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In class notes 1/27

by: Cassandra Flores

In class notes 1/27 GEO 101

Cassandra Flores
GPA 3.0
Dynamic Earth

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About this Document

Dynamic Earth
One Day of Notes
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Popular in Dynamic Earth

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This 6 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Cassandra Flores on Sunday February 1, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to GEO 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Keene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Dynamic Earth in Geology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/01/15
Lecture 127 How do we know where plate boundaries are Earthquakes 215b 0 Follow plate boundary lines Bounda es 3 major types 0 Divergent boundary 2 plates move apart Subtypes continental rift mid ocean ridge 0 Convergent boundary 2 plates move towards one another Subtypes subduction zones continental bounda es o Transform boundary 2 plates slide past each other Mostly oceanocean sometimes continentcontinent Subtypes in detail 0 MidOcean Ridge Div sub Underwater volcanic mountain ridge with large amounts of sea oor spreading Cooling created topography 0 Continental Rift Div sub Divergent boundary within continent Currently happening in Africa along red sea and Arabian peninsula Heat from the asthenosphere forces crust to melt and rise Then volcanoes begin to form 0 Subduction zones Conv Sub Reason for earthquakes at plate boundaries At continentaloceanic oceanic always sinks At oceanocean older crust always sinks Essentially denser crust always sinks CRUST NEVER SUBDUCTS Far too light Deep earthquakes bc of cracking of subducted plate as it sinks Stays rigid for a long time and cracks as it sinks before melting Crackingseismic activity w continentalocean water goes down with crust Water acts as a volatile think squirting lighter uid on a re Lowers melting temperature of rock Easier to melt Oceanocean subduction Same as contocean Creates island volcanoes o Collision Conv Sub Continentcontinent interaction Cont crust cannot sink Too buoyant Some old oceanic crust sinks during collision Rest has nowhere to go Leads to increase in elevation Crumple together and form mountain ranges Himalayas are an ex Of this 0 Transform No subtypes Fracture zones Activetransform boundaries lnactiveno longer a boundary Has become part of plate ContCont interaction Much more rare Ex San Andreas Fault Other Features Triple junctions Where 3 plates intersect Hot Spots Volcanic activity that isn39t on a plate boundary 0 Hawaii and Emperor Seamount island chains 0 Spot doesn39t move Plate moves around spot Big Picture Big Picture 0 What makes plates move Heat Ridge push Slab pull gravity In uence of convection disputed Chemistry Review box 31 Element 0 Simplest chemical substance Can39t be broken down any further 0 All matter made of elements Atoms o Smallest unit of an element 0 Composed of Proton Neutron Live together in nucleus Electron Floats around nucleus Other subatomic particles not necessary knowledge for this course of protons element atomic of electrons charge ion Neutrons Protons isotope atomic weight Extra neutrons are possible and have a chance of making an element unstable 2 kinds of isotopes O O O O Stable Unstable Radioactive Not necessarily dangerous How do atoms join together Chemical bonds 0 Attractive force that holds 2 or more atoms together Covalent Bond Atoms share electrons EX H20 Extremely strong bond type lonic Bond Transfers of electron One atom becomes positive One atom becomes negative They are now attracted to each other Not as strong as covalent Metallic Bond Sharing a sea of electrons Easily shaped Good conductor Usually occurs in metallic elements hence name Van der Waals Force NOT technically a bond Weak charge in neutral atom or molecule Caused by the way electronsatoms group to one side of a nucleusmolecule Leads to a slight charge within the atommolecule Attracts it to similar particles H20 glass of water 0 Molecule when atoms are bonded together by any of these forces Minerals 5 main characteristics Naturally occurring Solid Inorganic not alive De nable chemical composition Chemical formula Recipe of element relative amounts Speci c crystalline structure Atoms are in a xed pattern 0 000 0 Identifying Minerals Can39t rely on composition alone 0 Use crystalline structure Ex Graphite and diamond have same chemical compound How do minerals form O O O O 0 Solid of a melt Freezing Many minerals created out of one melt Precipitation from solution Atomsmolecules in liquid come out of a solid Rock candy experiment example Solid State Diffusion Atoms moving in a nonmelted solid New mineral from old Pressure and heat Biomineralization Organism creates precip From a solution Ex Seashells and human bone Fumaloric mineralization Not as common Crystallization from a vapor Happens in volcanoes and geysers Ex Sulfur that forms from volcano steam


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