdad US force of 1000 with 30 tanks and 14 Bradley Fighting vehicles thought they were going to encounter one Iraqi brigade but attacked by THREE Iraqi Brigades 10000 soldiers 30 tanks 80 armored personnel carriers from 3 directions light footprint strategy Train Iraqi forces to battle isurgents effect reduced American exposure and casualties but increase in Iraqi casualties Due to Iraqi forces unable or unwilling to take on insurgents Insecurity and lack of services undermine govtoccupation legitimacy Iraqi forces not ready to deal with violence fighting had to be precise insurgents made connections to find enemy forces 3 limitations on RMA 1 defenseweapons driven by focus on particular type of enemy and threatwhat about different type of enemywarmission Remember detection not possible andor destruction not critical or counter productive 2 Regarded as an AMERICAN revolutiononly wars revolutionized are those involving US possessing full range of technology and capabilitiesconcept of emulation where other countries see what works and copy no revolution of their own 3 counter RMA lose first adopter s advantage by counter rather than emulation enemies resorting to irregular warfare Attack weak link in reconnaissancestrike architecture Big War vs Small War Camps 0 Big War Campnostalgic for a world long gone prepared to fight enemies that do not exist 0 Small War Campover Iearns lessons of post 2003 Iraq and mistakes minor irritants for major threats