Genetics Week 12
Genetics Week 12 BIOL/PBIO 3333
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauran Notetaker on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL/PBIO 3333 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Jim Thompson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
April 4, 2016 X. Changes in Structure and Number B. Changes in Number 1. Euploidy vs. Aneuploidy 2. Non-disjunction 3. Polyploidy XI. Bacterial and Viral Genetics A. remember: prototrophs and auxotrophs B. Methods of Replication 1. Sigma mode 2. Theta mode C. DNA Transfer in Bacteria 1. F+, F-, Hfr, and F^t 2. Conjunction 3. Transformation 4. Transduction 5. F-duction or sex-duction XII. Extranuclear inheritance Exam #3 Friday Term Essay due Monday April 11th (A week from today) Turner syndrome X O 2n = 45 monosomic for the X chromosome Etiology: usually from nondisjunction in the father Barr Bodies a means for dosage compensation To “equalize” the number of active X chromosomes in males and females Kleinfelters Syndrome XXXXY XXY “theta mode” of replication Transformation Conjunction The F factor - Conjunction by a specialized plasmid in the donor cell Hfr = High frequency recombination F-factor (plasmid) physically incorporated by crossing over April 6, 2016 X. Changes in Structure and Number B. Changes in Number 1. Euploidy vs. Aneuploidy 2. Non-disjunction 3. Polyploidy XI. Bacterial and Viral Genetics A. remember: prototrophs and auxotrophs B. Methods of Replication 1. Sigma mode 2. Theta mode C. DNA Transfer in Bacteria 1. F+, F-, Hfr, and F^t 2. Conjunction 3. Transformation 4. Transduction 5. F-duction or sex-duction (XII. Extranuclear inheritance) Participation #6 of 8 Extranuclear inheritance will not be on the exam Transformation - lysis of donor cell releases DNA into environment the Donor DNA is taken up by the recipient cell Conjugation - Donor DNA is transferred directly through a connecting tube. Contact and transfer are promoted by a specialized plasmid in the donor cell The specialized plasmid in the donor cell is The F factor Transduction - Bacteriophage infects the donor cell lysis of donor cell. Donor DNA is packaged in released bacteriophage. Donor DNA is transferred when phage particle infects recipient cell. F’ (“F-prime”) factor is an F factor that been excised from the Hfr chromosome but now carries a section of the bacterial chromosome with it Transduction = transfer of bacterial DNA from one cell (donor) to another by way of a virus Specialized transduction: restricted to certain genes Generalized transduction: some viruses can insert anywhere Co-transduction - carriage of two or more bacterial genes by a virus Co-transformation - Co-sex-duction - carriage of genes to a cell by an F factor Never B+ and E+ genes transferred together without C+ and D+ with them Departure from Diploidy in Plants Polyploid species: number of complete chromosome sets > 2 -auto(“self”)polyploids: contain multiples of the same chromosome set (same species) allo(“other”)polyploids: contain multiples of different chromosome sets (different species) Amphidiploids = nonidentical chromosome sets are doubled in allopolyploid April 8, 2016 Exam III
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