Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
Thinking, Language, and Intelligence Psych 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke McGloon on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at James Madison University taught by Dr. David Daniel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
Psych 101 Chapter 9 Notes Thinking, Language, and Intelligence Psychologists who study cognition focus on the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating information (one of these is forming concepts) Ex. the concept chair: a baby’s high chair, a reclining chair, a dentist’s chair, etc. Concepts simplify our thinking—without them we’d need a name for every person, event, object, and idea Concepts such as ball and anger give us much info with little cognitive effort Form our concepts by developing a prototype Once we place an item in a category, our memory of it later shifts toward the category prototype (experiment with Belgian students who viewed faces, Caucasian and male) Move away from our prototypes, and category boundaries may blur When things don’t match our prototype, we are slower to recognize it as that (when symptoms don’t fit one of our disease prototypes, we are slow to perceive an illness—people whose heart attack symptoms don’t match their heart attack prototype they may not seek help) (when behavior does not fit our discrimination prototypes, we often fail to see prejudice) Concepts speed and guide our thinking (but they don’t always make us wise) Problem Solving (one tribute to our rationality is our problem-solving skill) Brain activity: frontal lobes are active (focusing attention) and burst of activity in the right temporal lobe (just above the ear) **Once we incorrectly represent a problem, it’s hard to restructure how we approach it (fixation- inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective) Example of fixation: mental set- our tendency to approach a problem with the mind-set of what has worked for us previously—a mental set predisposes how we think, which can be an obstacle to problem solving 4 steps to problem solving 1) Understanding the problem (one of the hardest steps) 2) How could I solve this problem? 3) Test the hypothesis 4) Check the results (and repeat if necessary) Problem solving methods: (also how people think about life) Algorithm: exact step by step process that you do that will always lead to a solution (repetitive) (exhaustive trial and error) (guaranteed results) Ex. math, looking for car keys (every possible (not probable) place they could be) **We seldom take the time and effort to reason systematically—we just follow our intuition (our fast, automatic, unreasoned feelings and thoughts) Heuristics: short cut/rule of thumb /intuitive judgments (mental or physical)— easier to do than learning things the hard way, efficiencies (allows people to be efficient with time and effort) (people are inherently lazy)—used a lot because most problems in life are not like math—“I’m a _____ learner”, “I’m not a good tester”(this makes us feel better and helps our self esteem, but not true) (PEOPLE DON”T WANT TO THINK) Examples: Priming: talk to you about something Nudge: small feature of environment that captures are attention and changes our behavior Overconfidence: we assume we’re good at everything (the harder is it, the more confident we tend to be—underconfident about our answers to easy questions) (way to solve this: GET GOOD FEEDBACK—we don’t like feedback that tells us we’re wrong, but it’s better for us) Premature commitment to a hypothesis: (there are many other reasons you could be healthy but already bought the idea that its the drug) Confirmation bias: seeking information that agrees with our hypothesis (people prefer belief-confirming info) Belief perseverance: ignoring evidence that you’re wrong/that’s contrary to your beliefs Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic st Anchor: 1 offer—everyone negotiates around that #/sticker price (anything below, you think you got a deal) Functional fixedness: the tendency to adhere to a single approach to a problem or a single _____ (this is for _____, this is for ______) (we get stuck on the functions) Availability heuristic: the more you hear about it—assuming that how easily one can remember examples of an event is an indicator of how common that event actually is (easier it is to remember, most likely to think its true) (anything that makes information “pop” in the mind-it’s vividness, recency, or distinctiveness can make it seem commonplace) (**these can reshape our impression of whole things/groups-9/11) (makes us fear the wrong things-readily available images of extremely rare events) Base-rate info: the data about the frequency or probability of a given item or event (can be deceiving, examples from class w/ middle aged being a bigger group than politicians) Sunk-cost effect: more effort/money you put into it, the more likely you are to go through with it Insight: when pieces suddenly fall together—an abrupt, true-seeming, and often satisfying solution (researchers have identified brain activity associated with sudden flashes of insight) Framing: way an issue is presented, way you say stuff (HUGE on getting your way/what you want) (used a lot in political science) (“BOGO-buy one get one 50% off”) (“suffer from acne” rather than “have acne”) Examples: (one sounds better one sounds worse, but same thing…) border security (dems don’t want to piss off minorities) vs. illegal immigration (repub) the 1% (the rich) (dem) vs. job creators (repub) spending (repub) vs. investing in infrastructure (dem) tax responsiblity (cut) vs. tax relief pro-choice vs. pro-abortion clean skies act vs. relaxed standards act clear cutting initiative vs. healthy forests initiative affordable care act vs. Obama care caress vs. grope Thinking Creatively Creativity: the ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable requires a different kind of thinking supported by a certain level of aptitude (ability to learn) those who score exceptionally high in quantitative aptitude as 13-year-olds are more likely to obtain graduate science and math degrees and create published or patented work Convergent thinking: aptitude tests, demand a single correct answer (SAT) Divergent thinking: creativity tests, require expansive thinking Creativity has five components: 1) Expertise (a well developed base of knowledge) 2) Imaginative thinking skills (ability to see things in novel ways, recognize patterns, and make connections—explore) 3) A venturesome personality: seeks new experiences, tolerates ambiguity and risk, and perseveres in overcoming obstacles 4) Intrinsic motivation (being driven more by interest, satisfaction, and challenge than by external pressures—creative people focus less on extrinsic motivators (meeting deadlines, impressing people, or making money) and more on the pleasure and stimulation of the work itself) 5) A creative environment (sparks, supports, and refines ideas—creativity- fostering environments support innovation, team building, communication, and contemplation) Animals - Are smarter than we often realize - Animal consciousness and intelligence can be inferred from their behavior Learning Types of Tests (3 types): Achievement: testing on where you’re at—what do you know right now? (no judgment on future) (SAT) Aptitude: measurement on potential (very few) (what colleges use SAT’s as) Personality tests: (psychometric) (most common: IQ) No ones agrees upon what intelligence means—no agreed definition (what you learned? potential?) Measuring intelligence Physical attributes (measuring noses) (mental impairment—down syndrome) Mental processing speed (fast you can think, smarter you are) Physical response time (how long it takes from eye to hand—neural impulse) Is it one thing (unified capacity/”g”) a number of highly correlated characters OR is it a number of independent/uncorrelated traits Theories of intelligence: Unified Intelligence not above surface but correlated together (IQ score) (beneath the surface) Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence o Book smart (componential) (analytical) Efficient info processing Abstract thinking Planning solutions Coding/representing info o Creativity (experiential) Ability to combine unrelated facts Novel problems/settings o Street smart (contextual) (practical) Adaptation Learning environment Adapt environment to maximize strengths and minimize/compensate one’s weaknesses Thrive in context Independent Independent traits not related to each other Some people excel at some things and not others Brain damage (lose ability to do one thing but everything else stays the same Hurts learning when you define yourself as one type (of learner) Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences o Logical-mathematical o Linguistic (good w/ words) o Musical o Spatial (seeing how things are going to be, navigation a head) o Athletic (dancing) o Bodily-kinesthetic o Inter-personal (therapist, salesperson) o Intra-personal (self-knowledge) o Naturalistic (hunter) Language: ability to have language (capacity for) (language-we speak) Giving sounds meaning/associating sounds to something…and then using them 4 criteria: 1) Learning abstract set of symbols 2) Use the abstract symbols 3) Learning complex rules of grammar 4) Generate an endless # of meaningful sentences (new/novel sentences) (parrots can’t) Theories of Language Acquisition: Behaviorist: - Skinner - Learning of specific verbal responses by reinforcement Nativist: - Chomsky - Learning the rules of language - Language Acquisition Device (LAD) - Predisposed to learn language*** Novel: saying new things, things you’ve never heard Timeline of Language: Cooing and random vocalization (mostly vowels)-6-8 weeks Distinct babbling (consonants)-6-10 months Jargon (babbling with speech inflections)-8-10 months Holophrastic speech (one word sentences)-12-15 months Telegraphic speech (2 word sentences)-24 months Simple/grammatically uneven sentences-30 months Large (1000 word) vocabulary and better sentences-3 years Close to adult facility speech- 4 years Such a FAST change at the end (reinforcement should be steady) Productive language: language you produce Receptive language: language you understand, receive