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Bio 1442 week 1 notes for exam 3

by: Kristin O'Flaherty

Bio 1442 week 1 notes for exam 3 BIOL 1442

Marketplace > University of Texas at Arlington > Biology > BIOL 1442 > Bio 1442 week 1 notes for exam 3
Kristin O'Flaherty
GPA 3.0

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starts with ch 31; exam 3 notes
Evolution and Ecology
Dr. Roelke
Class Notes
biology; bio 1442; Roelke; uta; university of texas at arlington;
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristin O'Flaherty on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1442 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Roelke in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Evolution and Ecology in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 04/06/16
Week 1 Bio Notes  CH 31: FUNGI  Fungi are diverse and widespread  They are essential for the well­being of most terrestrial ecosystems because they break  down organic material and recycle vital nutrients  About 100,000 species of fungi have been described  It is estimated there are actually 1.5 million species of fungi  Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption  Fungi exhibit diverse lifestyles o Decomposers o Parasites o Mutualists  Most common body structures are multicellular filaments and single cells (yeasts)  Some species grow as either filaments or yeasts; others grow as both  Morphology of multicellular fungi enhances their ability to absorb nutrients  Fungi consist of mycelia, networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption  A mycelium’s structure maximizes its surface­to­volume ratio  Fungal cell walls contain chitin  Most fungi have hyphae divided into cells by septa  Coenocytic fungi lack septa  Some fungi have specialized hyphae called haustoria that allow them to penetrate the  tissues of their host  Mycorrhizae are mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots  Ectomycorrhizal fungi for sheaths of hyphae over a root  Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi extend hyphae through the cell walls of root cells and into  tubes formed by invagination of the root cell membrane  Fungi can produce spores from different types of life cycles  Fungi propagate themselves by producing vast numbers of spores, either sexually or  asexually  Fungi use sexual signaling molecules called pheromones to communicate their mating  type  Plasmogamy is the union of cytoplasm from two parent mycelia  In most fungi, the haploid nuclei from each parent do not fuse right away; they coexist in  the mycelium called a heterokaryon  In some fungi, the haploid nuclei pair off two to a cell; such a mycelium is said to be  dikaryotic  Hours days or even centuries may pass before the occurrence of karyogamy, nuclear  fusion  Become diploid  Produce haploid cells  Produces genetic variation  Molds produce haploid spores by mitosis and form visible mycelia  Yeasts can reproduce asexually   Yeasts reproduce asexually by simple cell division and the pinching of “bud cells” from a parent cell  Some fungi can grow yeasts and as filamentous mycelia  Deuteromycetes are fungi that don't have a sexual stage  Fungi are most closely related to unicellular nucleariids  Animals are most closely related to unicellular choanoflagellates  This suggests that multicellularity arose separately in animals and fungi  The oldest undisputed fossils of fungi are only about 460 million years old (animals are  about 700 million years old)  Chytrids are responsible for amphibian deaths worldwide  Fungi were among the earliest colonizers of land  Fossil evidence indicates fungi form mutualistic relationships with early land plants  Genomic analysis indicates genes involved in mycorrhizal formation, sym genes, were  likely present in the common ancestor to land plants 3/30  Annelids are coelomates with bodies composed of a series fused rings  The phylum Annelida was traditionally divided into three clades o Polychaeta o Oligochaeta o Hirun  Errantians o Mobile marine things o Paddle­like structures  Sedentarians o Less mobile  Earthworms  Ecdysozoans  Nematodes are the most abundant multicellular animal on Earth  Some species of nematodes are parasites  Arthropods o ⅔ of every species known are arthropods o Hox genes  arthropods=swiss army knife o Chelicerates  Water scorpions, horseshoe crabs, spiders, dust mites o Myriapods  Millipedes and centipedes  Centipedes are carnivores o Pancrustacea  Crustaceans live in the water  Isopods (roley poleys)  Krill are not shrimp  Barnacles  Hexapods ­insects  Incomplete metamorphosis  Complete metamorphosis  Separate males and females o Echinoderms­starfish  Water vascular system  Radial symmetry with multiples of 5 o Holothuroidea: sea cucumbers o Chordata


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