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Digestive System Notes (Part )

by: Tia Spears

Digestive System Notes (Part ) Biol 2120

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > Biol 2120 > Digestive System Notes Part
Tia Spears
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

these notes cover the digestive system (part )
Human Anatomy & Physiology 2
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tia Spears on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2120 at Georgia State University taught by Safer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 2 in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 04/06/16
Digestive System  Reason for eating: o To obtain the energy we need to stay alive o To get the raw materials required for building all of our tissues and stuff  Human digestion occurs in 6 main steps: 1. Ingestion 2. Propulsion 3. Mechanical breakdown 4. Chemical digestion 5. Absorption 6. Defecation  The Digestive system deconstructs the food the body obtains through a mechanical and chemical process. o Both the mechanical and chemical process starts in the mouth and continue through the stomach and small/ large intestines.  Enzymes – proteins that living things use as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions o Enzymes break down the macromolecules in food into amino acids (building blocks)  4 Main Kinds of Macromolecules: 1. Lipids 2. Carbohydrates 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids - Each possess its own density of chemical potential energy, or caloric value - These biological molecules (macromolecules) are polymers: sequences of smaller molecules  The body trafficks in individual polymer components which is called monomers o 4 Main Kinds of Monomers: 1. Fatty acids 2. Sugars 3. Amino acids 4. Nucleotides  Gastrointestinal tract (Alimentary canal) o Mouth to anus o Stratified squamous and columnar epithelial cells lines tract as a barrier  A barrier that allows for the selective movement of materials between them  Organs of the digestive system: o Pharynx o Mouth o Esophagus o Stomach o Small Intestines o Large Intestines  In the mouth, esophagus, as well as the anus have stratified squamous epithelial tissue.  From the stomach down, the inner GI tract is lined with simple columnar epithelial cells. o The cells secrete mucus, absorb, and process various nutrients. o Layers:  Mucosal layer – inner layer that supplies blood with several connective tissues:  Epithelium  Lamina propria  Muscularis mucosae  Submucosal layer – made of loose areolar connective tissue.  Helps provide the elasticity and contains more blood vessels.  Muscularis externa layer – muscles here are responsible for moving food through the tube  Smooth muscle  Serosa  Accessory digestive organs: o Teeth o Tongue o Gallbladder o Salivary glands o Liver o Pancreas - Secrete various enzymes that help take apart food.


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