Human Bio class notes week of 04.04
Human Bio class notes week of 04.04 BSC 2023
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eleonora Sacks on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2023 at Florida International University taught by Paul Sharp in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
Class Notes: week of 04.02 4/9/16 12:25 PM Endocrine System: (cont.) • Hypothalamus: master gland because it has control over the other glands in the body • Hormone: protein or steroid produced by a cell that affects a different cell (target organ). Only cells with receptors for a particular hormone can respond to it (like the cells have a lock that can only be accessed by a certain key which is a certain hormone). Hormones communicate through chemical signals. They leave the capillaries through leakage. Types of hormones: 1. Peptide hormone: o Hormones that are peptides, proteins or modified amino acids. o They work super fast but are not long lasting. EG: adrenaline (epinephrine) o They bind to receptors on the plasma membrane (not allowed inside the cell) o 1st messenger: hormone bound to plasma membrane (doesn't enter cell) o 2nd messenger: mediates intracellular response o Class example: boys night, the guys need a pizza cutter so one of them calls his girlfriend to bring it to them, she does but they don't let her come in because she is a girl and they are in a boys only night. (the girlfriend is the 1st messenger and the pizza cutter is the 2nd messenger). 2. Steroid hormone: o Hormones derived from cholesterol. EG: testosterone (puberty) o They enter cell via plasma membrane o Goes into the nucleus and binds to a receptor, and the receptor knows where to put it into the nitrogenous bases, as a result there's more production of mRNA of a certain gene. o They act more slowly, but last longer o Only produced by adrenal cortex, ovaries and testes. o Class example: the girlfriend got mad because she wasn't allowed in. So the boyfriend has to redeem himself and organizes her a night with her friends and offers to make them a pizza from scratch. • Pheromones: chemical signal released by an organism that affects the metabolism or influences the behavior of another individual of the same species. How animals of the same species recognize themselves (they can't talk with each other so this is how they find the right mate). Through pheromones, women can sync their menstrual cycles. • Negative feedback: mechanism of homeostatic response in which a stimulus initiates reactions that reduce the stimulus (what the body does to maintain homeostasis) EG: body temp regulation (through sweating when hot or shaking when cold for example). • • • 4/9/16 12:25 PM • Positive feedback: the goal is to get a job done even if it means getting out of homeostasis. The stimulus initiates reactions that lead to an increase in the stimulus. For example: lactation (when the baby is suckling, more milk is released) and child birth (when more pressure is put on the cervix, more oxytocin is released which causes more contractions that cause the vagina to dilate), blood clots, orgasms. • • Hypothalamus: "master gland" • Link between the nervous and endocrine systems. • Regulates internal environment of the body. • Controls secretions of the anterior pituitary, which controls secretions of the thyroid, adrenal cortex and gonads. • Produces 2 hormones stores and secreted by the posterior pituitary: o Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): stimulates kidneys to reabsorb more water reducing urine volume. (during dehydration) o Oxytocin: stimulates contraction of the uterus during childbirth and ejection of milk during nursing. • Pituitary gland: connected to hypothalamus, consists of anterior and posterior pituitary. The anterior produces: (think of All Friendly Girls Like To Meet People) 1. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce cortisol 2. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): stimulates ovarian follicle production in females and sperm production in males 3. Growth hormone (GH): promotes skeletal and muscular growth 4. Luteinizing hormone (LH): aids maturation of cells in the ovary, triggers ovulation. Causes interstitial cells of testes to produce testosterone. 5. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH): regulates secretion of thyroid hormones 6. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH): stimulates production and release of melanin (skin pigment) 7. Prolactin (PRL): stimulates breasts to produce milk.