Early Modern Women's Writing
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I 39 k gt w p ri n g 2 014 Comparative Literature Early Modern Women s Writing COLT 1813N S01 Course packet sales are nonrefundable All sales final j f A e m ESSENTIAL STYLE SHEET FOR COURSEWORK Here are some minimal guidelines for the format of all your Written work in our course For more detailed guidelines see the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers and or visit htt owlen lish urdueedu owl resource 675 1 FYI be sure to see https owlenglishpurdueedu owl resource 7473 02 for guidelines on intext citation of Web sources and https owlenglishpurdueedu owl resource 747 08 for guidelines on guidelines to citing Web sources in your bibliography Please make a good faith effort to adhere to the following guidelines yes the details can be taxing but they39re essential to professional scholarly work and your attention to them allows me to concentrate on your ideas GENERAL Nu1nber each page If at all possible print your papers singlesided Use a reasonable font Recommended Times New Roman 12 point Double space all written work Top bottom and side margins 1quot Do not justify righthand margin because it creates odd spacing Leave Q vo spaces after a period Uniformly italicize OR underline titles of books and films Eg The Convent of Pleasure OR The Convent of Pleasure Put titles of articles poems visuals short stories in quotations Eg quotA Mother39s Willquot Underline or italicize words in languages other than English that aren39t quotes Eg Catalina de Erauso trades on the currency of lo raro Proofread your work very carefully for typos spelling accents correct format and so on Important Every source that you39ve used directly or indirectly even when paraphrased including class notes must be cited both within your text and in the bibliography OSTYLISTIC ISSUES TO KEEP VERY MUCH IN MIND Please do no overuse demonstrative adjectives this that those etc Please do not overuse the verb quotto bequot Vary verbs Avoid the passive voice eg instead of quotThe poem was Written by Anne Bradstreet use quotAnne Bradstreet Wrote the poemquot Be sure not to omit diacritical marks in Spanish or French like accents It39s better to type them in as you go on a Mac option e gtletter bearing the accent than to write them in afterwards CITATION FORMAT in body of text Cive author and page references in the body of your text in parentheses with no comma between the author39s name and the page number Eg Cavendish 128 If the author of the quote has been stated in the sentence and if it39s clear what text you39re referencing just provide the page number in parentheses Eg In The Convent of Pleasure Cavendish writes quotO Ladies Ladies you39re all betrayed undone undone for there is a man disguised in the Convent search and you39ll find itquot 128 Important Punctuation for short citations follows the format just used quotation marks parentheses with author page reference period or other punctuation mark if necessary In other Words the quotation marks go before the parentheses If you omit the beginning or the end of a quoted sentence or phrase you needn39t indicate the omission However if you omit anything in the middle of the quote you need to indicate the omission with doublespaced ellipses Eg quotO Ladies Ladies you39re all betrayed for there is a man disguised in the Convent search and you39ll find itquot Cavendish 128 Indented quotations Each line of a textual quotation of more than three typed lines needs to be indented approximately 1 2 inch from your normal margin Single or doublemspace the indented quote Do not use quotation marks except if they are in the quote itself Leave ti vo spaces after the final period Give author page reference in parentheses with no period after the parentheses Yes this is strange but that39s how it is Eg INDENTED QUOTE PERIOD 2 SPACESnormal PARENTHETICAL REFERENCE with no period after it Be sure to give references when you cite or refer to class lecture or discussion You can simply state Class DATE quotti P AAgt l FOOTNOTES ENDNOTES you may use either footnotes bottom of page or endnotes end of paper before bibliography for important ideas or comments that are marginal to the body of your text Place the superscript note number after all punctuation of the sentence Do not use endnotes footnotes for page references As stated above the page references must be included in the body of your text OBIBLIOGRAPIIY OF WORKS CITED End your paper with a Bibliography of Works Cited or simply Works Cited in which you give the bibliographic reference for every text that you39ve referenced When citing texts from the coursepack use the full bibliographic reference provided in the text rather than simply citing quotcoursepack Doublespace the entries Indent the second or subsequent lines of each entry 5 spaces Don t leave a space between entries Nota bene the punctuation marks go outside the period or comma Thus in terms of indentations a bibliographic citation should look like this Spacks Patricia Meyer quot Selves in Hiding Women s Autobiography Essays in Criticism Ed Estelle C Jelinek Bloomington Indiana University Press 1980 8595 Print Each citation should follow the pertinent format that follows cite the translator s and editor s name where applicable BOOIS Perry Mary Elizabeth Gender and Disorder in Early Modern Seville Princeton Princeton University Press 1990 Print BOOIltS with editor and or translator Pizan Christine de The Book of the City of Ladies Ed and trans Earl Ieffrey Richards New York Persea Books 1982 Print ARTICLES in IOURNALS Mullaney Steven 39Strange Things Gross Terms Curious Customs The Rehearsal of Cultures in the Late Renaissance Representations 3 1983 4067 Print ARTICLES in BOOKS Spacks Patricia Meyer Selves in IIiding Women s Autobiography Essays in Criticism Ed Estelle C Jelinek Bloomington Indiana University Press 1980 85 95 Print WEB sources Include all internet sources from which you quote or which you paraphrase Follow this format Authors Title of article Accessed on DATE Full URL GOOD LUCK I m happy to answer any questions about MLA format STEPHANIE MERRIM VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY PRESS Nashville 07 ur A l G u r BNTTRODUCTION Sor juana ln s de la Cruz and Early Modern Women s Writing red I arzzfazzdaalezextoeataactobzarcandolacorzeaciaiz mwzag mz texz to texz ree zizg e corzrzecizlorzj I SORIUANA mas DE LA cnuz P7 ne reason why I have given this book on baroque author Sor Juana ln s de la Cruz 164895 and other seventeenthcentury women writers a title so puritanically stark one that resists the metaphorical foreplay so common to titles is that I suspect that the subject the title announces is provocative enough in its own right It may provoke interest it may even incite a not unreasonable skepticism For on rst imagining the wridngs of a cloistered Catholic nun living in colonial Mexico on the margins of the margins of almost o2 embracing modernity would appear to be an unlikely terrain for the enterprise my title announces Of course Sorjuana Ines de la Cruz both bespoke with a hyper and self consciousness and nanscended her milieu From within the convent of San Jer nimo whose walls were more permeable than one might assume she corresponded widely conversed with members of the court and her fellow intellectuals and made contact to a degree impossible to determine with contemporary intellectual developments Her knowledge of Latin gave her exceptional access to Western literature She was extraordinarily well versed vastly well read in both religious and secular topics She is considered to have amassed the largest private library in colonial Mexico even in the small slice of it appearing in the portraits of the mm by Miguel Cabrera and Juan de Miranda SorJuana s collection was equipoised between science and literature between theology the church fathers and the classics between the ancients and the modems She wrote and published on secular themes as atypical for a mm as human love Her remarkably extensive writings essayed and reen acted most of the male poetic dramatic theological and even philosophical discourses of her times in the metropolis 0h her works quota compendium of baroque culture in its diversity and syncretism Sor ua11a s self creati0n as xi Xli EARLY MODERN WOMEN S VVRITING AND SOR JUANA INES DE LA CRUZ a learned woman e ectively toppled many of the walls in which she was materially enclosed and positioned her within the dynamic world of early modem European culture At the same time her readings in tandem with her personal inclinations genius and circumstances attuned Sorjuana to the gender issues that had so greatly impacted her life burdening it with struggles and ultimately with crises Marginalized yet dangerously thrust into the public domain through her ever growing fame subordinated to church and gender hierarchies Sor Juana developed an extraordinary radar capable of extrapolating liom the patriarchal and rnisogynist culture to which she was subject and in which she was an active writing subject issues weighing on women inside and outside convent or Mexican walls that is certain central feminist and genderrelated issues of the seventeenth century Western world Yet there can be no doubt that Sor Juana s direct Contact with contempo rary women writers and women s writing was extremely limited the walls remained standing This Tenth Muse lived out the backhanded compliment of the denomination Famed but pain illy sui generis in her milieu she had no female scholarly peers in Mexico no imitators or successors in her religious order or among laywomen Lavrin 24 Utterly absent iiom Soruana s works are references to intellectual compatibility or collegiality with her religious sis ters in the convent Nor does it appear that Sor Iuana s reading life was much richer in female companionship Though the list of illustrious women in the nun s Respuesta a Sor Filotea de la Cruz Reply to quotSister Filotea de la Cruz 1691 displays her cognizance of certain female forebears and of a few accomplished contemporary women Christina of quotSweden the Portuguese Duchess of Aveyro the Spanish Countess of Villaurnbrosa Soruana s writ ings as a body explicitly appeal to or echo quite sparsely and quietly only two women writers both of them Spanish nuns the Carmelite Saint Teresa of Avila 151582 and the Franciscan abbess Sor Maria de Agreda 1602 65 I discuss at some length in chapter 4 Sorjuanafs expedient conjunctions in the Respuesta with the voice of her famed foremother Saint Teresa other crit ics have linked the two Sor Maria de Agreda whose renowned mystical bilo cations to New Mexico had attracted the attention of Philip IV and gained her a positionas his spiritual and temporal advisor gained Sor uana s attention for her biography of the Virgin Mary La mzfrrzicrz a39zaZzdde Dior The Mystical City of God 1670 Both the amework of a mystical vision in which God shows Mary the mysteries of the universe over the course ofnine days and the feminist Mariolatry of the biography its exaltation of the Virgin as equal to Christ and as a queen of wisdom can be seen to bear on Sor uana s l ercicios devotos para los nueve dias antes de la purisima Encarnaci n del IIijo de Dios Devout exercises for the nine days preceding the Most Pure Incarnation of the Son of God 4406 There for example in her sole refer ence to Maria de Agreda outside the Respuesta Sor Juana states The Venerable Maria de Jesus dc Agreda tells of the ineffable favors that His Divine Majesty wrought for His specially chosen and most Christian Mother q mm rmmmgtm Introduction n Among them was showing her the whole creation of the Universe and causing all its creatures to proclaim her queen 4476 The poetics of Sor juana s connection in this and other of her works to Maria de Agreda as well as their politics are a fascinating subject one that certainly merits further study Nevertheless and compelling as the matter may be such is not the subject of this study My subject here is more oblique far more perverse conceivably also more signi cant in a larger arena Simply put in the main I will be examining connections between the writings of Sor Juana and works not that she probably knew but that in all reasonable prob ability she did not know in order to map out certain signal features and cone cerns of early modern women s writing in Spanish English and French My undertaking may strike the reader as suspiciously baroque in its propensity to the unusual or bizarre Although I do performsome seemingly unlikely com parisons my desire is not to startle but at once to tease out and to articulate commonalities between seventeenthcentury women writers and equally to open a gateway to further comparative work not only studies of Sorjuana in a wider amework but also the consideration of seventeenthcentury women s issues that would do more justice to a Hispanic perspective The paucity of both J of outreachings I believe warrants considera tion Let me begin with my mother eld Hispanists Sor Juana scholars have naturally been daunted from comparative work by the formidable and respectable challenge of coming to knowledgeable terms with Sor uana s work per se Her oeuvre is not only vast about nine hundred pages in an edi tion with no notes but also generically varied ideologically and philosophi cally complex and remarkably di cult even on the entry levels of syntax and semantics Scholarly work has only recently made inroads into encompassing A Soruana s ill corpus of works Critics who have ventured into comparative work on Sor Juana and women s writing have generally attempted to estab lish connections with other Hispanic writers in Spain or Spanish America There they face another considerable challenge a relative lack of subjects for comparison especially in terms of women writing on secular subjects Few 39 Spanish and even fewer Latin American women writers published or gained renown at the time the archaeological groundwork of exhuming forgotten voices is actively under way as I write Even Octavio Pazfs purportedly exhaustive massive studysome 540 pages Sor Juana expansive and univer salizing on so many other fronts fails notably to add to our knowledge of her place in a colonial or wider female literary milieu5 The tendency to succumb to the Tenth Muse trap that is to view Sorjuana in isolation as an isolated excentric phenomenon persists 5 The last twenty years have witnessed an explosion of efforts to recoup the women s worlds of the early modem period on socialfpolitical historical and cultural grounds I refer to such valuable contributions as Bcjyorzd Iheir Sax Leamed Women gfz e Ezzropezzzz Parr ed Patricia H Labalme 776 Creatzbn of 2 Femzizirr Co7zrc zbzmzerr39 From 2723 Mz cffe Alger to Ezlt39gr39zz eerzSeriezzzy Gerda Lerner Female Sc z0Zczrr Airflizzdzizbrz cfLeamea7 P amerz Before 1800 ed d R xiv EARLY MODERN WOMENS WRITING AND SOR JUANA INES DE LA CRUZ Brink A cfmezir Ozwz Warmer zivz Ezrre 0m Pre392z3 z 07y to tire Prarmz vol 2 Bonnie S Anderson and Judith P Zinsser A History offVomezz 23922 the Wart Rerzazizrarzce and Erzlzgrirerzmerzt Pamdoxar eds Natalie Zemon Davis and Arlette Farge Rerzazlrrrmce Femzizirm Constance Jordan Womm cf re Rerzairmrzce lIargaret L J Wmzerz 23972 L is Mzlzldle Agar and 2 3923 R 72c2Z3 S d397139C8 Lz39z er z7y 47247 Hz339rarzZ aZ Persy edziver O Mary Beth Rose and so on All of these studies provide muchneeded speci c information and general para digms on which to build Yet even they with their selfstated missionsof inclusiveness tend to focus on England France and Italy or some combina tion thereof often to the entire exclusion of Spain Spanish and more so Latin American women generally appear if at all in an ancillary token or underinformed and undertheorized capacity Where general historians of the early modern period or of the baroque as a male literary artistic phenome non would hardly neglect Spain wornerfs studies has not yet fully embraced the Hispanic context Do we ascribe this lack to default or to design My pre vious paragraph could explain certain of the considerable barriers that would lead to default With regard to design one might speculate that the backwa ters of the CounterReforrnation Hispanic worlds so o icially and militantly intransigent in the face of encroaching modernization hardly a brd a propi tious territory for a feminist history of any heroic proportions I hesitate to attribute any so skewed a design to the design of the above studies suf ce it to note the lesser prominence they accord the Hispanic worlds and to let readers draw their own conclusions 39 In the introduction to my edited collection Ferrzzizirt Pe7s ec2 2i2er on Sor Juana Izz r de La Cm 1991 I wrote To my mind the most challenging act of revision facing us practically a term zizc0g7zzi rz entails situating Sor Juana s work within the traditions of women s writing both universal 39 within her own milieu pM The preceding discussion indicates that the situ ation upon which these lines re ect has not changed all that signi cantly in the intervening years I write now in 1996 VVhen I began to surmount my own provinciality as a SorJuana scholar and to delve into the larger terrain in which I believe her works both warrant and merit positioning I soon encoun tered a vast body of works establishing that Sor Juana s selfdefense and defense of women s education the Respuesta was neither sui generis nor did it emerge ex nihilo Listened to carefully Sor Juana herself articulates an awareness that she writes in a tradition of feminist debates in her catalog of illustrious women mentioned above Sor Juana employs the revzfarri rmu z and states that she will omit irther names of women to avoid relaying what others have said Trueblood 229 4462 all translations of Sor Juana with a page citation unless otherwise stated derive orn Trueblood SorJuana in all likelihood refers principally to Boccaccio s biographies of virtuous women in his De Mulzieniivzcr Clczrir ca 1380 yet her words need not limit us to pin39 pointing yet another of the nun s sources or to arguing for Sor Juana s direct knowledge of particular early modern feminist texts3 Rather they may autho rize us to re place the Respuesta in the early modern feminist debates known as the querefle rfarfernmer which so often drew on Boccaccio I will s V T VV V I Introduction XV now proceed to do so as a preliminary concrete and manifest indication of what can accrue om viewing SorJuana without walls that is orn situating her works within a larger context and from bodying forth the enhanced dia logue of commonalities that emerges orn the interplay 0 The gztereffe derfeynmer it is well known formally began with Christine de Pizan s defense of women in her 14034 Boat cyfr e Cziy c2fLadzis which culled threefourths of its examples of women 39om Boccaccio Richards s introduction to Pizan xxxvi quotsparked byJean de Meun s misogynist attacks in his edition of the Roma ale Ia Rare Prior to Christine no female had spo ken out hr the vernacular on issues pertaining to women Richards S Christine revolutionary for her time insisted that women be educated she refocused the medieval debate on women onto the issue of misogyny itself and opened the debate to women themselves Kelly 15 The Book qfzf e Czigy qquotLczdzier spawned feminist debates in several countries and languages tl1at lasted well into the seventeenth century and that were conducted by women and men in genres as varied as histories conduct books pamphlets letters dialogues romances sermons and treatises on government The gzzerefie as set by Christine de Pizan became the bedrock and staple of early modern femi nist discourse on gender difference in Europe Overly involved with moral issues to the neglect of social and legal concerns often abstract intellectual and rhetorical sometimes degenerating into mere exercises in logic the entrenched lines of the gueref r nevertheless helped build the foundations for a more activist feminism Henderson and McManus 31 and kept feminist issues alive over the course of three centuries 39 Subsequent chapters of the present study examine speci c ideological and thematic concerns of the guerefla as they pertain to Sor Juana and other of her female contemporaries At this point I want to focuson the building blocks of the pro fernale side of the debate the most concrete links to the Respuesta its forms of argumentation As did most of the ideological issues of the gzaerelle remain constant my chapter 5 brings out the most important evolutionary matters so did its tactics They have been grouped into three areas Be they male or female participants in the gzzereile over the centuries argued as I have already suggested by example Endowing historical leg endary literary mythical and biblical women with an equal degree of reali ty in their catalogs of illustrious females they cited exemplary women who belie and de r misogynist constructions of the female sex Their select exam ples as feminists were well aware could not fully stanch the predominant tide against all women Therefore quartile debaters also turned to the pow er ll weapon of argument by authority pitting the words of the patriarchs themselves against patriarchal misogyny That is employing proof texts to support their positions they quoted a wide range of male writers considered authoritative biblical classical or contemporary who defended women Though such authorities were not entirely lacking Plato served them in 0u y wmr39 4 397quot 3939 0 339quot 391 quot39quot39 quot 13 G 39 E I quotI 39 5 I i39quot33 3 quot I quot39 H 3 xvi EARLY MODERN WOMEN S WRITING AND SOR JUANA INES DE LA CRUZ good stead pro female writers hardpressed by the weight of patriarchal tra dition against their position often resorted to manipulation of that tradition takingproof texts out of context and or glossing them willfully to suit their purposes Finally the feminists argued by means of sheer reason They con structed polemical texts that appealed to self evident common sense that dis played an admirable intemal logic and whose counterattacks de ected onto men precisely the same accusations that they had levied against women VVhen wielded by female authors it is clear all of the above techniques acquired a special pungency and implicit e cacy For the impressive displays of erudition and logic that they manifest tacitly but patently de ated prevail ing contentions that women were capable neither of learning nor of reason Form merged with content and moreover propelled women into the auda cious act albeit at times under cover of male authorities of challenging patri archal authority and culture Anyone familiar with SorJuana s Respuesta a Sor Filotea de la Cruz will already have recognized in the foregoing description of general guerella tech39 niques which I might note was drawn from discussions of the controversy in England and Francethe essential ploys it uses to defend women s learn ing The sarne reader will also now begin to hear an uncanny doubling of voic es in authors as far removed in space and milieu as the Mexican SorJuana In s de la Cruz and the French Marie de Gournay 15651645 a professional Writer a secular author an uncompromisingly independent woman who led her own literary salon In what Dornna Stanton calls a classic instance of the workings of the phallacious mentality 1983 11 Marie de Gournay s achievements have largely been linked with those of Montaigne for he named her his lle d alliance or adopted daughter and she published eleven edi tions of his work However among other accomplishments the magni cent ly learned yet seliltaught Marie de Gournay was the rst woman of her time to write on the French language the author of one of the rst roman apama re in France Le Pmzmzmoir ale Morasriszrr J9 Mmmzgne The Walking Book of Monsieur de Montaigne 1594 and most important for our present con cerns the rst early modern female to publish separate feminist pamphlets in France EgaZzi e a7es lzarrzmer er dsufezrzmes The Equality of Men and Women 1622 and James The Ladies Grievance 1626 Both texts exhib it De Gournay s characteristic audacity and brio for unlike SorJuana she was unconstrained and unrestrained in asserting her radical opinions no matter what opprobrium they incited Yet a reading of the rst of her defenses of women more impersonal and farranging in its arguments than the second nds the outspoken wickedly clever De Gournay structuring her argument along the same lines and using the same tactics as the restrained equally clever and at times wickedly so SorJuana The parallels are at heart mechan ical and I mean them to be so at the same time they demonstrate how two learned acutely intelligent women could and did similarly extrapolate from the set features of the quartile to great polemical effect Neither author swerves om the querelfe which channeled and authorized her feminist voice Rather as if in chorus or in tandem both maximize the potential of the Introduction xvii debate in the same directions by bringing to bear on it their special energies and abilities 39 Reason and erudition form the cornerstone of both authors texts In the spirit of the Christian doctrine of the baptismal equality of souls invoked more than once by Sor Juana in her poetry De Gournay claims originality for her treatise by arguing reasonably not for the superiority of women but for the equality of the sexes I ee all extremes and am content to make women equal to men I51 Sor Juana riddles her text in both its autobiographical and its impersonal sections with an erudition so dense as to make it almost inaccessible to the modern reader with quotes in Latin with citations max ims and proof texts from the classics and church fathers De Gournay invokes in rapid succession a gamut of authorities ranging from Plato to SaintJerome to Montaigne Clearly from their disadvantaged position as women both argue primarily through authority De Gournay articulates this very strategy I will not claim at this time that I can prove my point by arguments only by referring to the authority of God himself and of the pillars of His Church and of the great men who served as guiding lights of the universe I6 Sor Juana consciously subscribes to it among other ways by repeatedly and explicitly placing her most audacious arguments under the auspices of Dr Juan Diaz de Arce noted theologian and rector of the University of Mexico and by revealing contradictions in Saint Pa11l I will discuss the intricacies of her strategy in more detail shortly and throughout the book De Gournay goes so far as to trans gure that staple of the misogynists arguments Aristotle into a defender of women 18 Sor Juana will illy transforms the arguments of another noted misogynist Saint Jerome by them out of 39 context and manipulating them to support her contention that women should be educated Nor does De Gournay fail to support vvomen s education proposing a radical view of women s unlimited abilities that will be examined in chapter 5 39 Radical as her views on education may be both she and Sor Juana con struct their most shockingly extreme and imaginative yet most magisterially reasoned key arguments around Christ himself De Gournay queries The sexes being equal why was Christ not born a woman She reasons the mat ter through on the basis of common sense if Christ were a woman he would not have been able to circulate so freely in society In any case Christ was born 39om the body of the most perfect of women Further she concludes with a ourish there is no reason to assume that God is either masculine or feminine Beside whoever is so stupid to imagine God to be either mascu line or feminine openly shows that he is as bad a philosopher as a theologian 21 SorJuana for her part devotes an extensive and astonishing section of the Respuesta to comparing herself as a woman ostracized and martyred for her intelligence with the suffering experienced by Christ due to his excep tionality chapter 4 deals with this argument in more detail Neither SorJuana nor Marie de Gournay nally could neglect argumen tation through example much as the latter says that she will I will not claim at this time that I can prove my point by means of examples since that is xviii EARLY MODERN WOMEN S WRITING AND SOR JUANA INES DE LA CRUZ much too common I6 displaying as does Sorjuana the cognizance that she participates in a feminist tradition Both authors writing at the tail end of a centuries long debate by example utilize the liirrvzlatzkformula to render their lists of women self consciously metonyrnical Both contemporize their lists of women by mentioning women of recent times The question has been raised whether women s contributions to the gzzerelle my fmmes display traits di erent om men s Henderson and McManus for example maintain that female debaters in England in 1sed the controversy with passion conviction and a new sense of purpose 20 Certainly both Sor Juana and De Gournay argue indeadly earnest eschewquot ing the tendency to jest and specious intellectual calisthenics found in certain male texts of the guerelfe Further both of De Gournay s defenses of women are infused with animus and crafted with what for the times would be labeled avirulence Even in Egafzfci the more reticent of the two tracts De Goumay shoots acerbic barbs at the other sex asserting that men who denigratequot women and thus contravene all intelligent opinion of all times must be idiots 18 And even Sorjuana despite the very real risks involved in so doing can not resist hurling a few trenchant criticisms back at her accusers De Gournay s tone is more in amed her attacks more frontal and frequent Yet given SorJuana s mu ed and clearly sti ed tendency toward sarcasm as will be suggested irther by her Autodefensa espiritual Spiritual Self Defense and the other striking similarities we have seen between the two learned women one is left with the sense that the true voice of Sor Juana if as unfet tered as that of Marie de Gournay and were we to have heardit might well sound even more remarkably like that of her French feminist counterpart When Marie de Gournay and Sor Juana undertake to ame e ective defenses of women s rights to education they cannot help engaging with patristic theology and especially as they botl1 do with Saint Paul the voice most insistently cited throughout the Christian era in opposition to women s learning Misogynist church tradition spurred the inception of the gzzereile and continued in the early modern period to present the most redoubtable obsta cle to women s equal rights shaping ideas of gender of society in general Lerner 24 The writings of Saint Paul served as the prime movers of Christian misogyny In general Saint Paul viewed women as responsible for the Fall marriage as inferior to virginity and the husband as the head of his wife much as Christ was the head of the church Altman 13 With regard to two of the central issues that so preoccupied the gzzerefle the subordinate place of women and women s learning the most damning and oft cited texts of Saint Paul were 1 Corinthians 14 especially verses 3435 As in all the churches of the saints the woman should keep silence in the churches For they are not permitted to speak but should be subordinate as even the law says Ifthere is anything they desire to know let them ask their husbands at home For it is shame al for a woman to speak in church and 1 Timothy 21112 Let a woman learn in silence with all submissiveness I permit no woman to teach or to have authority over men she is to keep silent 15 Introduction xix These biblical core texts writes Gerda Lerner sat like huge boulders across the paths women had to travel in order to de ne themselves as equals to men No wonder they engaged in theological reinterpretation before they could move on to other more original and creative ideas 138 Lerner also notes that women reinterpreting the Bible followed predictable patterns 159 39 Biblical core texts always looming in the way of feminists created unlike ly bedfellows Wh e Marie de Gournay a secular writer negates Saint Paul with two brief arguments both the religiously aligned Sor Juana a Mexican quotCatholic and Margaret Fell 16141702 a British Quaker activist recogniz ing the centrality of Saint Paul s dicta regarding women to church and social policy place the refutation of them at the very heart of their feminist apolo getics The scriptural hermeneutics of Margaret Fell s Women s Speaking Justi ed by the Scriptures 1667 and Sor uana s Respuesta keep circling back compulsively to the epistles of Saint Paul hammering away at them time and again 39om different angles in the tenacious effort to dissolve once and for all what Fell explicitly calls this major stumbling block 12 The pronouncements of Saint Paul were a most critical stumbling block indeed to one of the central tenets of the Quaker movement which chal lenglng the patriarchal relegation of women to the private sphere maintained that they can speak in a public religious context George Fox the founder of the movement and Fell s husband as of 1669 traveled widely to champion the establishment of women s meetings entirely administered by women Fell one of the most remarkable women of the seventeenth century defended paci sm as well as women s public speech through the meetings she held at Swarthmoor Hall and in her p U Both Fox and Fell suffered imprison ment and penury for their beliefs In 1656 George Fox published The Woman Learning in Silence in which he contended that the spirit of Christ may speak in the female as well as in the male quoted by Latt in Fell v Though the title of his tract clearly alludes to Saint Paul Fox builds his case 39orn other scriptures of the Pauline epistles he merely says S ome are hard to be understood Fell vi Margaret Fell took up the gauntlet of dealing directly with Saint Paul in her VVomen s Speakingjusti ed a text rst pub lished in 1666 and again with two J1 lZl39l I39 discussions of the apostle s writings in 1667 Fell s treatise a theological o shoot of the gzcerefle avails itselfof the estab lished techniques of the woman question Fell argues by example limiting herself to biblical women who prophesied like De Gournay and Sor Juana Fell refers to the Sibyls and to women favored by God and Christ She also argues by reason shrewdly pointing out for example that presentday min isters themselves use the words of Old and New Testament women in their sermons 14 or unabashedly labeling as heretics those who misinterpret Saint Paul 6 Fell s prime focus however is scriptural and it is there that she performs her most brilliant maneuvers among them innovative uses of argument by authority Structurally and scripturally Fell subordinates Saint Paul or as she would have it the mistaken interpretations of his to XX EARLY MODERN WOMEN S WRITING AND SOR JUANA INES DE LA CRUZ the higher authorities of God and Christ While the very rst paragraph of her text states that the Apostles words in Corinthians and Timothy have provided the fodder for Objections against Women speaking in the Church 3 she immediately segues to how God himself hath manifested his W l and Mind concerning women and unto women 3 Here appear snippets of the wayward Genesis and 1 and 2 Corinthians pressed into ser vice of the feminist cause After this Fell begins in earnest her revisionist reading of the problematic Pauline texts She contextualizes them in two extremely convincing ways First she reads the o 39ending lines within the context of the whole chapter 14 of Corinthians where she holds Saint Paul exhorts the Cor2397z392z2z7zs unto char ity and to desire Spiritual gifts and not to speak in an unknown tongue Second and signi cantly both for feminist hermeneutics and for our under standing of Corinthians in general she lays bare the speci c historical con text that his words address faced with the general disorder and macaronic nature of the Corinthian congregation with its share of loose women when Saint Paul exhorts women to silence he in fact refers to all disruptive ele ments In effect women are but a metonymy for all persons in con ision 8 Fell then launches into an impressive anagogic reading of Saint Paul main taining in effect that Saint Paul intends women not just metonymi cally but metaphorically That is women signify all those who were under the Law Lthose who had not yet received Christ She later clari es her alle gorical argument saying But feze el and Tatlers and the Whore that denies Revelation and Prophesie are not permitted 17 For De Gournay Christ might have been bom a woman in Fell s metaphorical contestation to Saint Paul the Church of Christ is a woman and those that speak against the worn ans speaking speak against the Church of Christ 5 Ifhere Fell exercises her interpretive abilities on Saint Paul s mandates throughout the essay she capi talizes on her knowledge of Scripture to allow Saint Paul to elucidate his own words thus neutralizing their rnisogynist potency Quoting a variety of Pauline texts Fell brings to the fore the diverse attitudes toward women contained in the apostle s a matter of great interest to present day theologians In pointing out these inconsistencies Fell views them not as contradictions but as incontrovertible evidence that 1 Corinthians and 1 Timothy have been falsely interpreted as monolithic injunctions against women For example she ques tions for if he Saint Paul had stopt Womens praying or prophesying why doth he say Every man pmyzivzg orprop asyzirzg avzizg 7213 zead cavereci 95072 ozmet it Freed Em every Woman r atprdyetk arprrgbzerz29z7z39 wz z fzer end zmco2 ereal dis zorzozzrerlz er eczd 9 italics in original Margaret Fell devotes her treatise its addendum and its postscript to the deconstruction of Saint Paul s seemingly unshakable dicta Sor Juana directly and indirectly makes Saint Paul the magnetic axis of her entire prrwluz section the section that adduces general proofs to support an argument He even seeps into the more personal emotive closing section the pervrafzb The Introduction Ed broad patterns as well as the particular ar guments f S d glgzin Ed 01 33 Paul exactly parallel those of Fell ee of thg 1egltigt cal angle However the Mexican nun s impeccable logid galvamzege Ih 39 quotquot 39 J is SPekmsJuss ed a it ti on mer at only 3 11118byline analysis could do 1 US ce t of consideration for my reader I will restrain myself andjust fol th a P t d as om me As Sug ePted 0 31 8 ihsiaulcifls on 1 Cor1nthians14 s mrnyprece g 39cussion fD G arf uments by authority the espuesta intI0dues0S1aril11yl Sai11ln ihSJIi1hantlai 0 f D S ces o uan iaz de Arce 1I1 V1I39l39116 and cultivation a worthy professor of Fnpuue 222 4 452 S01 Juana has this authority raise the cm 3931 tion as he does in his Srudzbso Bzi lzimmz of whether it is pem1i1sibllt1uis t d 39 0 Women 3111 Y and 3950 1ntrpret the Bible She then has Arce be the first to plrlesent 111 the Respuesta Saint Paul s Let women keep silence in the C inches for it is not pe 3911 d th that the authoritative Arcrdnliiiiiself hnure inakhisavkal1itdIdmuVe lihcmm ing upon other words by the apostle that contradict the foregcfg SothZcal1 sage addressed to Titus in which Saint Paul mentions the agec1lni 7omerI1a1i 1CnI1na1t1ne 111 holy attire r teaching well 229 462 ellipses in ongjIlalyzo resolves as Sdlrr lliiana 13SC11c10E1lly decontextua z dm Ice Concludes and t y PS v to lecture publicly 111 the classroom and 0 preac In the pulpit are 110 C legitimate activities for women but that stud ingi writing and teaching privately are not only allowable but most e Y iiil M3 mg 36 1iS aI1Z 9 r Sotiil Juana now intervenes to reinforce Arce s party ali Imm W1 an equ31Y m0E DS1Ve Yet Clearly selfreferential qu cation of her own Arce does not mean she sa 3 that all Should Study etc but 01113 th0Se Whom God has endoiived th aicm1 lean virtu d di V P di e an scernment and who have become highly accomplished and em te and possess the talents and other qualities needed for such holy p 3913 229 39 H sur 5 0 462 Herm1ld statement consistent W391 lZl1 s1Xteenth cent39ury arguments lJI1lIg education and virtue at the same time serves as a 39 rngoff point for more daring interpretive and rhetorical flights on mejgiig quotP311 SOT Juana like Fell construes Saint Paul s reference to women as a t Ezliiymy dso the tdcemzz applies not only to women but to everyone not Y en Owed L231 463 and Interestingly as a InetoI1YII1Y that ed ds 39 cc 1a asrr rt E 3 3 W is as am the msrr f in b or 1 en n0t 0131 3903 WOIIICII considered so very apt 111 to men who me1393931Y 13 Virtue Of being men consider themselv sages unless they are very learned and virtuous with receptive and propeIE train d ds consuzquldhlcles Sc21393l0Ila i16i12i itti 1bdGng lier hue of thought to Its most extreme doctrine she has us res ted1 1t cP aileIeSy Itself to the Contgaven on of the J I1 tire to do so to obey this doctrine in my VICW has given I391S precisely to all those sectarians and been the root Xxii EARLY MODERN WOMEN S WRITING AND son JUANA INES DE LA CRUZ cause of all the heresies 230 462 Shortly after in a higher register of invective she proclaims Such the Divine Write became in the possession of wicked Pelagius perverse Arius wicked Luther and the other heresiarchs 230 463 The Manichean wellreasoned exegeses of both Sor Juana and Margaret Fell not only thoroughly invert Saint Paulis alleged misogynism they also brand as heretical those who transgress the spirit of the apostle s words as the two feminists themselves have rescripted them Later portions of the przze a section of the Respuesta nd Sor Juana cinching her inversion of Saint Paul s epistles among several ways by using other writings by Saint Paul to contradict and undermine 1 Corinthians and 1 Timothy by bending and conjugating his words with those of the other renowned misogynist Saintjerome to translate them both into supporters of women s education Oh how much harm would be avoided in our country if older women were as learned as Laeta and knew how to teach in the way Saint Paul and my Father Saint Jerome direct 232 464 by continuing to advocate a generalized understanding of his use of women women refers not only to those who are incompetent to interpret Scripture but also to any one who disturbs the silence in church 235 467 They also nd Sorjuana explicating the historical context of Corinthians Sor uana s historical expla nation rdi iers 39om Fell s but displays an equal knowledge of the context According to theMexican author Saint Paul s Let women keep silence in the church alludes to very particular circumstances The women of the early church taught one another Christian doctrine in the temples and the murmur of their voices disturbed the apostles who were preaching 233 46566 Sor juana links one sententia of Saint Paul s to another creating an explanatory system for Let women keep silence in the church by having the rnaxims illu minate each other And it is also written unk Ismael at face Hear Israel and hold thy peace words which address the whole conglomeration of men and women telling them all to maintain silence 235 467 This pair of Pauline texts well illustrates the signi cance of SorJuana s historical contextualizations as described by Jose na Ludmer Here Juana teaches us a lesson in literary and ideological criticism Dogmatic truths and hierarchical systems she says erase the traces of history in the text om concrete and particular circum stances was derived an eternal and authoritarian dogma a transcendental law regarding the difference of the sexes 92 That Ludmefs words are equally descriptive of Margaret Fell Fox s con tribution to the gzzerelle underscores the kinship between the two seven teenthcentury women writers lending further weight to the connections I have been drawing throughout the preceding pages I believe that we can also draw several conclusions of de ning import to the project at hand 39om the comparisons laid out to this point As I suggested earlier and as can now be con rmed the gzzerelle alerfemmer constituted a pan Western languag an ideological and discursive repertoire for early modern debates of gender di erence Those familiar with the guerelle Margaret Fell probably among Introduction Pdw them would inscribe their feminist polemics in its paradigms those not 7 necessarily familiar with the proferninist aspects of the gzzerelle Soruana familiar with misogyny with misogynist writings both secular and religions that fueled the gzzerefle and with the c1assics probably among them might in just as readily coincide with them by dint of intuition logic rhetorical pre cepts and a common cultural ideological heritage Due to Latin the clas sics and patristic texts much of early modern culture transcended national boundaries The last of the three elements I mention patristic texts with their never illy discharged legacy of misogyny in particular both con stantly spurred feminist debate and provided a panChristian imaginary with which each feministwould perforce engage The years 1621 1666 and 1691 39 as we have seen witness feminists doing battle with the same Pauline stone wall or stumbling block 39 Feminism need not have been organized as such as it is now to evince either a feminist consciousness or a discursive coIn monality Indeed if the texts I have analyzed are any indication it is clear that the gzzezrfle and the panChristian imaginary gave rise to an unceasing unwitting almostdnevitable textual sorority between early modern feminists who were unaware of one another and who often worked in isolation Isolation one must note was often their only means of negotiating a separate peace Early modern women scholars as Margaret L King 1980 has established tended to withdraw from life 39om friendship om cities from public view into selfstyled prisons lined with books Seventeenth century French 7 re i2ieznes female salon participants may have exceptionally bene ted from collective collaboration but the solitude of at best booklined cells was the fate of many early modern women writers This puts a signi cant feminist contextual spin on Octavio Paz s interpretation of Sor Juana s solitude as characteristically Mexican and in fact renders her very isolation om her female contempo raries central and emblematic rather than excentric The course of feminism was consigned by this isolation not just to an only de facto sorority but also as Gerda Lerner so rnovingly tells us and as we can deduce even fiom the three texts we have shared to Sisyphean repetition Women were denied knowledge of their history and thus each woman had to argue as though no woman before her had ever thought or written Women had to use their energy to reinvent the wheel over and over again generation after generation Men argued with the giants that preceded them women argued against the oppressive weight of millennia of patriarchal thought Since they could not ground their argument in the work of women before them women of each generation had to waste their time energy and talent on constructing their argument anew Yet they never abandoned the e brt Generation after generation in the ce of recurrent discontinuities women thought their way around and out oxn Linda patriarchal thougit 166 xxiv EARLY MODERN WOMEN S WRITING AND SOR JUANA INES DE LA CRUZ use 11 fyozz 2227 zool e roitlioztt dg feretrzce you 5 zall Z2be writi our reverence you nor eo7m39errz72e order you must zirozife I ze Mame ofa7239rorde7 HAEC VIR 1620 The guerrlfe aierfemmer might have remained largely immutable over the course of the early modern period but epochal earthquakes were taking place around it imbuing it with greater urgency and with the reactive virulence we have heard in the voices of De Gournay Fell and Sor Juana To embrace the larger picture which sets the stage for the following chapters at this point I need to pan out almost immeasurably rom concrete texts to the shaking contexts of the seventeenth century that bore as heav y on Sorjuana as they i on her European contemporaries Neither here nor elsewhere do I mean to 07 the speci city of each national context or to collapse the differ ences F them Yet I believe that it is important to begin by delineating F overarching patterns deriving from negotiations between moderniza tion and tradition obtained at least in England France and Spain home M of the women whose works the book examines and or mother countries to the colonies om which they write In what follows I look quite at the energies ofmoderni2ation at their cir culauon and containmentwin these states particularly as they pertain to women and to the concerns of the present study The conceptual tenets that resonate most emphatically throughout my book involve the 0 eld around 2 erzrzo7z paradox ambiguity contra new economies trsvaluation ssures actures destabilization and so on Such 0 speak equally to Sorluana s baroque discourse and to the januslike PF ofthe seventeenth centujy for one scholar of the period a series of yoked incompat139bilities 39 re ect a world disturbed to the point of schizophrenia Woodh dge P for another an ambivalent phenome non one face peerhrg perhaps at the sunset of feudalism the other at the of capitalism Beverley 2216 Michel Foucault characterizes the seventeenth more ethereal but still transitional terms as a time of a between para the Olympian abstractions of Foucault Me G Yhzizgst stand at a considerable remove om social reality not to women s social reality he does raise issues that bear these elds theorist regards the seventeenth century beforequot the onset French less as a xed construction as a time of of and disssociation For F oucault the baroque does not constitute an episteme 0 itselfbnt instead in a hypertrophy of what is often considered erism largely entails the problematizing and 0 of the Renaissance of similitude Hence antl39 it is interesting that he Spain rather France as his frame of referencequot Foucault reads Introduction XXV Velazquez s paintings and DOZK Qzezjbre as reifying the demise of the harmo nious prose of the world based on an unbroken chain of sirnilitudes and as typilying the new nonorder that dissociates signi ed from signi er sign 39om referent In the transitional times of the seventeenth century similarity gives way to difference and xity to instability The profound upheavals taking place throughout Europe during the sev enteenth century provide historical grounding and the necessary back ground for any theorizing of the era It is practically incontrovertible that in political religious social economic and ideological terms the seventeenth century was a time of disorder and change Tis all in pieces all coherence gone All just supply and all Relation wrote Donne Rabb 47 Financial recessions and poverty and plague shifting demographics in ation a newly disempowered and impoverished nbbility among many factors trans formed its economic and social landscape The revolutions of the Reformation and the CounterReformation continued to restructure the reli gious and political systems of Europe the slow move toward the organiza tion of the modern centralized state involved the breakup of empires and the con guration of national identities Wars religious and secular civil and international consistently wracked Europe Where the Reformation and CounterReformation had placed religious belief systems into question the onset in certain countries of the scienti c revolution during the latter half of the century subjected to systematic doubt all knowledge that had preceded it ln essence and as been widely accepted by historians these were ezzlrzzres ofcrirer forged in the crucible of the larger battle between traditionalism and the questionable problematic values of change and modernization Antonio llaravall wrote of the seventeenth century in his Culture cft e Baroque It was the spectacular and problematic breakdown of a society within which forces driving it to change struggle with other forces whose object was preservation 26 22 39 Several changes and upheavals of the seventeenth century conspired to shake women out of their traditionally prescribed places As suggested earlier s the Quaker movement as well as other radical Reformation sects encouraged women to take on new more public roles in the church Increased urbaniza tion in much of Europe and Mexico bringing with it greater freedom and anonymity began to redraw the lines ofsexspeci c behavior Women in Spain chafed against their traditional near purdah con nement in the home to circu late around the cines in coaches in disguise as ziopoolur veiled women and to attend theatrical performances Ludwig Pfandl a twentieth century author whose attitudes toward women will a brd us dark comic relief more than once inveighs against the new type of noble or bourgeois worldly woman who moved eely around Spanish cities of the Habsburgs calling her the cor rosive product the uit of the dissoluteness of that period of decadence 1929 127 While Pfandl without real substantiation believes such women to be the reallife models for the stock gure in Spanish comedias of the woman who dressed as a man women in earlyseventeenth century London are known to X39XV1 EARLY MODERN WOMEN S WRI I lNG AND son JUANA inns DE LA cnuz have wom men s clothing There even exist reports of women attending church in male garb Woodbridge 142 Their behavior gave rise to the famous Hie Muizer pamphlet debate in 1620 its anonymous author attributes sexual inversion to city life A woodcut on the title page of Hie Maize shows one woman trying on a man s plumed hat with a diminutive man at her side and another about to have her hair shorn In the rst paragraph of the text we read For since the days of Adam women were never so Masculine Masculine in Number from one to multitudes Masculine in Mood 39om bold speech to impudent action excerpted in Henderson and McManus 265 Politically troubled times as well as urbanization undermined conven tional gender roles Especially in France plebeian women took it upon them selves to guard the community s privileges not just by actively participating in riots but by actually inciting them Gibson 156 see also Davis chap The English and French civil wars of the midseventeenth century as does wartime generally saw enhanced roles for women the formidable French noblewomen known as the ondaues for example played key parts in the Fronde the ronde Joan De Jean asserts can be seen as a woman s war 1991 Throughout Europe during the seventeenth century the socalled manly woman and the crossdressiiig woman also enter the literary arena permeating it Although given the insu iciency of information on women s conduct in the eia it is rather too deterministic to conclude as does Woodbridge that the equency of assertive women in literature is itself a testimony to the ubiquity of female aggression 201 the fact that this phe nomenon reached its apogee in the seventeenth century is certainly sugges tive of real or widely spread bercez eeeZ inversions of gender roles a matter to which I return later on 23 Did women experience a Renaissance during the early modern period The answer to this question remains vexed and equivocal in terms of the six teenth century In terms of the seventeenth century as I will proceed to argue together with others om perspectives that shuttle back and forth between the concrete and the symbolic the answer must certainly be no To begin with the first perspective the economic developments with their atten dant social challges that have led us to question the matter of a sixteenth cen tury Renaissance for women persisted and gained in the following century The growth of capitalism over the course of the period tended to disenfran chise women 39om the labor force to reduce women s39 roles and irther to polarize the sexes Among the many manifestations of the new labor differ ential one should cite the dwindling of female guilds and of women s partic ipation in guilds the appropriation by men of trades traditionally exercised by women the exclusion of women iiom highlevel productive work and their relegation to less skilled jobs and the consequent decline of women s wages The shift 39om a landed to a money economy literally devalued women s work furnishing everstronger disincentives on economic and social grounds for women to work outside the home Reformation Protestantism fomenting the formation of the preindustrial patriarchal household as the basic social Introduction Xxv unit as well as the economic unit of postfeudal society Kelly 23 reinforced the transformation on ideological grounds With speci c regard to the seventeenth century now Evelyn Fox Keller has observed Alongside and interlaced with the economic social political and intellectual upheavals of this period historians have recently begun to document a subtle but signi cant transformation in conceptions of and atti tudes towards sexuality and gender roles 47 A historian might Well be inclined to impute such a transformation to the imperative to order generat ed by the reigning disorder Absolute monarchies prevailed in seventeenth century Spain and France England strove over the course of the century to restore the order that had been gravely and consistently disrupted by conflicts between the concerns of the monarchy and those of Parliament Referring to the cultures of crises across Europe Theodore K Rabb concludes that throughout these metarnorphoses the basic concern remained the samein a world where everything had been thrown into doubt where uncertainty and instability reigned could one attain assurance control and a common accep tance of same structure P 33 Further and more to the point at hand Maravall maintains that baroque culture emerged asea complex of resources to overcome the forces of deviance or of opposition present in the society of the epoch 125 A feminist historian might well at this lJ1Cl11139C make the followmg argu ment25 Cultures of crises devolve into crises of the patriarchy as it strove to restore order what Maravall denominates as pan European baroque culture targetedwomen as symbolic of the general forces of deviance it needed to subdue Mary Elizabeth Perry for one in the introduction to her Gerzderazzd Dirarder 72 Ea y Modem Sevz e observes that symbolically women performed roles of critical importance to a patriarchal order signifying virtue and evil providing a uega ve 39 foil against which men could de ne themselves and permitting a jus mtion for male authority On the basis of gender symbolic lines and boundaries could be drawn which anthropologist Mary Douglas has described as a way of bringing order into experi ence 5 Natalie Zemon Davis for another states that the female sex was thought the disorderly one par excellence in early modern Europe 124 and then asks Can the unruly have been so much an issue when sovereignty was less at stake 150 Woman was identi ed with nature and nature had changed sign in the seventeenth century from nurturing to disorderly see Merchant chap 1 Woman s very physiology as then conceived with its cold wet humors that indimted a tricky deceit il temperament and its hysterical wandering womb wou1d render her disorderly Davis 124 Woman s conduct when substantively transgressive or even when incurring minor in ingernents of mtablished gender roles that provoked a disproportionate reaction was per oeivw as the height of disorder It was consuued to G the welfare of XXVH1 EARLY MODERN WOMEN S WRITING AND SOR IUANA IINBS DE LA CRUZ the ever more important state one that increasingly utilized the relation of husband to wife as metaphor for the relation of all subordinates to their superiors 11 1ClI1lJ11g the sovereign Davis 1272 8 We hear proof ofjoan De Iean s important contention that throughout France s so called Great Century it is clear that the principal architects of public policy promoted the belief that female rebellion posed a particular threat to the body politic 1991 17 in the following statements I cannot tolerate this liberty of women which can be pernicious to the whole species prejudicial to the State and fatal to the entire Universe wrote Champelain in France Albistur and Armogath 143 Cardinal Richelieu coined the maxim in his Tartamerzrpolzl rzgrw that a Woman caused the world s fall nothing is more capable of harm ing the State than this sex 301 Further the author ofHz39c Muzikr excoriates the monstrous masculine woman calling her most pernicious to the Commonwealth for she hath power by example to doe it a world of injury Woodbridge 145 Reactively or probably more apt proacrzbez the theater of the times insistently links female sexual excess with social disorder and dis mtegration Keller 60 as have the foregoing paranoid pronouncements She who walks without difference as the epigraph to this section taken from the response to H239 MuZzIer te s us condemns order and invites disor der The reinstituting of order of the Relation that Donne found lacking through the intransigent reinforcement of gender difference becomes a mat ter of great concern in the seventeenth century As I will first examine it entailed default on the modernizing sixteenthcentury discursive position on women and on the modernizing sixteenth century episteme itself Humanist Writers had broached women s issues as a consequence of their concern for the state Attempting to bolster the secular social structure they counteracted medieval exhortations to celibacy with defenses of marriage and of women whom they attempted to quotreclaim from clerical misogyny To vin dicate women they had to combat attitudes such as that of Saint John Chrysostom whom Sorjuana withyet another canny move cites in her sup port What else is woman but a foe to iendship an unescapable punish ment 3 necessary evil a natural temptation a desirable calamity a domestic danger Kors and Peters 117 Though such attitudes would never dis appear entirely the hurnanists would rehabilitate women reintegrating them into society I take as an excellent example of their project the Spanish Fray Luis de Le6n s La pegf rfa carada The Perfect Wife 1583 a work thor oughly invested in propagating the social and ideological norms of its time Fray Luis outlines an ontological and pragmatic program to incorporate woman into the architecture of society and by implication and design into the Renaissance episteme of harmony order and similitude Woman will cease to be the other the disruptive element deleterious to society invoked by Saintjohn Chrysostom She will instead become a crucial if still subordinate piece in the beautifully ordered wellrunning machine of the Renaissance God wants no one in His house says Fray Luis who does not perform the task He has set 247 To e ect this transformation Fray Luis delivers Introduction XXiX 39 women into internal exile in the home urges them to embody sweetness and quotgentleness there allows for education to enhance their virtue and charges 39 them with the responsibility no matter how harsh their husbands of main in the world of private life the tenets of an ideal public world Because it is a thing well known that when a woman performs her o ce her husband loves her the family is in harmony c07zakn o and the children learn virtue and peace reigns and material worth increases 250 The comma of which Fray Luis speaks resonates om regenerated woman to home to society in a symphony of seamless similitudes Now if at least on the programmatic level sixteenth century humanism would extend to women its notions of inclusion and similitude the seven teenth century would resort to the principles of exclusion and difference I take as a second emblematic exainple the fascinating situation surrounding the birth of modern science in England a matter to which I return in chapter 5 examined by Evelyn Fox Keller in her Rgfecrzbrn 072 Gezzcfer and Saimce Henry Oldenburg secretary of the edgling Royal Society of Science stated its mission as that of raising a Masculine Philosophy 52oseph Glanville one of the Society s chief propagandists also resorted to gendered terms in delineating what the new masculine science opposed that is the W vmczrz in us who still prosecutes a deceit like that begun in the Garden and our Undmrdndzkgs are wedded to an Eve as fatal as the Motzer of our 0 He concluded that truth has no chance when the mbm wear the breeches and the Female rules 53 italics in original Glanville s resuscita on of medieval misogyny to launch the cause of the new science gives pause It also supports on symbolic grounds Keller s claim quoted above that a renewed differential attitude toward gender had arisen in the seventeenth century VVhat is more the trajectory leading up to the founding of the Royal Society traced by Keller discloses the symbolic and suggestive manner in which the new science renegotiated not the medieval but the Renaissance position on women Appealing to the changing identi cation of nature with women mentioned above Keller contrasts the sixteenthcentury Paracelsians with seventeenthcentury Francis Bacon Ifthe alchemists root image of woman as nature she writes was coition the conjunction of mind and matter the merging of male and female that of Bacon placed emphasis on constraint on the disjunction between mind and nature and ultimately on domination Further as Bacon s metaphoric ideal was the virile superman the alche mist s ideal was the hermaphrodite Whereas Bacon sought domination the alchemists asserted the necessity of allegorical if not actual cooperation between male and female 48 In sum Keller s analysis of the new science gestures tantalizingly to an exclusivist construction of the masculine the rais ing of a new masculine empire and a relationship of domination rather than harmony between the sexes Wh e Keller questions the existence of a direct relationship between the scienti c issues under dispute and the realpolitik of sexual domination 53 evidence suggests the matter to be less problematic than she believes For XXX EARLY MODERN WOMEN39S WRITING AN D SORJUANA INES DE LA CRUZ the seventeenth century cultures of crises subjected women to ever stiicter controls One might even maintain that women were targeted as symbolic of disorder and that they were also scapegoated in very tangible ways as if control of the onceagain disruptive element of women might restore a world turned upside down by change and turmoil This argument gains in credibili ty when one considers the degree to which women and particularly women s bodies safeguard the essence of societal structures and order lineage inheri tance class the family As the agendas of the medieval misogynists and the exempliiy and as is widely admitted women and gender ideologies constitute a prime site for the state to enact its needs and desires And if it were now desirable to use the words of one seventeenthcentury Spaniard that the social orders do not become changed disturbed mixed up or equiv alent but that each one preserves its place order and harmony Gonzalez de Cellorigo quoted in Maravall 132 then at the very least it can be said that an important step in achieving that world picture which harks back nostalgi cally to the sixteenth century was control of women Control assumed many forms Under the guise of protection laws clamped down on women s marital rights to divorce to remaniage to their dowries Natalie Zemon Davis stated Kings and political theorists saw increasing legal subjection of wives to husbands as a guarantee of the obe dience of both men and women to the slowly centralizing state 12 8 Suniptuary laws regulated women s dress Women s minds and not just their bodies came to the fore in the seventeenth century as a critical arena for sub jugation N access to education and severely delimiting the boundaries of that education as my chapter 5 discusses at length would rein in all aspects of women s lives The church provided another everpresent and potent source of subject formation Sermons iconology religious festivals and so on ltepttheir ideal and idealized women always in view Subject formation itself that IS vigorous didactic attempts to shape the subject in this case the female subject in ltrated mass and high culture Conduct books guerelle pamphlets exemplary biographies rolled o 39 the presses Broadsides the theater and lit erature alike satirized what they had catapulted into the stock types of the learned woman the vain woman the seductress the shrew the overbmring wife Though Moli re s satires of pedantic women may be the most famous they are but one small piece of the avalanche of works produced in seven t3e11 1 C31139 1TY Engiand FIB l1C and Spain against women climbing out of their prescribed places Mary Elizabeth Perry s superb Gender and Diromler ziz Earzy Modem Seville 1990 presents an inventory of the forms of control eizercised by Counter Reformation Spain on women as well as a paradigmatic caseinpoint of reac tions to disorder and the tides ofchange concerning the female sex As Perry s book makes clear chaos and bureaucracy converged in Seville Port city for embarkation to the New World first destination of the newly rich returning to the motherland commercial center of the Spanish Habsburg Empire and the fourth largest city in Europe Seville epuomizw the shakings of estab Introduction Xxxi lished order as they bore on Spain When hordes of prostitutes plied their trade when women whose spouses had left for the New World participated more actively in the life of the city state and church began intensively to invoke gender prescriptions and to reinstate gender differentiation Perry Writes 39 Through the p lens of early modern Seville the order restoring function of gender becomes especially visible Secular and ecclesiastical o cials increased their powers of social control in this city as they responded to religious schisms developing cap italism dramatic demographic changes urbanization the growth of a central state and increasing imperial rivalries 178 Her book examines the concrete measures taken by civil and religious forces on several onts Perry brings into view that as men departed for the New World leaving Seville largely in the hands of women 14 working women ourished Gradually however women s work would be discredited regulat ed and displaced In the face of women s roles religious symbols emphasizing the weakness and passivity of women were called upon to forti 5 the traditional gender system Those who broke sexual codes of conduct 39 the women who assumed leadership roles such as the charismatic Emmy sim ar to the Beguines in other parts of Europe suffered prosecution More often transgressive women of every sort suffered enclosure The enclosure of women be it in the legalized brothel the convent the Magdalen houses houses intended to reform prostitutes a special creation of the times or even the home as several chapters of Perry s book demon stiate served as the prime weapon of control Perry concludes her study by observing that the crisis of the pauiarchy to which such weapons corre spond would be repeated in countless cities as they entered the modern peri od Seville s response to this crisis prodzeceal apa239z e77zforgem7er izzzd order ier persisted in 505 Ca zolzle and P7m erz am caurzmes 179 italics mine As Perry s conclusion suggests CounterReformation Spain aifords what is perhaps just the most pronounced example of the conservative backlash against the progressive forces of modernization making its presence felt in other seventeenthcentury European domains as wellquot This recontainment of the energies of change manifested itself among other ways in a resurgence of traditional and medieval values Maravall who maintains that only a conserv ative attitude was possible one that would attempt to keep things in their order reducing to whatever extent possible the crumbling of the prevailing sys tem by the threat of time 129 also contends that the process of medieval izing restoration was not lacking anywhere or in any sphere of the collective life of western European peoples 144 Wh e one should certainly take his sweeping statement with a grain of salt the intensified preoccupation with witchm throughout Europe and colonial America does signal a new mmievalism cum new misogyny In 1486 the medieval tract on vvitchcra Eezzs I had identi m witches with woinm s insatiable lust xxxiv EARLY MODERN WOMEN S WRITING AN15 son IUANA 1NEs DE LA CRUZ assumption of power of Louis XIV a greater social conforrnism is restored which in high society entailedquot the insistence on the quali es and behavior speci c to each sex and in more tradition alist Inilieux on the rigorous hierarchization of the functions and knowledge attributed to men and to women 351 52 Moreover according to Albistur and Armogath during the reign of Louis EHV ideology seemed to be arrested in the contemplation of the myth of the father reproduced in every class and in every family 134 The two critics christen this time the great retrenchment le grand renfermement for women In their words The reign of Louis XIV is extremely unfavorable to women Like any authoritarian regime it advocates a snong family in the image of a strongState In the political religious moral and social domains one witnesses the triumph of concepts completely hostile to women This reaction of wrath they go on to state referring to royal legislation and unfa vorable work conditions that created a negative environment for women often betrays anxiety on the part of those who feared being dispossessed of their authority and powers The reign of Louis EV is one of a great retrench ment towards women 135 Similarly Marjorie H sley calls attention to an important contradiction On the one hand women in seventeenthcentury France conuibuted increasingly to the development of the language and lit erature and to the re nement of manners 215 On the other there remained a strange contrast between the role played by women in all these elds and the inferior position in which civil and religious law still held most of them 215 VVitchcraft panics in seventeenth century France bolster claims of retrograde attitudes toward women see Gibson 133 How then to explain the truly extraordinary cultural accomplishments of French women such as the creation of the novel during Louis HV s repres sive regime Did they fall under o cial policy thus extending to the second halfof the century the triumphant position described by Maclmn and render ing the monarchy 8 position equivocal One approach would have it that in view of Louis EVE desire that France represent the pinnacle of civilization the re nement of culture advanced by the pr cz ztrer or subsequent learned females suited the purposes of the regime and warranted the integration of those often feminist women into the monarchist machine It was not neces sarily their feminism but their contributions to culture that sanctioned the pre czlezzrag allowing their writings to circulate and thus to be taken as representative of an o cial position Moreover Joan De Jean and Faith E Beasley examine the contestatory role of such Tahng different exam ples both of their books revolve around the belief that seventeenthcentury French women s writing o ered the only articulate challenge to the Sun King s evermore absolute rule Dejean 1991 116 Beasley for example in Revirzizg Memory Wamenfr 1722122272 and Mernozir ziz Sevc7zree2za Ce2zz wy Frame submits that their privatizing and feminization of history through literature and mm oirs represent women writers concerted opposition to the o cial story that Introduction XXXV is to the monopoly that the monarchist machine had begun to exercise on his toriography 0 The pre ewer forays into history notwithstanding much of our information orn the times regarding women s issues derives om male authored or mediated sources To conclude my examination of seventeenthcentury retrenchments regarding women therefore I turn to the writings of two early modern women the French Marguerite de Navarre 14921549 and the Spanish Maria de Zayas y Sotomayor 1590 1661 on the plight of women in their respective centuries Their texts have much to tell us about their times and about each other for Maria de Zayas whose writings chapters 2 and 3 analyze extensively in seventeenthcentury contexts not only trenchantly reads her own century s treatment of women she also critically reads and reinscr es Marguerite de Navarre s Hc2gtz a722e 7mz and consequently the six teenthcentury project for women and marriage Little besides her extremely popular novellas the Nooe zr amorous 1637 I and the Dererzgarios czm0ms39os 1647 translated into English as 371 Erzc arz merztr qfLove and He Direrzc arztrzzerzzfr QquotLave respectively is known of Maria de Zayas In contrast the life of Marguerite de Navarre sister of Francois I has reached us in some detail Renowned patroness of the arts and of humanism Marguerite wrote novellas poetry plays and devotional litera ture She espoused and sponsored the reformist tendencies of the Catholic church principally the need for monastic reform in clergy tainted by lascivi ousness and corruption The Htpmmirwz a collection of sixtyseven stories published posthumously in 155 837 makes it clear that Marguerite also embraced the larger social reforms advocated by humanism in the apparent belief that they would ameliorate the lives of women Appealing to precisely the same modernizing ethos found in Fray Luis de Leon Marguerite advo mtes women s education and vindicates women 39om medieval misogyny such as that expressed by her character Hircan I think you ll agree that ever since Eve made Adam sin women have taken it upon themselves to torture men kill them and damn them to Hell 78 As the themes of each day of storytelling reveal Marguerite s moral tales showcase the virtue of women in quota corrective dialogue with clerical misogyny The third day for example heats Of ladies who have goodness and purity in love and of the hypocrisy and wickedness of the monks while the fourth day contains tales Principally of the virtue and long suffering of ladies in the winning over of their husbands and of the prudence of men with respect to their wives for the preserva on of the honour of their house and lineage The focus of the fourth day of tales exposes the very heart of Marguerite s text and of Renaissance social reforms For the oveniding thrust of the book involves de ecung love away from the vagaries of men s inevitable lust for our one pride md joy our one one dell 1ii is to see you women mm and to mks xxxvi EARLY MODERN WOMEN S WRITING AN D SOB JUANA INES DE LA CRUZ from you that which you prize more than life itsel 2 08 and toward long lasting stable companionate marriage Marguerite praises conjugal love through the group of storytellers spiritual leader Oisille as the finest and surest state in this world 361 At the same time the text does not fail to indicate an awareness of the political and social import of matrimony The character Dagoucin voices his opinion that marriage sho11ld depend not on the promptings of the heart but on the rank of rnilies the seniority of indi viduals and the provisions of the law in order to maintain peace in thestate and in order that the monarchy should not be undermined 374 The moral love tales of Maria de Zayas the most unabashed militant Hispanic feminist of her age twin and ultimately spin away om the Hqbtamfrmz Zayas s direct borrowings om her female forebear s text on the thematic and formal levels leave no doubt as to their interterrtual a ililation Several aspects of Marguerite s work lend themselves to Zayas s feminist and moralizing concerns Most obviously the defenses of women along gzeemefle lines that Marguerite performs hold great attraction for Zayas writing in the renewed rnisogynist climate of seventeenthcentury Spain Moreover Marguerite exposes albeit with a Decamzeroyzlike jocularity the problematic nature of the relationship between the sexes the ckle lust false promises adultery and treachery that underwrite and undermine both courtly love and marriage Her women fall victim to the violence of rape and incest At the same time as clever virtuous courageous acrfzioe subjects they defend them selves and success rlly wreak vengeance on their male aggressors Threequarters of a century later Maria de Zayas looks up from the Hcjpram rm to read her world as she writes her socially aware novellas She encounters and registers in her works a society in which the problematic relationship between the sexes has not only persisted but become dramatical ly even irrernediably eXacerbated From Marguerite to Zayas violence toward women escalates Gone is the play ribald eroticism of the Hqbtameivn s seductions In its place Zayas s portrait of love especially in the Deseagafios czmamros revolves around unmitigated incessant strife and con tains egregious abuse scatalogical torture and grotesque dismemberment often rendered in naturalistic detail Salacious friars assaulted women in the Hqbrameinn here any and all men attack their female prey Love for the baroque Zayas is war women its undeserved victims No matter what their virtue or cleverness they cannot and do not in the Darmgaffos amomror emerge victorious from the battles Irnplicitly but unmistakably Zayas looks back at the world portrayed in the Hq02 zzme ro7z with a critical eye seeing that its promise for women has not been iliilled Zayas s repeated strident cries for women s education indicate that society has failed to realize that tenet of the Renaissance agenda In fact it has irther chained women to the distaii reinforcing their diiference and feminizing them even more than nature intended 294 Yllera ed 203 Whereas women s education comprises the central plank in Zayas s feminist platform per se subsequent developments in the harmonious marriage plot Introduction XXXVii endorsed by Marguerite implicate every corner of the Spanish author s Deserzgazior amorosar In the world of Zayas s second collection of tales the marriage plot has clearly not been realized Men have not ceased to pursue women only for pleasure and marriage in the novellas is no solution only the stage for lrther abuse The sexes have not melded in companionate mar riage but have become ineluctably polarized Marguerite as was to be expect ed in a Reformation climate that had taken a stand against monasticism views the convent as secondary to marriage for example no man will ever per fectly love God unless he has perfectly loved some creature in this world 22839 Maria de Zayas as we will see in chapter 3 repeatedly has her char acters withdraw to the convent as a re ige from marriage Zayas s construc tion of the convent militantly changes the valence with which the patriarchy had endowed it om the mandated space of enclosure the convent becomes in Zayas s works the woman s chosen place of asylum liom the noxious world of men an idealized community of women In sum for Zayas the marriage project has failed and the other bene ts that were to have accrued 39om it have fallen away and been proven audulent Marguerite de Navarre writes herself into the prevailing patriarchal ethos of the sixteenth century support A ing the interests of the state The disillusioned Maria de Zayas of the seven teenth century feels compelled to defend women agczzizrr the patriarchal ethos as do more recent feminists and to remove her sex from the injurious reach es of the state turning to women s advantage the state s own imperious dif ferentiating mechanisms 39 ear III dZ2z39en ar sezzdas m7 zztrevzirzzerzto gzze mm ya rxez tri Zlaalczs 720 Fray cezsrzgo gaze z397zz e7zz 0 arre cz remover regzmda 2 parizzoay rzzmmorzzizg 2 quotze sy ziri to re once zreadrizg 1 223 no punirfzmenr cam agar deter zif SORJ39UANA INES DE LA CRUZ Primero suefio First Dream The mere publication of Maria de Zayas s novellas not to speak of their aggressive feminism and extraordinary popularity insinuates that despite e orts to deter them seventeenthcentury women were contributing notably and pub licly to their cultures Sixteenthcentury educational reforms combined with women s uncontainable urges to learn had created abiertas sendas al atre vimiento that is had set in motion forces of change that progressed inex orably Educated women of the seventeenth century while still subjected would become increasingly active subjects and publish in evergreater numbers They would demand and achieve roles that far exceeded those that Fray Luis and other moralists had envisioned for them This period also transformative EARLY MODERN WOMEN S WRITING AND SOR JUANA INES DE LA CRUZ and transitional for women in their own right evinced changes that resonat ed from the previous century and would open doors to the subsequent more enlightened one During the seventeenth century per se herstory would in certain ways deviate more sharply than ever 39om history making the era simultaneously a time of retrenchment and at least in terms of women s con tributions to culture advances for the female sex It is with good reason that Natalie Zemon Davis and Arlette Farge chose Renairsame and Paradoxes as the title of volume 3 of A History qfl39Vomerz 2 72 e Wart By far the most oft noted transformation of the cultural scene accom plished by women is one that we have already seen in action with Marie de Gournay Margaret Fell Maria de Zayas and Sor Juana I refer to the fact that for the rst time in the seventeenth century signi cant numbers of European women ventured into print to defend their own sex Ileightened misogyny spawned heightened feminist resistance empowered by their learn ing provoked by the tenacious subjugation of their sex at a time when so many other enlightened changes had taken place in society women took advantage of the inmeased availability of print to enter into the guereiie debate There as can already be surmised they executed defenses of the female sex on collective rather than merely individual grounds further signaling their matrilineal awareness through their catalogs of illustrious women interestingly enough this phenomenon of women defending their own kind in print arose for the rst time in England France and Spain to a lesser degree alike during the seventeenth century In more properly literary terms compared to previous centuries the sev enteenth century also saw a considerable surge in women s writing and publication Several general trends worthy of note emerged Where six teenthcentury learned women tended to concentrate their scholarly efforts on the reproduction of male learning through linguistic studies and transla tions seventeenthcentury women gained recognition as authors developing their own ideas and publishing their own works Hilda Smith xii Ageold uadition had consecrated love poetry as the terrain for women s creative lit erary endeavors seventeenth century women made forays often aught with trepidation as chapters 4 and 5 of my book detail into many other ctional and non ctional genres Similarly women had traditionally exerted their writ ing energies on religious topics the transvaluation of the early modern peri od that is the everincreasing orientation of culture to secular issues impelled women into the arenas of nonreligious writing as well There they placed their p mark on established genres love poetry the pastoral and the novella provid ed particularly fertile territory and contributed notably to the formation of lit erary phenomena such as the novel especially in France whose novel owes its inception to women Genres such as the novel and memoirs with less established rules and thus less burdened with male invesmient particularly atuacted women writers of the seventeenth century Female amhors could play an important part in mapping these forms Given women s still general ly limited sphne of mmerience they gavitated toward various gems that Introduction 15053 allowed for the inclusion of a personal element including the novel and mem oir but also private history letters biographies and autobiographies Although many such texts remained personal and private and therefore desisted om r on male dominated cultural capital others bluned the lines between the public and the private Hybrid works such as Marie de Goinnay s Le Pmzmzerzazlrde Mamziezrr dc Mo7z2czzg72e welded the novel with the autobiography and essay Biographies such as the Duchess of Newcastle s of her husband mixed the personal with political commentary The gtrr cz ezzsesquot privatization of historiography through the historical novel collapsed the dif ferences as well Moreover as was the case with Sor Juana s Respuesta forms developed for private exchanges were exploited in public exchanges Dejean 1983 6 All told seventeenth century women writers like their pre sentday counterparts performed a variety of generic formations trans formations One particular development involving women writers in the public sphere deserves special note in the seventeenth century there arose the rst small group of professional women writers Christine de Pizan the very rst and unique for two centuries had led the way Seventeenthcentury women like Marie de Gournay Aphra Behn Bathsua Makin Mary Astell and Ana Caro Mall n de Soto generally incited by nancial necessity and sometimes by choice earned their living by wK Even Sor Juana wrote works popular religious ceremonies to be performed in various cathedrals on commission Since it was writing for the court as Well as the church that afforded Sorjuana the less tangible but still sustaining currency of continuing to pursue her cho sen route as an intellectual one could easily maintain that she too supported herself by tB To live by the pen could be esthetically A a7zdliberat ing In the case of Aphra Behn pandering to public tastes entailed writing bawdy works more risqu than those of any other known women writer of her times in the case of Sor Juana Writing for mass consumption activated a car nivalesque popular voice and voices she includes speeches in Nahuatl not found elsewhere in her works see The case of Sor Juana ln s de la Cruz taking case now in a more legal sense reveals that many of the signi cant accomplishments and tensions of die erawith respect to womm that I have discussed in the foregoing pages played themselves out in her life In the context of the Primero sue2 z39o First Dream the epigraph to this section of my introduction relates to Phaeton and constitutes one of Sor Juanafs poetic selfinscriptions in a broader con text Sor Juana s life itself follows the lines of a seventeenthcentury female Phaeton evidencing his tragic daring and downfall Sor Juana cultivatw her mind The court acquaintances she had cultivated guaranteed for a time her e eedom to suidy and write They published her complete works in Spain inctudmg prose pomy and thaw of a relizious xiii EARLY MODERN WOMEN S WRITING AND son JUANA INES DE LA CRUZ C 3 33139 ii aim With Sorjuana for example people often give her work a kind of interpretation that makes it say more than she s saying which happens when they take her out of context and they impoverish her by doing that That is I can do a twentiethcentury reading of Sor Juana and see certain elements certain constants like 0 protest that you see in contemporary women s literature but I 39 haven t nor should I forget that Sorjuana was writing in the sev enteenth century and that there is a series of literary conventions that inform her writing just as there are literary conventions that inform my own 143 Bearing in mind Molloy s remarks on contextualization and anachronisrn I have posed thefollowing questions First I haveasked myself What in the cultural repertoires of these seven teenthcentury women writers contexts provided the building blocks for early modern women s writing particularly writing of a feminist cast For every era in the Westem world including the apparently least propitious has spawned some women writers and its own kind of feminism condi1ioned by that era s ideologies episteme cultural and political climate and so on Constraints con strain but need not sti e and silence They can stimulate and provoke as Christine de Pizan s utopian feminist Book qfr e Crijl qfLaa z39er springing from misogynist medieval polernics demonstrates Christine casts out om her con text and shapes feminist debates to come Yet even those who remain entirely within the dominant forms and norms of their context can openup a space for feminist writing I refer the reader for example to the Aa7mz39rrzc239a 22 t mzm Day Awe Before the Works of God by the Spanish nun and Christine s contem i porary Teresa de Cartagena the rst Hispanic woman known to have defend ed in writing wornen s learning Such texts and considerations have prompted me to look in the following chapters at the resources that both the pancultur al repertoire and individual cultures aiforded the seventeenthcentury woman writer If in this introduction I have paid much attention to the ways in which patriarchal society thwarted wornerfs advances throughout the book and especially in its first three chapters I also endeavor to bring out aspects of the dominantquot cultures that in fact lent themselves to feminist appropriation and 39 the manners in which women writers instrumentalized them The second contenual aspect that interests me involves not only early modern feminist writing but also modern feminist critical practices and the dynamics of the relationship between thern Working in the early modern period leads one to interrogate and scruple what have come to be common place tenets of recent feminist criticism That the bulk of them derive from our work on nineteenth and twentiethcentury women s wri ng gives rise to sev eral weighty questions Are these universals of women s writing or historical ly conditioned and limited phenomena To what degree are they applicable without incurring in anachronism to periods other than the liminal rnod ernist modernist or postmodern Winch of these paradigms if any hold in early modern women s and how How in other words dam early Introduction modern wornen s rehearse and or enact if indeed it does the attrib utes that would come to characterize its modern avatar Although it lies out side the purview of my study to respond in any ill way to the foregoing questions I have had them much in mind As the book unfolds it should become clmr that certain of our modern prazepts among them anxiety of authorship the angel monster paradigm gender bending generic hybridity indeterminacy category indistinction questions of subjectivity not only obtain without undue anachronism in the seventeenth century but also per tain with special relevance to that time The considerations just articulated bearing on the connections between the early modern and the modern lead me now to address one nal question that implicates many of the matters raised in this introduction and treated in the book at large Why if I am primarily focusing on Sorjuana and other sev erzteem zcentury women writers do the title of the book and the title of the present introduction invoke the broader framework of the early modem For one thing as the reader undoubtedly realizes the designation ewfy mod em has been widely adopted to signal awareness of the expanded reaches of the period traditionally termed the Rerzdirsance Innovations of the Renaissance developed not in isolation but within a larger chronology now thought rough ly to include the period between 1450 and 1700 the entire period in which emerged social structures previously unknown on the stage of world history Ferguson et al xvii and persisting to our day introduces factors that render it 64716 modern and that link it with the modern in mdamental Ways As Leah S Marcus has written in Redrawzizgr e Bozma anIr39 1753 OW qfE7zglr3 and Arrzericrzrz Litemry Srudzhs VVe are coming to view the period more in 39 terms of elements repeated thereafter those features of the age that appear to us precursors of our own twentieth century the modem the postmodern 41 Therefore to situate the seventeenth century in the compass of early modem is as I have started to do in the foregoing pages to view its distinctive traits as over against the sixteenth century its role as a pivotal time between the six teenth the earliest modern and the eighteenth the more properly modern centuries and to chart its connections with the modern per se Moreover the term 64725 modem gains particular relevance and urgency in the context of women s studies Renaissance connotes a period of rebirth of hope and shining optimism traditional period de nitions we know can take on quite a di ierent look when viewed om the perspective of women Although Jacob Burckhardt s classic study of the Renaissance maintains 39 that women stood on a footing of perfect equality with men 3 95 we now recognize the naivet and myopia of his claim Catharine Stimpson has rightly noted Early modem is a far more sober far less lyrical set of phonemes than Renaissance Despite this the phrase points to an ambi tious energetic uit il effort to resee the Renaissance and to see it wholly foreword to Ferguson et al Revisiting the Renaissance and rechristen ing the period as early modern represent our ongoing efforts to restore to history and visibility phenomena that have been ignor marginalized or distorted foreword to Ferguson et al E ximviii EARLY MODERN WOMEN S WRITiNG AND SORJUANA INES DE LA CRUZ and transitional for women in their own right evinced changes that resonat ed orn the previous century and would open doors to the subsequent more enlightened one During the seventeenth century per se herstory would in certain ways deviate more sharply than ever from his tory making the era simultaneously a time of retrenchment and at least in terms of women s con tributions to culture advances for the female sex It is with good reason that Natalie Zernon Davis and Arlette Farge chose Rerzainmzce and Erzlzgzterzmevzz Paradoxes as the title of volume 3 of A Hzktorjz qfW9me7z 23922 the War By far the most oftnoted transformation of the cultural scene accom plished by women is one that we have already seen in action with Marie de Goumay Margaret Fell Maria de Zayas and Sor Juana I refer to the fact that for the first time in the seventeenth century signi cant numbers of European women ventured into print to defend their own sex Heightened misogyny spawned heightened feminist resistance empowered by their leam ing provoked by the tenacious subjugation of their sex at a time when so many other enlightened changes had taken place in society women took advantage of the increased availability of print to enter into the quartile debate There as can already be surmised they executed defenses of the female sex on collective rather than merely individual grounds lrther signaling their matrilineal awareness through their catalogs of illustrious women Interestingly enough this phenomenon of women defending their own kind in print arose for the rst time in England France and Spain to a lesser degree alike during the seventeenth century In more properly literary terms compared to previous centuries the sev enteenth century also saw a considerable surge in women s writing and publication Several general trends worthy of note emerged VVhere six teenthcentury learned women tended to concentrate their scholarly efforts on the reproduction of male lwrning through linguistic studies and transla tions seventeenthcentury women gained recognition as authors developing their own ideas and publishing theii own works Hilda Smith h Ageold tradition had consecrated love poetry as the terrain for women s creative lit erary endeavors seventeenthcentury women made forays often fraught with trepidation as chapters 4 and 5 of my book detail into many other ctional and non ctional genres Similarly women had traditionally exerted their writ ing energies on religious topics the transvaluation of the early modern peri od that is the ever increasing orientation of culture to secular issues impelled Women into the arenas of nonreligious writing as well There they placed their mark on established genres love poetry the pastoral and the novella provid ed particularly fertile territory and contributed notably to the formation of lit erary phenomena such as the novel especially in France whose novel owes its inception to women Genres such as the novel and memoirs with less established rules and thus less burdened with male investment particularly attracted women writers of the seventeenth century Female authors could play an important part in mapping these forms Given women s still general ly limited sphere of experience they gravitated toward various genres that I T Introduction xxxix allowed for the inclusion ofa personal element including the novel and mem 01139 but also private history letters biographies and autobiographies Although many such texts remained personal and private and therefore desisted from in mging on maledominated cultural capital others blured the lines between the public and the private Hybrid works such as Marie de Gournay s Le Prozmzerzozirde Monnkur de Mantegna welded the novel with the autoblography and essay Biographies such as the Duchess of Newcastle s of her husband mixed the personal with political commentary The pmirkwes privatization of historiography through the historical novel collapsed the dif ferences as well Moreover as was the case with Sor Juana s Respuesta forms developed for private exchanges were exploited in public exchanges DeJean 19 83 6 All told seventeenthcentury women writers like their pre sentday counterparts performed a variety of generic formations and trans formations Qne particular development involving women writers in the public sphere deserves special note in the seventeenth century there arose the rst small group of professional women writers Christine de Pizan the very rst and unique for two centuries had led the way Seventeenthcentury women like Marie de G011II13Y Aphfa Behn Bathsua MakiI1 Mary Astell and Ana Caro Mall n dc Soto generally incited by nancial necessity and sometimes by cho1ce earned their living by writing Even Sor Juana wrote works popular religious ceremonies to be performed in various cathedrals on commission Since it was writing for the court as well as the church that afforded Sor Juana the less tangible but still sustaining currency of continuing to pursue her cho sen T011153 33 an iI1 f l1eCtl1a1 0116 could easily maintain that she too supported herself by P To live by the pen could be esthetically limiting and liberat ing In the case of Aphra Behn pandering to public tastes entailed writing bawdy works more risqu than those of any other known women writer of her tirnes in the case of Sor Juana writing for mass consumption activated a car nivalesque popular voice and voices she includes speeches in Nahuatl not found elsewhere in her works W6 e of Sor Juana In s de la Cruztalting case now in a more legal that many of the signi cant accomplishments and tensions of the era With 139 sect 3950 W0I11 11 that I h3VB discussed in the foregoing pages played themselves t in her life In the context of the Primem mer 239a First D1 33ml the pigraph sectiltn of my introduction relates to Phaeton and constitutes one of Sor ana s poetic selfinscriptions in a broader con text Sor Juana s life itself F the lines of a seventeenthcentury female Phaeton evidencing his tragic downfall Sor Juana cultivated her mind The court acquaintances she h tivated guaranteed for a time her freedom to study and write They publis her complete works in Spain mcludillg P1 0Se poetry and theater of a re i t and secular nature She xliv EARLY MODERN WOMEN S WRITING AND soR JUANA INES DE LA CRUZ All of the above considerations underwrite my inscription of the book in the amework of the early modern However one further Inatter pertaining speci cally to seventeenth century women s writing and illuminated by the optic of Sor uana s work drives my appeal to a wider perspective Women might not have experienced the heart of the Renaissance but they certainly registered the pulse of the contradictory early modem era its dialectical beat I allude particularly to the fact that much of seventeenthcentury feminism and some of its womerfs writings were produced not only under siege but driz mizbaily Several seventeenthcer1tury women writers for example perceived or designed the sixteenth century as a women s Renaissance however little truth that construction might have had in social reality45 they adopted con servative positions to nther womerfs modernity Female essayists of the time more reformers than radicals focus their sights on the relatively enlight ened views of the sixteenthcentury preceptists and lament their evanescence Maria de Zayas reads Marguerite de Navarre with a critical eye At the same time she contrasts the golden age of Renaissance Spain under Queen Isabel with her present age of iron Dermgafior 300301 20941 and states that although women are slandered in the present they were more highly esteemed by fnen and esteemed themselves more highly in the past Derezzgafzfos 459 35 Mme de Lafayette situates La Prirzcerse ale Clam in the sixteenth century evoking its femaledominated court milieu and invoking Marguerite de Navarre the novel begins in the year the Hqbztzmirm was pub lished Mary Astell and Margaret Lucas Cavendish hark back to the convent situating their female utopias in that nowbanished realm As the following pages will disclose in more detail several female authors of the seventeenth century carried on a conservative romance with a recent yet idealized past recuperating and mobilizing the recontained energies ofthe previous century to advance their own or their own sex Sor lana for her part draws sustenance for women s education from Fray Luis and his fellow Spanish reformer Juan Luis Vives subscribing to their positions She applies to her foremother the great Saint Teresa an activist writing mm of the sixteenth Century She summons up the stable harmonious worldview of Renaissance Neoplatonisrn as one scenario of the Soul s quest for knowledge in the Przivzero sue o Moreover as the following pages will con rm 39om within the con nes of her colonial echo chamber Harss 17 Sor Juana begins to feel the heartbeat of the incipient Age of Reason Critimlly and diacritically positioned between the old and the new prescient of Women s issues that obtain to this day Sor uana s work embodies and demands the wider economy bound up in the designation early modem In chipping away at the walls in which scholarship has tended to enclose Sor Juana we can make visible not only the walls but also the apertures doors and communicating vessels that describe the space occupied by the early modern woman writer Sor uana ln s de la Cruz Notes Introduction 1 See for example Georgina SabatRivers Autobiograiias Santa Teresa y Sor Juana in her Sor Juana B233 ale la Cruz 3 arm poem Zaarrocos ale la calama Barcelona Prornociones y Publicaciones Universitarias 1992 and Electa Arena and Amanda Powell introduction to T726 AmrzvarLa Raspaesra New York Feminist Press 1994 2122 et passim I 2 Here and throughout the book I cite Sor Juana s works 39om Alfonso Mendez Plancarte and Alberto G Salceda s authoritative four volu1ne edition of her Oarar com plerar The numbers of her texts correspond to theirs and have been widely adopted 39 I cite the volume number at the beginning of the discussion of each text or wherever I believe there might be con ision 3 La mirtzka ciudad ale D1293 feeding into the controversy on the Immaculate Conception raging at the time was condemned by Rome in 1680 but rescinded rom the list of prohibited works by Carlos II For a recent and modern treatment of Maria de Agreda see Clark Colahan like l7z3zbm39 qfS 0r Mania dc Ag739ea7a Wnfzizg Knowledge and Power Tucson and London University of Arizona Press 1994 on the contro39 versies surrounding her works see Fiscar Marison What zfze Urzivemifziar gquotEwr Me Relzgzbas Orders anal Leamed Men Say of rat C39z39aampzd dz Dias California Academy Library Guild Press 1914 4 Mendez Plancarte as he states fails to pursue SorJuana s reference to Agreda in the Ejmrkzbs de la Encamaa39az 4663 Colahan brie y notes certain correspondences between the two writing nuns MarieCecile B nassy Berling on the other hand in her Hamaaisvae er Re gzbn czez Sor Jaana I725 ale la Cruz analyzes the connections between Sor Juana and Agreda While reluctant to see a signi cant rapport between Agreda and Sor Juana whom she portrays as opposing mysticism B nassy Berling allows that the Mexican nun cites Agreda nontextually that Sor Juana may have read her several years before writing the EIi rczZ z39os and that she remains faithful to the struc ture but not the inspiration of La mirrzira aizdad de Dios 269170 5 All references to Octavio Paz throughout the book unless otherwise noted are to his Sorufaarza the Englishtranslation of Sor Juana Imfv ale la Cruz 0 as Irampar de la f I have critiqued Paz s discussions of SorJuana s social and writerly female milieu in Toward a Feminist Reading of SorJuana In s de la Cruz llerrim 1991 21 and in SorJuana despu s de Paz una restitucion feminista Bzrzz z 522 1VIay 1990 2022 6 Wh e recent years do show a slight increase in comparative work on SorJuana I call the reader s attention particularly to Georgina SabatRivers s Sor Jaarza lira tie la Cruz y omaspaefar armcor ale Ia colomia remarkably few critics have attempted to link Sor Juana with writing women of her times outside the Hispanic environment To my knowledge and dismay for example the present chapter contains the rst detailed analysis of the Respuesta and the gaerelle alas 7 R Brinks anthology exceptionally does include an entire article on Sorjuan and on Maria de Zayas OK 252 Notes to Introduction 8 Nina Scott in La gran turba de las que merecieron nombres Sor Juana s Foremothers in La Respuesta a Sor Filotea in Coded Encounters Wrz39z z3922g Gender and ziz Colorzzizl Larziz America ed Francisco Javier CevallosCandau et al Amherst University of Massachusetts Press 1994 traces the similarities between Sor uana s text and that of Boccaccio 207 In their annotated translation of the Respuesta cited in n 1 Arenal and Powell make a case for Sor uana s possible knowledge of Christine de Pizan in particular citing a passage om the Mexican text that bears a notable resemblance to Me Boat cfzf e C2131 qfLaaz39er 124 126 My sense is that the connections between Sorjuana and Christine may be quite apparent but not necessarily real I believe that my analysis in this chapter supports the contention that due to the persistence of Boccaccio and of the guerelle alerfwzmer along the lines initi ated by Christine Sor Juana need not have had a direct familiarity with Christine to repeat her arguments Gerda Lerner has noted Christine s culling the Bible for wor thy heroines and examples set a precedent which would be followed for centuries yet none of the women writing in the same vein ever cited her Nor is there any evidence that they knew of her or her wor 145 9 Of course as chapter 4 discusses in detail the Respuesta partakes of several conventions of religious woInen s P My point here is that it displays traits of sec ular women s writing as well 10 Maclean provides extensive analyses of the gzzerefle in seventeenthcentury France and Henderson and McManus and Woodbridge of the debate in England 11 Maclean in his chapter 2 and Henderson and McManns in their chapter 1 divide gzzereile argumentation into the three categories 12 The guerelfe s critique of culture carries signi cant feminist implications Lerner remarks that the person engaging in reinterpretation considers herse1f Jllyquotauthorized and capable of challenging patriarchal authority 139 Kelly observes that the early feminists with no great educational credentials were unremittingly critical of the authors ancient modern even scriptural at a time when the aucrorer were still auc toniizzfar to many 15 and that their critique of culture was one of the major achieve ments of the early feminist opposition of misogyny 19 13 Other remarkable similarities between Sorjuana and De Gournay can be found in their autobiographical documents Sor uana s Respuesta and De Gournay s Copie de la vie de la Damoiselle de Gournay envoy e a IIinhenctum Anglois 1616 reproduced by Elyane DezonIones in her lIarie de Gournay le jeu palimpseste L spni CrefaZezzr23 no 2 1983 3335 Both authors represent themselves as prodi gies who mastered Latin with astonishing rapidity and thwarted their mothers wish es in gaining a clandestine education and as martyrs who suffered numerous obstacles in so doing Christine de Pizan also mentions that in acquiring an education she went against her mother s wishes 154 It would be interesting indeed to explore these coin cidences Do they derive solely om the women s exceptionality and orn the obsta cles their cultures placed in the way of women s education or were they in any way topics of learned women s autobiographical writings 14 I quote 39om the only English translation available of De Gournays Equality that of Maja Bijvoet in Wilson and Wan1ke s anthology Wamm Wnren qf r e Sevmteerzr Cerzrury Both of De Gournay s feminist tracts can be found in French in the recent edition by lV1ilagros Palma cited in my bibliography 15 I quote the lines of Saint Paul s Corinthians and Timothy om pp 44 and 137 respectively of the Norton Critical Edition of his works The Wnizhgs qfrS39z Paul edit ed by Wayne A Meeks Notes to Introduction 253 16 De Gournay writes that Saint Paul mentions a woman as his coadjutor in the service of God and statesthat if the apostle excludes women from the priesthood and forbids them to speak in the Church he clearly does not do this out of contempt for women but rather out of fear that they would lead some men into temptation if they showed so publicly and openly the beauty and grace they have in greater measure than men which would be inevitable when ministering and preaching 20 Other points of contact between De Gournay and Fell include emphasis on Christ s favors to women the example of Mary Magdalene and the discussion of women who succeed ed in saving their cities from siege 1 Mary Astell whom we meet in chap 5 also took recourse to historicizing argu ment in explaining Saint Paul That historicizing argument re creating the context in COI 1I1tl 1 was appropriate and necessary has been home out by modern scholarship See Constance F Parvey s Theology and Leadership of Women in the New Testament in Relzggzim and Sexism Image 9 Woman in tire Jgzyzjy gm Cignjgmm Yirczalzizbrrr ed Rosemary Radford Ruether Mew York Simon amp Schuster 1974 for a discussion of the theological and social context of Corinthians and other writings of Saint Paul There one nds the important thesis so consistent with the heuristics of 39 Sor Juana and Fell that what Paul had understood as a kind of temporary status quo ethics in the context of the imminent end times became translated two generations later into moral guidelines for keeping things as they are forever 146 18 Bearing out the arguments made by earlier writers in a tting epilogue to their debates many recent scholars have elucidated the apparent divide in Saint Paul s writ ings on women between innovation and conservatism See for example Parveys arti cle cited in the previous note and William O Walkerjrf s The Theology of Woman s Place and the Paulinist Tradition Semezirz 28 1983 10112 both articles provide ample bibliography on the subject 19 On Sor uana s adherence to epistolary rhetoric and the rhetorical divisions of the Respuesta see Rosa Perelmuter s milestone article La estructura retorica de la Raspuemz oz Sor Fzlotaz IIr3bzz7zz39c Rewiezv 51 no 2 1983 14758 There Perelmuter establishes incontrovertibly that the Respuesta divides into the exordzb or salutation the rzdrrarzb or autobiographical section the pme a and the peromzio 20 In Latin in the original Anus similter in habitu sancto bene docentes Titus 23 4462 O rarpcamplmar of Sorjuana 21 These same theological stumbling blocks the same war of opposing proof texts would persist throughout the centuries to this day As Parvey states These pas sages have not only had an impact on the later epistles within the New Testament but they have provided the shape for the fundamental religious and social attitudes toward women in both the Eastern and Westem churches to the present day These references have been used as proof texts for explaining why women should be prohibited from priestly and liturgical roles and they still constitute a major justification for maintain ing women in a subordinated role in the Church and in society at large 125 The writings of Saint Paul ieled opposition to women in contexts other than the church During the abolitionist and su agette movements for example women like the Grimk sisters and Frances W39 lard respectively returned to his writings still attempt ing two and three centuries later to neutralize them On their readings of Saint Paul see Carolyn De Swarte Gi brd American Women and the Bible The Nature of Woman as a Hermeneutical Issue in Femzizisr Peraybectzbar on Bz lzhzi Scfzoiarzr zj ed Adela Yarbro Collins Chico Calif Scholars Press 1985 The truly extraordinary irony of the whole trajectory is that recent scholars have disputed whether certain of lr 254 Notes to Introduction the offending texts were in act written by Saint Paul himsel and thus whether they carry his weight and authority On this matter see Walker s entire article also Lerner 140 and Meeks 22 All references to Maravall throughout the book unless otherwise noted are to his Culture cyfzfbe Ba719gza 47zay3zIs afar Hirton2 aZStmc2 urr the English translation of his La culfmzz ale czmzco Here and elsewhere in this section of the chapter I quote Maravall on the crises of the seventeenth century for the pertinence of his focus to my own Nevertheless I draw equal sustenance for my amework from historians such as Theodore K Rabb who support the widely di iised notion of the seventeenth centu ry as characterized by crises that nd their resolution by 1700 Rabb writes of this notion The term crisis has found its way into most new textbooks and the cur rent generation of students is apparently being taught that the crisis can serve as an organizing principle no less power il than Reformation or Enlightenment 15 See the collection of essays Crisis in Eurrpe 15601660 ed Trevor Aston New York Anchor 1967 and Rabb s The StrMggef0rS2 d5z7z1j 23972 Early Modem Europe for presen tations of the argument in a variety of spheres and for irther bibliography on the sub jestquot 39 23 Henderson and McManus for example question Woodbridge s assumptions of a direct correlation between society and literature saying quotVVe cannot account for the prominence of the shrew stereotype in Renaissance England by tidy explanations of expanded female autonomy for we simply do not have su icient evidence that women as a group gained signi cant additional liberty 51 They do however allow that the Hit ZlIzzlzierHaec r controversy arose from actual circumstances 52 The next chap ter of the present study treats the phenomena of the manly woman and of cross dressing more illy and theoretically 24 I refer of course to the controversies unleashed by Joan Ke11y s seminal and path breallting article Did Women Have a Renaissance in her Woman History and Heozry The Essays qfl39ozrz Kelly Chicago and London University of Chicago Press 1984 especially regarding the tnansfonnations Kelly charts between the medieval and Renaissance periods Even articles taking issue with Kelly on these grounds such asjudith M Bennett s wledieval Women Modem Women Across the Great Divide in Czdtrme and History I35 0 6 00 Essay on Englir Cammzmitzlar Ialevznitzizr and Wningg ed David Aers Detroit Wayne StateUniversity Press 1992 and David IIerihy s Did Women have a Renaissance A Reconsideration in Medzbvalzkz er Hzmzrmirrzhz Studzhr 23922 Medzbval and Rerzazizrcmce Culture 13 1985 116leave many of her basic economic and social assumptions intact 25 Here we must move beyond Maravall s Culture qfz he Bczrogue stunning and lamentable for its absence in his 1975 study is any substantive consideration of women as a group and or as objects of the vast machine of repression and control he docu ments Several of the essays in Culture and Comfrrol 23972 CounterRgfmmztzbrz Spczziz ed Anne J Cruz and Mary Elizabeth Perry Minneapolis and Oxford University of Minnesota Press 1992 strive to compensate for this lack Maravell himself does go on to discuss misogyny and crisis in his 1986 La Iz z e2amrzz pzbararca derde la irronb 5062221 51310 0 Iy XI ID but in any case it is debatable whether these discussions qual ity him as a feminist historian 26 I am reminded here of Alice A Jardine s notion of gynesis fW39oma2z and Modwmbz Ithaca and London Cornell University Press 1985 which she de nes in the following manner This otherthan themselves is almost always a space of some kind over which the narrative has lost control and this space has been coded as femzizzize as shaman 25 italics in original 39 Notes to Introduction 255 27 I agree entirely with Henderson and McManus s observation that thequot rebel lions and assertive behavior of the small percentage of women who engaged in thesequot activities may have created widespread concern among men about the possibility of a general female rebellion against male dominance 52 28 Hz Mulzkg IIdea 172 and many other treatises om the woman controversy in early modern England can be found in the Henderson and Mclanus anthology HafHumwzh7zd However they have excerpted the texts and neither this quote nor the epigraph to this section of my chapter appears in the versions they present 29 Almost needless to say I am not maintaining that sixteenth century patriarchs purported to place women on an equal footing with men I am merely explicating a master narrative of a Renaissance moralist as a barometer of changes in symbolic posi 39 tions regarding women Women never ceased to be subordinated to men in the moral ists tracts my point is that the Renaissance moralists operated on a principle of inclu sion rather than exclusion and that their works characterized women as a desirable and necessary part of the social fabric rather than as a disruptive clinamen 30 I call to mind here Paul Julian Smith s formulation in WnZ2hg39 23972 e P Spanish Lz39z em1 zme qfr e Golder Age Oxford Clarendon Press 1987 I suggest that Spain itself is the place of marginality the supplement to Europe both excessive and essential which at once conceals and reveals the criteria on which its exclusion is founded 2 See his chap 1 and the conclusion for an elaboration of this notion 31 See Hirrarrla y crz392 z39ca ale 5 Iz39z erczmm apzzziioilcz 3 1 Srglar ale Om Bamyco Pnirzer Szzplemezzto ed Aurora Egido Barcelona Editorial Critica 1992 7 for a bibliography of critiques of Maiavail Notable among them is J H Elliott s review Concerto Barroco New YorE Rcvzlrzv qfBooivr 34 no 6 April 9 1987 2629 Vifith his cus tomary insight Elliott registers reservations to the monolithic uniformity with which Maravall tends to endow the baroque period 27 Elliott is not convinced that Maravall or anyone else can present a wholly persuasive interpretation of any phe nomenon as diverse and complex as the European baroque 2728 Nevertheless he praises Maravall s book as an exceptionally brave and sometimes brilliant attempt to reintegrate the agments into a meaning il pattern 29 32 Keller makes a similar argument noting that two centuries after the Malian 1lJaIy zamm at the moment in which modern science was being born witches still embodied the fear il dangers of female sexual power and that in seventeenthcentw Iy England the witch mania reached its apogee and so it might be argued did fear of female sexuality 60 Stallybrass reading Ballthtin s Ra elazi and His Worki contrasts the grotesque body one that emphasizes the body itself and the parts of the body open to the outside world 124 with the closed classical body one that emphasizes the head as the seat of reason He states that seventeenthcentury moralists di er from Erasmus in the assumption that the woman s body unlike the princes is rmrzma y grotesque and that it must be subjected to constant surveillance precisely because as Bakhtin says of the grotesque body it is un nished outgrows itself transgresses its own lirnits 126 I return to the grotesque body and its relationship with misogy ny in chap 2 33 I recall here the summary of Anderson and Zinsser who conclude that in the seventeenth century Instead of breaking with tradition descriptions of the female accumulated traditions the classical the religious the literary the customary and the legal all stated afresh in the secular language of the new age Instead of being freed women were ringed with yet more binding and seemingly incontrovertible versions of the traditional attitudes about their inferior nature their proper function and role and their subordinate relationship to men 99 For a fascinating example of the manner 255 Notes to Introduction in which gender concerns wrote biology see the discussion of William Harvey in the last section of Laqueur s chap 4 34 In terms of the colonies of England and Spain here I look brie y at Puritan attitudes toward women in New England a matter on which chap 4 substantially expands On women and the Puritan world also see for example Pattie Cowell Puritan Women Poets in America and Cheryl Walker In the Margin The Image of Women in Early Puritan Poetry both in P27122272 Poets and Poezzhr Seaerzteerzr2Century Ameriazrz Poeziy 23972 Zhemjy and Pracrzhe ed Peter White University Park and London Pennsylvania University Press 1985 With regard to Mexico it can be said thatSpain desiring to control its colonies not only projected its social and political structures onto its satellites but further calici ed them in that arena Paz has written New Spain was a society oriented toward opposing modernity not achieving it 259 On women in colonial Mexico see Jose na Muriel Czzlzzzm rzovoizigbczmz Mexico UNAM 1982 and Pilar Gonzalbo Aizpuru La mzzlemquot an In News Egzbarfa Ealzzaacririz 3 012274 cotzldzizzzzz Mexico El Colegio de Mexico 1987 wherein is stated for example The good policy that they attempted to impose on the Colony from its earliest years involved order and a general acceptance of the doctrinal and social prin ciples on which speci c norms of behavior rested 253 Similarly Asuncion Lavrin points out that Spain provided the social prescriptions for the colonies The intellec tual source of this role de nition was in Spain Through a process of cultural transfer prescriptive literature and canons of behavior passed to Mexico and the rest of South America 1978 25 My chap 2 looks at the transfer of Spanish misogyny to the colonies the circumstances pressing on Sorjuana as discussed throughout the book reflect the above contentions 35 As does Tirnmermans but in greater detail De Jean argues that the actions of the mdauar instigated a rnisogynist reaction and nther that women continued in their writings the politic activity begun in the arena of the civil war 1991 see also her essay Amazons and Literary Women Female Culture During the Reign of the Sun King in Sun Kzizg The Alrcemfmzcy qfFre2zcamp Culture Dzmizg 2733 afLozc r XIPZ ed David Lee Rubin Washington London Toronto Folger Books 1992 36 Timmermans notes in this connection that under Louis XIV elitequot women became an icon of culture and of French cultural superiority with no rami cations for social structures The society women m 67za7az 2zar celebrated for their cultivation or their written works illustrate the superiority of Louis XlV s century over previous peri ods and that of the French nation over others The royal national ideology found its justification in this glori cation without the least threat to the social structure 338 With regard to social structures one should certainly take into account Carolyn C Lougee s argument in her Le Przracfir dz Femmes W mm Serious and S0a39aZSimtyquotz39caz zi97z ziz SeuerzteerzzfirCezztzzry France that defenses of women as is often the case were actu ally about something else being defenses of the social mobility that salon culture rep resented and promoted 37 Chilton in his introduction to the English version of the Hey mm vn puts forth the idea that Marguerite de Navarre was not the only author contributing to the work He maintains that several individuals may have contributed stories but that Marguerite probably contributed some stories edited others and added the storytelling frame work in which they are embedded 10 38 The many and signi cant connections between Marguerite and Zayas require a separate study Summarizing let me rst say that in his Maria de Zayas An Outstanding Woman Short Story Writer of SeventeenthCentury Spain U22zt2em ry if Notes to Introduction 257 Colorado Stzzdzlis 13 1929 156 Edwin B Place identi es the Hqbram rvn as the source of several of Zayasis tales Moreover certain distinctive features departures from the Daaamermz appear in both works the polyphonic construction of the texts with their male and female narrators each of whom boasts his or her own particular voice I H a different ideological position an elaborate amework story in which 1t 18 claimed that the embedded tales are true and told with a simple style in order to reach a wide public the presence in the frame story of a main character Parlemente in Marguerite Lisis in Zayas thought to represent the author and her views and so on 39 Henderson Lerner Hilda Smith Vlfiesner and W391lson and Warnke all discuss the phenomenon of seventeenthcentury women publishing defenses of their own sex as a key advance of the century 40 T136 Respuesta was first published posthumously in 1700 in Sorjuana s Fame 31 oZ2rarpo5rzmzat Prior to that as Paz notes it must have circulated in manuscript among her iends and admirers 41 I refer the reader to W son and Warnke s outstanding introduction to their Wmerz PIirnm 0fz ze Severzreeyz ir Cerztzzry Though relatively brief it contains the best synopuc and panEuropean discussion of women writers that I have encountered in the course of my investigations 9 42 The constellation of issues and consequences resulting om theii place in the public domain can productively equate even writers as notably divergent as Sorjuana 3I1d Aphra Behnf Although I have not found a place for Behn in this book her work displays several of the issues that ensuiingpages bring out especially the tendency to multipleselfunaglng discussions of gender and fame the longing for a past golden age 39 and for a utopian community for women One who wishes to pursue this comparison will profit from consulting RermdizzgAp m Brim IIzisrary Remy and Crrfzkzism ed Heidi Hutner Charlottesville and London University Press of Virginia 1993 and particularly the COI1 tI ibutions of Catherine Gallagher Viho Was that Masked Woman Th PT0Sti39Fl139E and the Playwright in the Comedies of Aphra Behn and Judith Kegan Gardiner Libe139ty Equality Fraternity Utopian Longings in Behn s Lyric Poetry 4339 Qn Teresa de Cartagena seen 72 to chap 5 44 I bear in mind Leah S39Marcus s query At what point does the early modern becomethe modem and assuming pronounced elements of continuity between one aI1d the other how are scholars to de ne the relation between the two 45 Why seventeenthcentury women writers constructed the previous era as a goldenagefor women is a matter on which I can only speculate Clearly the assump f10 Of 3 better W0r1d for Women situated in the past suited their reformist ie not radical ideological platforms Additionally one might consider that what was most P1 9S nt to them fI3 0I11 116 recent pastcwas not its social reality but its programmatic WI1t1 g39S with their promise of education and their of illustrious women as well as th hi5t01 iCa1 C011SCi011SI16SS of its Outstanding wonren rulers Isabel Elizabeth As Kelly rBInarksbecausemost early modern learned women were from the upper class es andled sheltered lives they were more inclined to reflect on texts than on events ff0111 th 39P3st Such as theburningofwitches 27 46 I borrow thephrase conservative romance from Kelly 27 who refers to a dif ferent but related phenomenon Kelly writes In the historical transition from feudal to bou139geoissociety most of the early ferninists of the gzzere eicontinued to appeal to and carried ona conservative romance With female representatives of the old order VICTORIA KAIIN Wallace John M 1968 Destiny his Choice The Loyalism of Andrew Ma Cambridge 9 Wilson Katharina M and Warnke Frank 1989 Women Writers of Seventeenth Century Athens Ga s o 39 Wolin Sheldon 1970 Hobbes and the Epic Tradition of Political Berkeley and Los Angeles 1 Worden Blair 1981 Classical Republicanism and the Puritan Revolutio in Hugh39LloydJones Valerie Pearl and Blair Worden eds History an Imagination Essays in Honor of H R TrevorRoper 182200 New Yorllt gt 1990 Milton s Republicanism and the Tyranny of Heaven in Gisela Bock Quentin Skinner and Maurizio Viroli eds Machiavelli ranll Republicanism 22546 Cambridge 39 Surprising Fame Renaissance Gender Ideologies and Women39s Lyric Ann Rosalind Jones Renaissance iconography fame is a Woman a winged gure herald 1ng present and future reknown Ronsard in his 1555 Hymne to Henri writes of La Fame qui vole et parle librement et qui sujette n est a nul commandement ll 34142 But in Renaissance gender ideol ogy fame was not for women Ronsard s gure of free spealcing liberty is diametrically opposed to the social ideal of woman as it Was con structed by early modern writers on feminine conduct In the dis courses of humanism and bourgeois fainily theory the proper woman is an absence legally she vanishes under the name and authority of her father and her husband as daughter and wife she is enclosed in the private household She is silent and invisible she does not speak and she is not spoken about I I am going to analyze this ideological climate in some detail in order to suggest how problematic the notion of literary fame was for Women Writing in the Renaissance I might call What I am doing the study of pre poetics of the conditions necessary for writing at all and of the ways those conditions shape the lyrics of sixteenthcentury women writers In this period when public eloquence was becoming the central requirement for masculine careers when training in oration and written argument was essential for men managing cities for ambassadors and advisors to princes for courtiers and poets prohibi tions against women s speech seem to have intensi ed Ruth Kelso a historian of Renaissance gender doctrines conjectures that Women may have been on the receiving end of a cultural guilt complex as men turned more and more to secular civic ambitions the residual Chris tian virtues of humility and retirement from the world were displaced onto Women 25 26 Two writers on education provide an illustra tive contrast Iuan Luis Vives Writing for the teachers of men in De From Nancy K Miller ed The Poetics of Gender Columbia University Press 1986 7495 Coiumbia University Press Reprinted with permission g 316 317 ANN R0 SALIND IONES Tmdendis Disciplinis 15 16 celebrates rhetoric as a training system for all mental capacities and professional positions Rhetoric is of the greatest in uence andweight It is necessary for all positions in life For in man the highest law and government are at the disposal of will To the will reason and judgment are assigned as counsellors and the emo tions are its torches Further the emotions of the mind are en arned by the sparks of speech So too the reason is impelled and moved by speech Hence it comes to pass that in the whole kingdom of the activities of man speech holds in its possession a mighty strength which it continually manifests 181 Lionardo Bruni some years earlier wrote a letter essay to a noble woman de ning what an elite education for a woman should be De Studiis et literis c1405 Bruni was more liberal than many men who wrote on education but he expressly prohibited the study of rhetoric to women He wrote to Baptista di Montefeltro the abouttobe married countess to whom he directed his tract subtleties of Arithmetic and Geometry and not worthy to absorb a cultivated mind and the great and complex art of Rhetoric should be placed in the same category My chief reason is the obvious one that I have in view the cul tivation most tting to a woman To her neither the intricacies of debate nor the oratorical arti ces of action and delivery are of the least practical use if indeed they are notpositively unbecoming Rhetoric in all its formspublic discussion forensicargument logical fencing and the like lies absolutely outside the province of woman 126 Bruni excludes rhetoric because it belongs to the public realm the sphere of law politics and diplomacy which was rmly de ned as off limits to women Certain women of the high nobility such as Anne de Beaujeu recognized that the wives of princes played highly visible and articulate roles but exceptions of this kind were not acknowledged by humanists reinforcing the longstanding publicprivate dichotomy in their Writing on contemporary sex roles Writers aiming advice at 39 fathersand husbands in lower ranks limited wornen s exposure to lan guage and learning even further They opposed the frivolous and potentially dangerous pleasures of poetry and philosophy to the sober useful work assigned to the daughters and Wives of the petty gentry and urban merchant class Giovanni Bruto typi es this counteraris tocratic move in his Iflnstitutione di and fcmciulln mite nobilmente published in a French translation in Anvers in 1555 Bruto dedicated this tract to the daughter of a Genoese shipping magnate whom he clearly wanted to prevent from aspiring to the courtly accomplish ments and the elite cultural training of women above her station He 33918 SURPRISING FAME opposes domestic virtue to public ambition he links literary fame to lascivious selfindulgence He begins with a transvaluation of histori cal categories rewriting the reputations of classical heroines such as Sappho and Diotima They I say never got so much fame by their learning as they did defame for their unhonest and loose living And I suppose there is no man of reason and understanding but had rather love a Mayden unlearned and chaste than one suspected of dishonest life though never so famous and well learned in philosophyquot B8quot He goes on to set up a pair of antithetical images that appear through out Renaissance attacks and defenses of women who Write how far more convenient the Distaffe and Spindle Needle and Thimble are for maids quotwith a good and honest reputation then the skill of well using a pen or writing a lofty verse with diffame dishonor if in the same there be more erudition than virtue C2quot The spindle and distaff versus the pen private decency versus infa mous verse these oppositions aren t self evident XVhy should learning and writing be equated with immorality and dishonor Bruto s assumption that learning and chastity are mutually exclusive points to the concern the obsession in fact that underlies the great majority of Renaissance pronouncements on women s speech and fame female sexual purity The link between loose language and loose living arises from a basic association of women s bodies with their speech a woman s accessibility to the social world beyond the household through speech was seen as intimately connected to the scandalous openness of her body By leaving the con nes of domestic privacy a woman exposed herself to dangers of both visual and verbal kinds To be seen and to be engaged in conversation were equally potentially 39 transgressive An early instance of this body speech analogy appears in Francesco Barbaro s 1513 essay on The Duties of a Wife Barbaro repeats a Roman anecdote about a noble matron who withdrew her bare arm from the sight of a man who had praised it Ah but it is not public she said Like most Italian humanists who cited Roman texts Barbaro approves of this one and he goes on to make its implicit assumptions explicit It is proper that the speech of women never be made public for the speech of a noblewoman can be no less dangerous than the nakedness of her limbs 205 This equation between women s bodies and women s speech depends upon a further assumption women s 319 ANN ROSALIND IONES onlookers and hearers are always men The threat envisioned by male socialtheorists comes orn an audience that is always presumed to be masculine The body speech link is made more bluntly in a popular tag quoted by the English translator of an Italian treatise on jealousy Benedetto Varchi The Blazorz of Iealousie 1615 Richard Toste s summing up of marital common sense suggests that racy speech in a woman is worse than an actual sexual lapse Maides must be seene not heard or selde or never 0 may I one such wed if I wed ever A Maid that hath a lewd Tongue in her head Worse than if she were found with a Man in bed Stallybrass fn 18 It is clear in Shakespearean comedy that verbal challenges from women were perceived as sexual challenges as well see on this subject the witty coda to Lisa ardine s chapter on the representation of shrews in Elizabethan and Jacobean drama Scolding or Shrewing Around 3 And the equation between women s chat and women s sexuality also surfaces inetiquette books such as Stefano Guazzo s Civil Conversation 1574 English trans 1581 When the leading speaker in Guazzo s dia logue announces that he will now discuss la conversatione delle donne his listener assumes that he means men s sexual relationships with prostitutes with the kind of women who play at the game of embraces con le quali si giuoca alle braccia 1290 The confusion is symptomatic the man takes conversation like the modern word intercourse to have two meanings Among men it is civil that is public civilizing between men and women it is carnal 39 At court where women were habitually seen and heard as the onlookers and the admiring chorus for men s selfdisplay the tension between public accessibility and private chastity was acute Even in the idealizing atmosphere of Castigione s Coartier the speeches of male characters register the strain arising from the contradictory requirements imposed on the court lady or dorma di palazzo to demonstrate courteous affability but also to be pure in manners and body Giuliano de Medici recommends that feminine speech balance a ready livelieness of wit against sober and quiet manners the female courtier must compensate for being entertainingly witty argata by also being unfailingly modest discrete She must Giu liano says keepe a certain mean very hard and come just to certain limits 343 The admitted delicacy of this balance con rms that in a woman verbal uency andquot bodily purity are understood to be contrary conditions 8 320 SURPRISING FAME By the early seventeenth century remarks on women s speech suggest that an intensi cation of prohibitions was underway particu larly in England Where the Protestant focus on marital duties intensi ed surveillance over daughters and wives Richard Brathwaite in The English Gentlewoman 1631 hints at a certain frustration at the dif culty of controlling his countrywomen s speech To enter into much discourse with strangers argues lightness or indiscre tion what is said of maids may properly be applied to all women They should be seen and not heard 39 women s tongues are held their defensive armor but in no particular detract they more from their honor than by giving too much scope to that glibbery member 78 He expands the classical ropes of the teeth as a natural fence for the tongue into an elaborate image of repression and containment What restraint is required in respect of the tongue may appear by that ivory guard or garrison with which it is impaled See how it is doubly warded that it may with more reservancy and better security be restrained 88 The belief that Women s speech opened them to irresistible sexual temptation that articulateness led to promiscuity produced a related set of prohibitions against women s being spoken about Men s eyes and merfs tongues were assumed to share the powerto de ne and possess a feminine object Wives especially were warned of the indecency of worldly fame Orazio Lornbardelli writing to his young wife in 1574 declared Being known to many men isnot a sign of moral health And acquiring a nickname like being sung about in songs are signs of too much desire to be seen Dell Uf zio della Donna Maritata 2728 Robert Greene attributes similar ideas to two classical authors to the same effect Penelope Web 1601 The wise and learned man Euboides whose sayings have ever been counted as oracle was of this opinion that the greatest virtue in a woman is to be knowne of none but her husband alleging the saying of Argius that the praise of a woman in a strange mouth is nothing else but a secret blame Er The injunction to silence and invisibility was laid upon all women married or not Thucydides was much quoted The most praisewor thy woman is she Whose praises are kept within the walls of the private house in Tasso 2 and Aristotle s distinction between the sexes Silence is the virtue of woman as eloquence is of the man in Tasso 3 was used as a basis for paradoxical commands Barbaro concludes his commentary on 39women s speech by declaring Women should believe that they have achieved the glory of eloquence if theywill honor 321 ANN ROSALIND IONES themselves with the outstanding ornament of silence De Re Uxoria 206 This sounds like nonsense it is But it is also a logical outcome of the reasoning through which Renaissance gender theory produced the ideal Woman She was distinguished by what she did not do or equally important by What men did not do to her she was unseen unheard untouched unknown at the same time that she was obses sively observed This must be what is meant by saying that women occupy a negative position in culture More precisely I have been describing the assignment to Women of a negative position in culture But there is a difference between being the subject of discourse and being a subject in discourse No system of sexual opposition allows its participants to speak freely but the poetic collections of Renaissance women show that they did not simply accede to the silencing logic of their culture Those who submitted entirely of course are not available for reading those who wrote did so through a range of responses to the interdiction against going public None of the three poets I am going to discuss rebelled outright against the idealization of the silent woman Rather they carried out a sort of bricolage with social dictates enacted a partial obedience toward them earned the right to fame through a series of subtle appro priations and reshuf ings of prevailing notions of feminine virtue A pose of deference and of self effacement before the masculine right to fame could act as a sca olding for various countermoves a Woman poet could promote her own reputation she could weave a class based model of the good bourgeois daughter into a defense for women s poetic practice she could disarm and surround potential male critics by drawing them into a system of cooperative or dialogic authorship More open challenges to the exclusion of Women from humanist claims to fame occurred during the sixteenth century but I am con cerned less with heroines here than with canny comprornisers whose responses to their male contemporaries reveal how situational women s writing was and to what extent it needs to be understood as an adap tation to the gender ideologies reigning in the pretexts of literary culture Renaissance women poets given their enforced location outside public discourse Worked their Ways into them more often by indirection than by confrontation It is important not to overestimate the room for maneuver available to women One thing that sets their anxiety of authorship5 apart from the anxiety of later women writers is the absolute centrality of men as writers and as readers in the sixteenthcentury literary system Every woman poet recognized the necessity of winning men over to her side 322 3 inrrrn p quot quot SURPRI SING FAME as mentors and as critics The enormous feminine audiences for romances and novels of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries did not exist in the 15003 women were advised to read religious and moral tracts rather than contemporary poetry which was considered trivial or risky for them And although women poets occasionally open or close their collections with appeals to women readers it is very rare to fund them acknowledging or taking encouragement from other Women poets Their models and their judges are men and they do not count on a sympathetic reading Two Ovidian heroines appear throughout the love poetry of Italian women writing in the Cinquecento Philomel and Echo gures of feminine speechlessness that might be taken as emblems of the isolated Woman poet in an era of literary prohibitions Philomel whose tongue was cut out by the rapist Tereus nonetheless wove her story into a tapestry of her own devising Echo made mute in punishment for her connivance with love could only repeat the tag ends of phrases uttered by the ever elusive Narcissus u PERNETTE DU GUILLET SELELESSNESS AS SELFSERVICE OR FAME THROUGH DEMURRAL 4 v a a u o It may be better to be Echo than to be entirely inaudible however And the case of Pernette du Guillet shows that echoing may be a cover for forays into new verbal territory Pernette writing in Lyon in the early 1540s adopted a stance of sel ess discipleship to Maurice Sceve The publishing circumstances of her Rymes suggest that she avoided acting on any public ambition herself it was left to her husband to publish her poems after her death in 1545 She claims in several poems that her one goal is to lose herself entirely by being transformed into her 39 model and mentor In her fth epigram for example in which she writes CE VICE MUERA as an anagram of Sceve s name she promises him Ie tascheray faire en moy ce bien croitre Qui seul en toy me pourra transmuer I shall try to increase in myself that goodfWhich alone will be capable of transforming me into you Epigram 5 ll 3 4 Imitation here is metamorphosis into the Other Pernette continues to deny any desire for an independent poetic voice in Epigram 6 she announces that she is incapable even of contributing to Sceve s fame that is of reciprocating the poems he has composed in praise of her unless he lends her the skill to write exactly as he does Preste moy donc ton eloquent scavoirl Pour te loner ainsi que tu me 323 ANN ROSALIND JONES loues ll 910 The echowriting she envisions here sounds less like imitation than ventriloquisrn the disciple hopes to become her niaster s7voice A 39 f But there is a subtle of fame claiming and famebargaining going on here In that last line So that I may praise you as you praise me Pernette points to her own fame as the topic of Sceve s massive poetic output it has been his quotpoems in her praise that set this exchange of compliments in motion Thus fame leads to fame being spoken about obliges Pernette to speak in return The praises of the master poet are invoked as a justi cation for the responses of the disciple By appealing to a notion of genderfree reciprocity the woman poet makes her writing look like the ful llment of a courteous obligation rather than a transgression of gender boundaries Pernette s enactment of sel ess modesty is actually a strategy of self defense In a later poem the pose of self effacem39ent before the male poet s reputation frames an extraordinary fantasy of gender transgression Pernette s El gie 2 is a rewriting of the Actaeon myth in which Woman poet takes on the death dealing powers of the goddess Diana and directs them toward the erotic iandverbal domination of the male poet7 Pernette imagines herself bathing naked in a fountain Singing a poem and playing the lute she would lure her lover toward her but she would de ect his embrace by splashing him with l eat1 pure de la clere fontaine A turning him not into a Cerf deer but a serf slave a serviteur acknowledging her total puissance over him The narrative ends with Pernette s renunciation of this divine power to trans x the man She sacri ces her desire to enslave him a1 asservir in a gestureof homage to his fame She defers to Apollo the Muses and his public audience taking on the role of one reader among many Laissez le aller les neuf Muses servir Sans le vouloir dessoubz moy asservir Laissez le aller qu Apollo je n irrite Le remplissant de Deit profonde Pour contre moy susciter tout le Monde Lequel un jour par ses escriptz s attend D estre avecmoy et heureux et content S O 11394754 5960 39 Let him go to serve the nine Muses Without warning to enslave him to myself Let him go let me not anger Apollo 324 SURPRISING FAME Filling him full of deep godly power To stir up the entire world againstme That world which hopes one day through his writing To be along with me both fortunate and happy But her performance throughout the elegy is far less humble than thisexpiatory nal gesture She represents and controls the scene of seduction she invents the pun that turns the poet into a deer and into her slave she attributes to herself the power of sending the poet back to his vocation After thirty eight lines of erotic aquatics she cannot nally disappear into the anonymous group identity that she claims at the end of the poem The movement of the elegy toward this appar ently modest conclusion however may make possible the surfacing the de repression of its central fantasy Pernette nally neutralizes her transgression of gender laws her role as seductress and literalizer of Neoplatonic metaphors of devoted service through a ritual of self sacri ce or self erasure But the elegy s framework of socially endorsed modesty simultaneously supports an experimental vision of sexually and verbally active femininity 4 A CATHERINE DES ROCHES HOUSEHOLD BARGAINS OR CLASS LOYALTY AS THE RIGHT TO WRITE a o 4 The enabling ction of selfabnegation before a male mentor has some thing in common with a broader tactic adopted by another French woman writing in Poitiers twenty years after Pernette Catherine Des Roches the daughter in a motherdaughter pair who published joint collections of poems in 1578 and 1583 Catherine Des Roches appro priated a classbased de nition of feminine virtue as a support for her writing she aligned herselfwith bourgeois writers celebrating the prac tical activity of the domestic Woman against the frivolous and presum ably decadent dilettantism of the aristocratic lady This was a line of argument that had begun as early as Leon Battista Albe rIi s Della Famiglia 143634 and was extended in a careful distinction made by Jacques Du Bosc in his L H0rmeste Femme 1632 Du Bosc is sympa thetic to many womanly re nements but he limits them to the child less noblewornan It should not be thought that in this portrait of the accomplished lady we intend to paint a mother of a family who is expert in giving orders to her servants and who has the duty of caring for her children Music history philosophy and other such exercises are more 325 ANN R0 SALIND IONE S masculine discourse they composed poems that record rather than 39 harmonize the tensions they confronted in a cultural context that demanded women s silence Reading such poets consequently requires an ear open to the half said the quickly withdrawn the manipulation of masculine rituals of selfeternalization Fame in English comes from the Greek root phanei to speak and to be spoken about The two were linked through prohibition in the ideologies aimed at women in early modern Europe How then do we now read a woman who could be condemned in 1550 as unworthy of hearing precisely because she wanted to be heard Prepoetically by necessity Women are spoken of they speak to The of and the to the context and the audience must be the startingpoints for any understanding of sixteenthcentury Women s writing Notes 1 For a general argument that the Renaissance disernpowered women with a focus on courtly love as ideology in Italy see KellyGadol 13964 A more optimistic view stressing class differentials urban exibility and reformed reli gion as quotbene ts for women is Davis 6595 See also the inuoduction to Ferguson et al for an overview of economic and ideological changes especially as they affected Englishwomen 2 Compare the remark of Thomas Powell aiming at the upwardly mobile fathers of merchant and professional families in London In The Art of Thriving he writes of middleclass daughters Instead of Song and Musick let them learne Cookery and Laundry And in steade of reading Sir Philip Sidney 3 Arcadia let them read the grounds of good Huswifery I like not a Female Poetesse at any hand 114115 7 3 Lisa Jardine 121 40 4 Torquato Tasso quotes but also atypically questions Thucydides in his Discorso della virtu femminile e donnesca 5 I borrow this term which I use less psychologically but similarly as a way of describing women writers con ontation with the cultural restrictionof writing to men from Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar The Madwoman in the Attic 6 Gaspara Stampa calls on Philomel and her sister Procne in her Rime Venice 1554 Sonnet 173 Veronica Franco mentions both in her Terze Rime Venice 1575 3 ll 2527 Tullia d Aragona aligns herself with the Ovidian victim in one of her best known sonnets Quai vaga Philomela Like the Longing Philomel Rime 28 References to Echo occur in Stampa Rirne 152 and in Franco Terze Rime 3 ll 1618 The conduct book writer Robert Cleaver appeals to the Echo myth with very different intentions as the echo T answereth but one word for many which are spoken to her so a Maid s answer should be in a single word A Godly Forme of Houshold Government London 1533 p 94 4 39 7 For an early analysis of this elegy see Perry 259 71 I am indebted to Lawrence Lipking for his observation that Pernette further reverses gender roles in this 334 sunpnrsmo FAME poem by making herself the agent through whom Apollo is lled with divin ity 1n contrast to the Sybil who was traditionally on the receiving end in this process Poetics of Gender colloquium Columbia University November 1984 Works Cited Alberti Leon Battista Della Famiglia Libro Secondo Turin Einaudi 1972 Aragona Tullia d Rime della Signora Tullia d Aragona et di diversi a lui Ed ll31 18CO Celanr Venice 1547 repr Bologna Romagnoli Dall Acqua 1891 Barbaro Giovanni De Re Uxoria Paris 1513 1533 Trans in The Earthhz Republic Italian Humanisrs on Government and Society Ed Benjamin Kohl et al Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania Press 1978 Brathwaite Richard The English Gentlewoman London 1631 Bruni d Arezzo Lionardo Concerning the Study of Literature A Letter Addressed to the Illustrious Lady Baptista Malatesta In Vittorino da Peltre and Other Humanist Educators Ed W hain Harrison Woodward New York 1Ci1mb1a University Teachers College Press Classics in Education no 18 Bruto Giovanni Elnstitutione di una Fanciulla nata nobilmente Anvers 1553 Trans Thomas Salter as A Mirrhor mete for all Mothers Matrones and Maidens intiruled the Mirrhor of Modestie London 1579 Castiglione Baldessar Il Libro del Cortigiano Venice 1528 repr TurinUTET 1964 Ed Bruno Maier Trans Sir Thomas Hoby The Book of the Courtier London 1561 repr London H M Dent 1974 Cleaver Robert A Godly Forme ofHoushold Government London 1588 Davis Natalie Zemon City Women and Religious Change In Society and Culture in Early Modern France Stanford Stanford University Press 1975 Du Bosc Iacques L IIonneste Femme Paris 1632 Du Guillet Pernette Rymes Ed Victor Graham Geneva Droz 1968 Des Roches Madeleine and Catherine Les Oeuvres de MesDame5 des Roches de Poetiers mere et lle Paris 1578 Ferguson Margaret Quilligan Maureen and Vickers Nancy eds Rewriting the39Renazssance The Discourses of Sexual Di ierence in Early Modern Europe Chicago Chicago University Press 1986 Gilbert Sandra M and GubarSusan The Madwoman in theAttz39c The Woman Writer and the NineteenthCentury Literary Imagination New Haven Yale University Press 1979 Greene Robert Penelope s Web London 1587 2nd ed 1601 Guazzo Stefano La Civil conversatione del signor Stefano Guazzo Venice 1575 London 1581 Trans George Pettie Repr London Constable 1925 Ed Edward Sullivan Iardine Lisa Still Harping on Daughters Women and Drama in the Age of Shakespeare Totowa NI Barnes and Noble 1983 335 X 0 gmsmwg w 1to Umrueftrij offmo ves5 rpm 0 f WellRead Matron The Abbot and the Learned Lady This dialogue was first printed in the 1524 edition of the Colloquies for the publication history see above 25 It contains the familiar Erasmian criticism of monasticism The abbot depicted here has only worldly interests He has neither the vocation nor the training necessary to provide the spiritual leadership and the pastoral responsibilities his position entails Erasmus pays tribute here to the learned women of his age although one suspects that the heroine Magdali a is introduced for shock value rather than as an exemplary character The translation is by Craig Thompson ANTRONIUS MAGDALIAI Antronius What furnishings do I see here Magdalia Elegant aren t they 39 n How elegant I don t know but certainly unbecoming both I to a young miss and a married woman 39Magdalia Why Anuonius Because the whole place is full of books Magdalia Are you so old an abbot as well as a courtier and have never seen books in court ladies houses 39 Antronius Yes but those were in French Here I see Greek and Latin ones Magdalia Are French books the only ones that teach Wisdom Annonius But it s tting for court ladies to have something with which to beguile their leisure Magdalia Are court ladies the only ones allowed to improve their minds and enjoy themselves quot Antonius You confuse growing wise with enjoying yourself It39s not feminine to be brainy A lady s business is to have a good time Magdalia ShotJldn t everyone live well 39 Anunnius Yes in my opinion T Magdalia But who can have a good time without living well Anh39onius Rather whocan enjoy himself if he does live well TheWellReadMatron39 I 39 A A 175 Magdalia So you approve of those who live basely if only they have a good time 39 39 Annnnius Ibelieve those who have a good time are living well Magdaiia Where does this good time come from From externals or from Antronius From externals Magdalia Shrewd abbot but stupid philosopher Tell me how do you measure good times Annnnius By sleep dinner parties doing as one likes money honours Magdaiia But if to these things God added wisdom you wouldn t enjoy yourself 39 Anuonius What do you mean by wisdom Magdalia This understanding that a man is not happy Without the goods of the mind that Wealth honours noble birth make him neither happier nor better 39 39 39 Annonius Away with that wisdom Magdalia What if I enjoy reading a good author more than you do P hunting drinking orplaying dice You won t I m having a good time 39 Aneonias quotI wouldn t live like that Magdalia I39m not asking what you would enjoy most but what ought to be enjoyable 39 Annnnius I wouldn t want my monks to spend theirtim pn books Niagdalia Yet a husband heartily approves quotof 7 quotn1y doing so But I exacay why do you disapprove of Ea in your monks Annonius Because I find they39re less tractable they talk back by quo ng from decrees and decretals from Peter and Paul Magdaiia 39 So your rules conflict with those of Peter and Paul 39 Anuonius IVhat they may enjoin I don39t know but still I donquottrlike a 39 monk who talks back And I don t Want any of mine to know more than I do 39 39 39 Magdalia You could avoid that by endeavouring to know as much as possible Annonius I haven t the leisure Magdalia How come Annonius Because I39ve no free time 39 Magdaiia No free time to grow wise h Ann39oniusquot No 176 Wives Magdalia What hinders you p 39 fun ti Antonius Long prayers housekeepmg hunts horses court c ons Magdalia So these are more important to you than wisdom Anoonius It39s what we re used to Magdaia Now tell me this if some heavenly power enabled you to turn your monks and yourself too into any animal whatever would you change them into hogs and yourself into a horse Antronius Not at all 39 I Magdaliaa But by doing so you39d preV I J3 3T1Yb dY 5 bemg Wlser than Y0i I Annonius I shouldn39t much care what sort of Q the monks were provided I myself were a human being Magdaiia Do you think one is human if he S 11913191 W133 11 Wants to be Wise Antronius I m wise enough so far as Fm concerned Magdalia And swine are wise enough so far as they39re concerned Annonius You strike me as asophistress 50 keenly C10 Y011 d15I utf3 Magdaiia I won39t say how you strike me But why do these f39l1I39I11Slf11I391gS displease you Annonius Because distaff and spindle are the proper equipment for women I Magdaiia Isn t it a wife39s business to manage the household and rear theychildren Annonius It is 39 39 Magdalia Do you think she can manage so big a ob Without wisdom Antionius I suppose not Magdalia But books teach me this wisdOII1 Antronius Sixty two monks I have in the monastery Yet You Won t nd a single book in my cell Magdalia Those monks are well provided for Annonius I could put up with books but 131039 Latin Ones Magdalia Why not 4 Anuonius Because that language isn39t t for W0m I1 Magdalia I want to know why Anuonius Because it does little to protect thelr ChaSt1quot39Y Magdalia Therefore French books full of the most frivolous Stones do promote chastity Annonius There s another reason Magdalia Tell me plainly Wha teV 1 It 15 I 1397 1 quotffJ5 C r The Well Read Matron 177 Annonius They39re safer from priests if they don39t know Latin V Magdalia Very little danger from you in that respect since you take such pains not to know Latin Annonius The public agrees with me because it s a rare and excep tional thing for a woman to know Latin Magdalia Why cite the pub1ic39the worst possible authority on conduct tell me of custom the mistress of every vice Accustom yourself to the best then the unusual will become habitual the unpleasant enjoyable the apparently unseemly seemly Annonius I hear you Magdaiia Is it tting for a German woman to learn French Annonius Of course I 39 39 Magdalia Why 39 I Anu39onius To talk with those who know French 39 39 Magdalia And you think it unsuitable for me to know Latin in order to converse daily with authors so numerous so eloquent so learned so wiseiwith counsellors so faithful 39 t Anironius Books ruin women39s wits which are none too plentiful anyway 39 1 Magdaiia How plentiful yours are I don t know Assuredly I prefer to spend mine however slighton pro table studiesrather than on prayers said by rote allnight parties and heavy drinking Anuonius Booldshness drives people mad t z Magdaiia The company of boozers fools and jesters doesn t drive you mad Annonius Not at all It relieves boredom Magdaiia Then how could such delightful companions asinine drive me mad 39 39 Anuonius Ihat s what people say p Magdalia But the plain fact of the matter says something else How many more we see driven mad through intemperate wining and dining nightlong bouts of drunkenness uncontrolled passions Antonius I39m sure I wouldn t want a learned wife 39Magdaia39 But I congratulate myself on having a husband different from you For learning endears him more to ine and me to him Anuonius Learning costs immense toil and after all you must die 39 Magdalia Tell me my dear quotsir if you had to die tomorrow would you rather die more foolishior more wise Anuonius If wisdom came without hard work 178 a l 39 Wives Magdalia but man gets nothing in this life without hard work And yet whatever he does win with however much lab our must be left behind Why should we hesitate to take pains in the most precious thing of all the fruits of which accompany us to another life also Anhonius I ve often heard the common saying A wise woman is twice foolish I Magdalia That39s commonly said yes but by fools A woman truly wise is not wise in her own conceit On the other hand one who thinks herself wise when she knows nothing is indeed twice foolish An onius I don t know how it is but as pack saddles don39t fit an ox so learning doesrft fit a woman Magdalia But you can39t deny that pack saddles would t an ox better thana mitre would fit an ass or a swine What39s your feeling about the Virgin Mother 39 39 Annonius I reverence her Magdalia Didn t she read books Antronius Yes but not these Magdalia What didshereadthen Antronius The canonical hours Magdalia According to which use Antronius The Benedictine 39 39 Magdalia Very likely What about Paula and quotE2ustochium6 Didn t they read the sacred Scriptures I c 39 I Antronius But that s rare nowadays Magdalia So waslt39an unletteredabbot arrare pbi P once upon atime Nowadays nothing s more common Once upon a time princes and emperors excelled as much in learning as 39in39might 39But even now this isn t so rare as you suppose In Spain and Italy there are not a few women of the highest rank who can rival any man7 In England there are the More daughters8 in Germany the Pirckheimer and Blaurer ladies9 If you re not careful the net result will be that we39ll preside in the theological schools preach in the churches and wear your mitres Anbtonius God forbid Magdalia No it will be up to you to forbid But if you keep on as you vebegun geese may do the preaching sooner than put up with you tonguetied pastors The world s a stage that39s topsyturvy now as you see Everyone must play his part or exit 4 The WellRead lllatron 179 Antronius How did I run across this woman When you come calling I on us I39ll treat you more politely Magdaiia How Antonius We39ll dance drink as much as we please hunt play games laugh T Magdalia F or my part feel like laughing even now NOTES 1 Antronius is the name of the ass in Apuleius story The Golden Ass Magdalia is believed to be modelled after Thomas More s daughter Margaret Roper whose learning Erasmus admired see his letter to her CWE Ep 1404 39 2 French literature was synonymous with chivalrous romances Latin was the languageof scholars Greek a mark of humanistic learning was a rare accomplishment in a woman 39 3 The following exchange plays on the meaning of Latin bane vioere tolive well in the double sense of having a good time and living a morally good life i 39 39 39 ean39B39ouchet 1545 said Frorn39braying mules O girls who speak Latin protectdne O Lord Cf Kelso 679 5 quotAn anachronism To read the daily prayers or canonical hours was a medieval institution 39 l 39 39 39 39 6 Paula and her daughterEustochium were pious Roman women associates of St Ierome 39 quotT 39 T 7 ltis not clearwhether Erasmus of specific Italianscholars 7 suchaslsottaNogaro 1a Laura Cereta or Cassandra Fedele none of whom is mentioned in his works he praises Queen Isabella and her daughter Catherine of Aragon as well as Menzia de Mendoza the wifewof Henry count of Nassau among thejlearned women of Spain 8 Cf above 10 39 9 Erasmus was in correspondence with lVillibald Piackheim er who praised his sisters Caritas and Clara for their learning He sent Erasmus samples of their writing which he said would show that they were women more learned than men CWE Ep 4o932 3 He was also in correspondence with the 39 brothers Ambrose and Thomas 39Blaurer of Constance and may have had in mind here their sister Margarete who had received a humanistic education Tm 5 0 Jew r Exes res Qak Callfje 5 wm 7q3 quotT Frcm the Master Friar Lais De Leon The Perfect Wife A 1583 T0 Mistress Mary Varela or Valera Osorio 39 T his Little Treatise on Marriage Was written for Mistress Mary Varela or Valera Osorio Whose Identity Remains Unknown iquot First Published in 1583 Second Edition 1586 r Third Edition 1587 lt has been conjectured that Mistress Mary was a distant relative of Friar Luis de Leon May she have been one of his Penitents Neither surmise need be correct She may have been merely one of the faithful V or journey the places through which they are to pass and the things 39 Introduction This new estate in which God has placed you subjecting you to the laws of holy matrimony even though like a highroad it is more open and less wearisome than othersroads still is not lacking in difficulties j and rough places It also is a way in which one stumbles and runs into danger and goes astray and she who treads it has need of guidance For to serve one s husband to govern a family to rear children and at the same timeto render what is due to the fear of God and to safeguard the spotlessness of one s conscience all of which pertain to the estate and office of the woman who n1ar39riesthese are works any one of which alone requires great circumspection and which together cannot be ac complished Without the particular favour of Heaven In this many women deceive themselves they imagine that marriage amounts to nothing more than to quotleave their father s house and betake themselves to that of their husband to escape servitude and to obtain freedom and luxury They think that in giving birth to a child now and then and presently casting him into the arms of a fostermother they are faultless and perfect wives And although your sound judgment and the inclination to every virtue with which God has dowered you reassure me so that I need have no fear that you will be like unto one of these nevertheless the profound affection I have for you and the desire for your welfare which burns Within me move me to counsel you and to seek to enkindle a light which without deception or error may illumine and direct your steps through all the difficulties of this way and also through all its windings and turnings In the same fashion as those who have taken some long voyage or gone on pilgrimage through strange places are Wont to tell their friends who intend to take the same voyage they must needs avoid and put them on their guard against whatsoever they may deem necessarydoing this carefully and in detail and with all diligence before they set out so likewise will I impart to you for this journey which you have undertaken not what past experience has taught me since marriage is foreign to my profession but what I have learned from Holy Writ which is the teaching of the Holy Spirit 39 In the Scriptures as in a general store or a public market for the common use andprofit of all men the Divine compassion and wisdom places in abundance all that is necessary and be tting to each estate a Especially as regards the estate of married Women does it go into such detail and condescend to such particularity that entering their homes the Holy Spirit reaches the point of putting the needle into their hands grasps the distaff for them and even twirls the spindle in their ngers For in truth although the estate of matrimony in rank and perfection is beneath that of the continent or virgin nevertheless it has always been greatly honoured and privileged by the Holy Spirit because of the need there is for it in the world in order that the human race may be perpetuat ed and that from men should come forth children of God born to be an V honour to the world and to make Heaven joyful with their glory We 39 4 a 39 THE PERFECT WIFE know that this estate is the first and oldest of all and that it is away of If life not contrived after our nature had become corrupt through sin and condemned to death but ordained at the very beginning when men were pure and blissfully perfect in Paradise The Scriptures teach us that God Himself arranged the first marriage and that He joined the hands of those who first were man and wife and blessed them and thus was so to speak the One Who both made and consecrated the marriage r The first truth which is recorded God uttered for our instruction and the first precept which proceeded out of His mouth was the approval of this union saying It is not good that the man should be alone 1 For not only in the books of the Old Testament where to be childless was a curse but even in the New Testament where continence and virginity are counseled and as it were everywhere proclaimed with the sound of the trumpet marriage is honoured with special graces Christ our Righteous ness even though he was the ower and the supreme lover of virginity and chastity is invited to a wedding and is there present and partakes 39 of food and sanctifies the marriage not only with the majesty of His Presence but also with one of His first and most signal miracles 2 For the close bond of matrimony had become relaxed men had grown slack in their observance of the marriage law and admitted much that was contrary to the purity endurance and unity of wedlock Taking a wife for example had become little else than taking a serving maid for a fixed price during whatever time might be thought desirable Wherefore Christ Himself amid the chief portions of His doctrine and amongst those evils for the redress of which He had been sent by the Father placed also the restoration of this holy bond and so reinstated it in its ancient and original condition 3 And what is of capital im portance He made of the earthly marriage the symbol and most Holy Sacrament of that bond of love by which He is united to every living soul and also was it His will that the marriage vow between man and woman should be as it were the living reflection and image of that most sweet and close union which exists between Himself and His Church 439 Therefore He ennobled marriage with His richest gifts of grace and other favours from Heaven so that the estate of marriage is a noble and holy estate and greatly prized of God s 39 In the Sacred Scriptures husbands and wives are counseled very particularly and very much in detail by the Holy Spirit in regard to S that concerns them God in His infinite mercy does not disdain to look upon our lowliness nor does He consider base or insignificant anything that tends to our profit Many parts of the Bible are full of instruction to married people but that portion in which either all or all that is most 1 Gen 2 13 393 John 2 112 3 Matthew 19 310 4 E1311 5 3132 TEE Pnarncr Wur 5 39 to the point and most vital in this matter is summed up in the last chapter of the Book of Proverbs Here through the mouth of Solomon His King and P1 0Ph3ta and as it were in the person of a woman motlfer of K1113 8010111011 G061 Perfectly portrays a virtuous wife with all her characteristic qualities God it is Who sets down and records the words pl theth King and gives them their beauty of expression And to this end at ose who aspire to be virtuous wives and women who marry must 3SP11quot6 t0 Vlmlel may behold themselves in this perfect wife as in the clearest mirror and may become aware in so regarding themselves of what it behooves them to do39in order fully to perform their duty In this which I write my office will be that of a connoisseur of painting In the same way as they who understand painting point out to those not so Well versed in the art figures of admirable technique and explain the background and foregroundindicate the lights and shades and the significance of the foreshortening and by the very skill of thei Ff rgs nghake what seemed lifeless upon the canvas appear alive and 1 e W1 moVemenh and a1m t Pa1P1tat1I1g In the eyes of the beholder so will I present to you this picture of the perfect wife wrought as I said by God Himself I shall set the picture before your eyes and Show you by means of words and to the utmost of my power as though I pointed with my finger its loveliness of form with all its perfections and make you see clearly what with the most exquisite skill the wiscloni and hand of God have placed there hiddenly 9 Butbefore I come to this which is to declare the laws and conditions Imposed upon a Wife it will be well for you to comprehend the strict oblligtation jglrou are under to exercise yourself in these conditions an 0 app y yourself to them with your whole soul and with the most ardent desire It is the same with marriage as With any other enterprise or vocation to which we aspire Two things are necessary for success ll to understand thenature of the undertaking and the conditions in herent in it and what in general is comprehended within its scope 2 to have averitable love for this vocation Therefore in the matter of which we are I lt 3lt391 I1g before we hold converse with the understanding and disclose to it all the aspects and requirements of this estate df matrimpnyvv it beh V3S S t0 HY to bend the will to know and love them and once these obligations quotare known to apply itself to them with all diligence b I do not however intend to waste words nor will many Words 39 e necessary with you inclined as you are by nature to all goodness To one who fears God it suffices to know that God wills his particular state oi ife for l11II1 to desire it wholeheartedly and to try to respond to its o gations od asks each of us individually and particularly only this that we fulfill the duties of our estate and conform willingly to those circumstances which have fallen to our lot If we fail in this even though in other directions we may make progress and gain dis quot tinction we are displeasing to God As in war a soldier who abandons 6 THE PERFECT WIFE A his post fails his commander though in other waysjhe may serve him and as in a play the spectators hiss the actor who plays his part badly even though in himself he may be a very good person so it is with those who are negligent as regards their vocation though 1n other respects they may be most careful they are not acceptable to God Surely you would not have fora cook and pay wages to onewho did not know how to season a stew but could play nicely on the gu1tar in likefashion God does not desire in His householda person who Will not apply himself to the profession which He has appo1nted for him in the Gospel Christ charges us all to take up our cross 1 He does not tell us to bear our neighboufs cross but commands us to carry our very own It is not His will that a nun be forgetful of what is due to her vocation as a Religious and shoulder the responsibilites of the married woman nor is it His pleasure that a wife should be unmindful of her housekeeping and turn into a mm A husband pleases God by bemg a good husband thefriar by being a good Religious and the merchant by carrying on his business uprightly Even the soldier serves God by putting forth his utmost effort when circumstances demand quotit and by being content with his wages assays St John the Baptist And the cross which each one of us is bound to bear and by means of which we are to attain union with our Lord is the very duty and burden imposed on each one of us by virtue of that state of life in which we find ourselves He who does the full measure of his duty in his estate is true to God and carries out God s purpose He wins an unblemished name and reputation and as it were by the labour of the cross attains the rest which he has earned 0n the contrary one who fails in his duty even though he may labour abundantly in complyingquot with the obligations of a selfchosen occupation yet suffers the loss of both work and reward But so immeasurable and so pitiable is human lobtuseness that al though this truth is indubitable as ifthe opposite were true and as if it were forbidden us to fulfill the requirements of our estate and to be exactly what we profess to be we are at odds with our vocation and try to evade it and concentrate our entire resourcefulness and energy upon attending to other people s affairs For you will find Religious 39who as though they were married women are bent on running the establishments of their kinsfolk or of others for whom through their own wilfulness they have made themselves responsible Is a servant to be taken on 01 dismissed It is their affair Are the winter hangings to be put up in the house They must see to it Contrariwise among married women there are those who act as if their homes belonged to others so grievously do they neglect them and my lady s entire existence is her I private oratory and her book of devotions and warming up the floor of the church with her knees morning noon and night Meanwhile the 1 Matthew 16 24 3 Luke 3 14 quotquot39 39 2 THE PERFECT WIFE i 7 A serving maid goes to the bad the daughter is up to all sorts if naughtiness finances go on the rocks and the husband turns into a veritable demon 39 Now all such as these might have some shadow of excuse if it were less arduous to be what they are not meant to be than to be what God intended them Or they might experience some degree of consolation if having greatly exerted themselves in a profession of their own selecting they met with signal success But the very opposite is the case Strive as he may the Religious cannot possibly master the life of the married man nor will the married person succeed in being a Religious The mode of life of a monastery its Rule and observances its friendly intercourse and wellordered regularity all foster and assist the quotreligious life for to this one end everything is directed Therefore the friar Who forgets he is a friar and busies himself trying to act as a married man will encounter naught but hindrances and very grave embarrassment And in so far as his thoughts and intentions are not directed toward this one point the monastery to the same extent will he stumble and offend in all that makes up the religious life in the porter s lodge when on duty as porter in the cloister in choir 1 the l times of silence and in the austerity and humility of the life Wherefore it behooves him either to desist from his insensate determination or to break through a squadron of burdensome difficulties and achieve the impossibleor as the saying goes to extract sunbeams from cucumbers And so it is with the married woman Her mode of life invites her and encourages her to busy herself with her household and in a thousand ways withdraws her from all that goes to make up the life quotofanu39n quotThey who refuse their manifest responsibilities and try to 7 excel T in what does not appertain to their profession both fail in their duty and fall short of what they pretend Also they labour inconceivably more than would be necessary were they to apply themselves to becoming perfect in their several callings and their labour turns out to be blighted and fruitless As in the realm of nature those monstrosities born with parts 39 and a members of different animals never develop and cannot even live so it happens with this quotmonstrosity of different estates mixed up to gether the calling being one thing and the works performed quite another those who fall into this confusion meet only with frustration And in the same manner as Nature abhors anomalies so likewise does God shun and abominate them For this reason it was that He commanded in the ancient law Thou shalt not sow thy field with mingled seed neither shall a garment mingled with linen and woolen come upon thee 3 And even more positively does God declare those creatures to be an abomina tion which without fins and scales live in the water and live also on 1 In Choir See Appendix 1 3 Levit 19 19 8 THE PERFECT WIFE land 1 these may not be offered for sacrifice Wherefore do you assent in your heart with unswerving conviction that your friendship with God depends upon your being a perfect wife Also that the good of your soul consists in being perfect in your estate and for you to labour in it and to exercise great watchfulness is to offer to God a most acceptable sacrifice of yourself I do not say nor does it even cross my mind that a married person or anyone soever should fall short in prayerfulness but I do declare the39 difference there must inevitably be between good Women wives on the one hand and professed Religious on the other For a nun prayer is her entire vocation for a wife prayer is the means by which she may fulfill her obligations The nun refused marriage turned her back upon the world and bade farewell to everyone in order to hold converse forever and without distractions with Jesus Christ The wife communes with our Lord in order to gain from Him such grace and favour as 39 will enable her to bring up her children wisely make a success of her house keeping and render reasonable service to her husband For the mm to live is to pray perseveringly the wife prays that she may live as she ought The former pleases God by finding her pleasure in Him the latter must serve Him by labouring at her homemaking for His sake Now consider how the grandeur of the divine beneficence shines forth in this that God counts Himself well served by us in that very thing which is to our profit For in truth were there no other reason to incite a woman to perform her duties than the peace and the quietude and deep happiness which good women enjoy in this life and quotwhich make it worth their while to be virtuous these alone would furnish a sufficient reason for goodness How well we all know that when a wife is faithful to all her obligations her husband is devoted to her her family lives in harmony her children grow grace peace reigns and money affairs prosper And as the moon at the full on cloudless nights revels in the splendour of the stars by which she is surrounded whichseemingly gather added brilliance from her light and gaze again and yet again upon her and make obeisance to her even so does the virtuous wife rule in her house hold and shine out andquot incline towardsherself theieyes and hearts of everyone Restfulness and security wait upon her whithersoeverl she may direct her steps and turn her eyes where quotshe may she finds only joy and gladness For if her eyes look toward her husband she will rest in his love 2 if she regards her children it is to rejoice in their good ness her servants render her willing and devoted service she finds her property growing in value and her income increasing and all is cheer 1 Levit 11 912 of Dent 14 19 1 Note Zephaniah 3 17 He will rest in his love AV But the Vulgate says in this most lovely passage Dominus Deus silebit in diiectione sua He will be silent in His Love i THE PERFECT WEE 399 fulness and satisfaction But the bad housekeeper How many instances there are that Show that for her everything turns to gall and wormwood But I do not want to dwell overlong upon a matter whichTGod 39 forgive us is so evident nor do I mean you to go outside your own village Take a look at your neighbours and fellowtownsfolk and turn over in your mindiwhat you have heard of other families How many women you know who because they have been unmindful of their calling and very mindful indeed of their own caprices are perpetually quarrelling with their husbands and out of favour with them How many have you seen rendered ugly and cut to the heart by the disagreements of sons and daughters with whom they refused to be bothered How many are suffering dire poverty because they had no care to the frugal management of their finances but rather wasted and squandered them The plain fact is that there is nothing more precious no one happier than a good wife nor is there anyone worse or more wretched than a woman who though marriedis not a good wife Both truths are taught in Holy Scripture So we find Happy is the husband of a good Wife for the number of his years is double 39 A virtuous woman rejoices her husband and he shall fulfill the years of his life in peace A good wife is a good portion she shall be given in the portion of them that fear God to a man for his good deeds The grace of a diligent woman shall delight her husband and shall fat his bones Her discipline is the gift of God Grace upon grace and beauty above beauty is a holy and a 39 shamefaced woman As the sun when it ariseth to the world in the high places of God so is the beauty of a good wife for the ornament of her house And of the wicked woman the very opposite is said A jealous woman is the 39 grief and mourning of the heart With a jealous woman is the scourge of the tongue he that hath hold of her is as he that taketh hold of a scorpion Roofs dropping through in a cold day and a contentious woman are alike The earth is disturbed by an odious woman when she is married The sadness of the heart is every plague and the wickedness of a woman is all evil And a man will choose any plague but the plague of the heart And any wickedness but the wickedness of a woman There is no head worse than the head of a serpent And there is no anger above the anger of a woman It will be more agreeable to abide with a lion and a dragon than to dwell with a wicked woman J 10 I THE PERFECT WIFE All malice is short to the malice of a woman let the lot of sinners fall upon her quot As the climbing of a sandy way is to the feet of the aged so is a wife full of tongue to a quiet man 39 lquot A wicked woman abateth the courage andmaketh a heavy counten ance and a wounded heart 39 Feeble hands and disjointed knees a woman that doth not make her husband happy 39 From the woman came the beginning of sin and by her we all dje3999 F 39 A And a great many other sayings of like pattern And here an amazing thing comes to pass women are naturally punctilious and eager to be appreciated and looked up to indeed it is only the strongminded who are indifferent to praise and esteem yet delighting as they do in scoring a triumph and in getting the better of one another even in very insignificant and childish things they take no pride rather are heedless and negligent in that which is essentially womanly and admirablequot in them A woman likes to present a handsomer appearance than another woman and if her neighbour has a finer over skirt or achieves perchance a more striking mode of dressing her hair this frets her not a little But let her neighbour surpass her in house wifely accomplishments and this neither grieves nor gdistresses her Women will be touchy and make almost a point of honour of any triviality but the one thing needful they do not regard To be beaten in ability to make a home doesnot rnortify them not to win in tri ing details devastates them But to lose in the latter is not to their discredit while to fail in the former ruins quottheir personal happiness and the hap piness of their households They may win praise forunessentials but what fleeting unsatisfying praise Before it comes to life it perishes and if the truth must be told it does not deserve to be called by the name of praise But praise for creating a true home Such commenda tion is substantial and wellgrounded its roots go deep and it flowers on 39 the lips of those of solid understanding lt ends not with age nor does it wither with time rather do the years increase it and old age renew it Time strengthens it Eternity itself is mirrored in this praise and sends it forthsever more fresh and living throughout all ages For the good woman is revered by her family her children are devoted to her her husband idolizes her she is a benediction to her neighbours and those present and to come laud and extol her Verily and indeed if there is one thing under the m39oen39 worthy of reverence and praise it is a holy woman in coInpar39ison with her the very sun loses its splendour and the stars give forth no quotlight and I know quotnot another jewel of such inestimable value and worth which so ennobles men with light and 1 Ecclesiasticus XXVI 1 2 3 16 17 19 and21 Ibid 8 9 and 10 Proverbs XXVIL 15 Ibid XXX 21 and 23 Ecolus XXV 17 18 19 22 23 26 27 31 32 and 33 1113 E V THE PERFECT WIFE 39 H 3911 beauty as does that treasury of immortal riches and honour of sweetness of faith of truth of love and piety of comfort joy and peace which a holy woman gathers and cherishes within herself when by good fortime she is given to a man to be his helpmeet 39 So I hold Yet I must remind you that Euripides for example profound writer that he was speaks ill of all women collectively and exclaims Wherefore needeth many words Whose ere now hath spoken ill of women Or speaketh now or shall hereafter speak All this in one word will I close and say Nor sea nor land doth nurture such a breed He knoweth who hath converse with them most 1 But though he says this it is not in his own person These are the words of Polymestor and good reason he had for uttering them since it is of Hecuba and the Trojan women that they are spoken And now that we have reached this point it is rightful that my own words should be hushed and that God the Holy Ghost should commence to speak In His doctrine of good women set within the Book of Proverbs and which I now offer unto you the Holy Spirit begins with the very praises with which I make b end and says in very few words what no human tongue could possibly express even with much speaking So God speaks as follows A Mulierem fortem lguis inoeniet H Procul ct ale ultimis finibus pretium ejus A Kho can find a virtuous woman for her price is far above rubies is the price of her D B H B1113 before We begin We must of necessity take for granted that in th1schapter the Holy Spirit although in very truth He portrays a perfect wife and indicates her obligations at the same time declares Edvsigriifies andas it were hides beneath this portrait things far great er and of deeper import 39Wl1lCl1 apply to the whole Church For it is to be understood that the Sacred Scriptures which are the word of God also reflect His natureand attributes And as God is conj ointly one single perfection and many diverse perfections one without imanifoldness yet many in excellence and preeminence so Holy P in one and the same i words embraces many and varied meanings and as saintly 39w1item teach us within the simplicity of a single sentence there lie hidden the most 1 Eurip I Hecuba 11 117782 L C L quot 4 Xquotquot Who shall final a valiant woman for and from the uttcrmost coasts 12 39 y I TH1 PERFECT Wren penetrating interpretations And as God is entirely good so 111 His word all the manifold meanings enclosed therein are wholly trustworthy Wherefore to adopt one rendering is not to reject others and even more quothe who among many and varying interpretations discloses and explains one of them must not be thought to exclude all the rest So I repeat that in this chapter our Lord through the mouth of Solomon by means of the same words accomplishes two things The first teaches and prescribes the manner of well or39clered conduct the39other foretells 39 secret mysteries The customs it sets forth are those which relate to a wife the mysteries prophesied pertain to the nature and conditions which He meant to embody in the Church which is spoken of under the similitude of a wife in her home In the latter light is shed upon matters of faith in the former the Holy Spirit teaches how one must act And because this last alone belongs to our subject we shall concern our selves exclusively pb it and try in So far as P0SSib1ea t0 brmg 50 jgh1and placebefore our very eyes whatever there is of excellence in this picture 0fVjrg13 PainedbyGod Himself He says therefore 3 S A virtuous woinirn who tan find for her price is far ahove rubies At the very beginning islset forth that which is to be expounded and that is the doctrine of a holy woman quotof a perfect wife andGod praises what He proposes or rather proposes by praising it in order to awaken at once and enkindle in women this virt39uous and upright lt5l6S1139 quot Andthat this commendation should gain in force it is stated in the form of a question A virjmous woman who can And lgtY this question and by so putting it it isclear thatit is difficult to find her I and that few there quotare of her kind So the first tributeof praise accorded to a noble woman is to say of her that she is something out of the ordinary which amounts to saying Hthat she is precious and inestimable and worthy to be treasu red because all that is rare is also priceless And that this is the meanmg intended by the Holy Spirit is evident from what follows Far away and above ahd beyond all precious jewelsiis the price of her So thatman to whose lot an estimable Woman has fallen may consider himself at the outset as wealthy and fortunate realizing that he has found a pearl of great price or an exquisite diamond or an emerald or some other gem of inestimable value Thisj therefore is the first commendation of a godly woman that it is difficult to find her 39 But note thatthe praise of goodwomen on the one hand serves also as a warning 39 to recognize the weakness of women 111 39g6I161 a1 Assur dlyit would not be noteworthy to be a virtuous woman were there many such 01 if asxa rule women were not possessed quotby many mean inclinations These indeed are numerous and so extraordinary 311 1 THE PERFECT WIFE e 39 39 3913 so different one from another that although women belong to the same stock and species they seem actually to be of different species Making a sort of jest of this matter Phocylides or Simonides 1 was wont to quotsay that in women as a class could be detected the nature and characteristics of all manner of creatures as if they verily belonged to 39th eirquotkind so that some women are as untamed and unbridled as horses others as wily as foxes some given to barking like dogs others Jean turn any colour while still others are as heavy and tiresome as if made of earth Therefore that woman merits the mos139unbo39unded praise Who amid all such varieties ofevil finds the way of being truly good I Now let us see for what reason the H0lYSPiI it calls a good woman a valiant woman and then we shall understand with what discrimination she is compared to and said to surpass all preeious sjewels repeat the term valiant Woman and might even speak of jier as a masculine minded woman as Socrates meaning Xenophon calls a perfect wife 2 Because indeed What is termed virile or valiant39 in theoriginal is a word of deepest significance and force so that even witli nun1eroiis examples it can scarcely be exhausted of its meaning quot lt It betokens many things strength of mind andlfortitude of heart resourcefulness and wealth in uence prosperity and in fine a being perfect and complete in all those qualities which areembraeed within the meaning of the word and all these the resolute woman cherishes p7 l M herself and cannot be thusregarded unless she do so cherish them And 39 that we may comprehend the truth of this the Holy Spirit applied y this particular attribute strong to a virtuous wife because it holds withiri 39 itself such a treasury of varied meanings For since women by nature are Weaker and more fragile than any other ereature 39and both by habit 39 and disposition are frail and capricious and because married life is a life A a subject to many perilsquot and one in which labours and very great difficul 39 39 fies daily present themselves and a life subject also to constant disappoint ments and vexations St Paul calls it a life in which mind and heart appear as if divorced and seemingly estranged one from the other a wife having to givefirst thought now to her childrsn now to her hus band and again to her family or it may be to money matters 3 it follows therefore that if such frailty is to conic out triumphant from a conflict so unceasing and so arduous it is imperative that the woman I who is to become a good wife should be hedged about with so noble a squadron of virtues as are those we have mentioned and which are all implied in the term strong d Now you can readily see that what is more enough for a man 39 to carry through successfully any business soever he may have under taken is not at all sufficient for a woman to 391 espon39d3939Elutifully to her 1xlAp 2 and 3 39 r AP 4 I i quot V U 1 Cor 7 34 39 14 i 39 39THE PERFECT WIFE h1nCgt 39U B 3 cf M7 39 t V v 1 I profession for the weaker the person is all the more need there is of assistance and favour in order to reach the top with a heavy load A similar case is that of some material hard as adamant which yields neither to the hammer nor to any artifice whatever lf out of this un yielding matter we see a figure perfectly 39 sculptured we acknowledge and we say that the artist who wrought it was expert and extraordinarily skilful in his profession and that it was with the advantage of his re sourcefulness that he conquered theindomitable hardness of his medium In the same fashion then for a woman to prove herself what she should be amid such varying circumstances and perplexities of life when she is 39 so weak by nature offers the clearest evidence of a treasury of most rare and almost heroic virtue For it is indisputable reasoning that the less vigorous women are by nature all the greater are they and the more remarkable for heroism of soul and for virtue This also is the reason why as we see by experience and as history teaches us by not a few instances when a woman succeeds in distinguish ing herself in something praiseworthy she wins a victory over any number of men who have given themselves over to the same endeavour F or so insignificant a thing as this which we call woman never undertakes or succeeds in carrying out anything essentially worthwhile unless she be drawn to it and stimulated and encouraged by some force of incredible resoluteness which either God or some singular gift of God has placed within her soul Since she conquers her very nature and like a river over owing its banks breaks all bounds it must necessarily be inferred that woman has within herself boundless stores of excellence and virtue Wherefore with utmost truthfulness and significance of praise the Holy 39 39 Spirit did not call a virtuous woman merely virtuous nor did He say or question Who can find a virtuous woman but He called her a daunt less woman and to convey this meaning made use as we have pointed out of so rich and expressive a word as is the original And this by way of telling us that a good woman is more than good andthat this which we call goodness is a temperate mode of speech which does not reach the supreme worth which aquot noble woman hasand is bound to have t withinherself Of course for a man to be good an average degree of perfection suffices but for a woman goodness is a matter of very many and very costly degrees of perfecti0n for this is not the work of any more craftsman nor is it any commonplace occurrence nor a valuable which is discoverable anywhere but a masterpiece an incomparable 1 39 treasurequot orbetter still a heaping up of the richest p0sseseions Ff ir This is the first tribute of praise accorded to a steadfast woman by the Holy Spirit and as if springing to birth from the first comes the second she is compared to pricelessquot jewels In this as in a single word is said completely everything implied in what we have been assert ing For as the worth of a precious stone is very great and out of the ordinary so the perfectio11 of a good woman comprises ever greater heights of unalloyed virtue And as the gent is in itself a small object THE Psurucr WIFE I 39 15 but by the splendour of its inherent quality brings a high price so what is infusedquot into the frail being of aiwoman by her appreciation of goodness becomes a rare and exceptional excellence v quot l And also as in precious stones one which is ndt wholly genuine is worthlessquot so as regards women there is no half and half one who is not much more than good is not good at all In the same fashion that a man is wealthy because a precious emerald or a flawless diamond is his evenithough he own nothing else and to possess either of these jewels is not to possess one alone but a considerable treasure in miniature so a good wife is not solely a wife but a mountain of riches and he who possesses her is rich with her alone and in herself alone she has the power to make him blissfully happy And as a precious gem is worn on the finger and kept before the eyes and with it the head is crowned for honour and beauty and in possessing it the owner has at one and the same time ornaments for his joyousness and assistance in his neces sities so in no less degree a husband is bound to cherish a good wife more than the very light of his eyes to uplift her high above his head and to safeguard for her the innermost sanctuary ofhis heart indeed his whole heart and soul Likewise he comes to realizequotthat in her he possesses a manifold treasure ready to hand for all variations of cir cumstance a magician s wand so to speak which in season and out i of season and on every occasion will be in harrnpny with his viewpoint and fulfill all his desires in joy his most sweet companion his joy increasing as he communicates it to her in sorrow a loving comforter in doubts a trustworthy counsellor rest in his labour support in his shortcomings rnedicine in sickness the increase of his fortune guard ian of his home teacher of his children provider against his extravagan ces and finally in realities and deceptions in prosperity and adversity in the ower of youth and in weary old age and throughout the march of his entire lifetime restfulness and peace and tender affection To ethis degree has God lauded such a wife Now let us see what follows Confialit in ea cor viri Sui et spoliis non incligehit The heart of her husband doth safely trust in her so that he shall have no need of spoil A V quot 39 The heart of her husb39on l quottrusteth in her and he shall have no need of sp39oil39s D B T After the Holy Spirit has brought forward the subject ofl39f39Iis dis course and by praising ithas aroused in us an affectionfor it He commences to specify its good points and that of which it is composed and what it is that constitutes its perfection And to this end that planting their feet in these very footprints andfollowing in these very steps women may as wives become perfect And because the perfection R at ewm T Mains 7 I 39 last mmna carats aaaaas of PM WWW ate wmr MA gazga zsroZ4 aa 07 II1025 T jesg H85 2 av 339 7395tsxscssa U614ca 39 Gib Mai 1395 8 His Mulier or The ManWoman Being a Medicine e to cure the Coltish Disease of the Staggers in the MasculineFerninines of our Times Expressed in a brief Declamation Non omrzes pfossumus omnes I620 Hic Mulierzz How now Break Priscian s3 head at the first encoun ter But two Words and they false Latin Pardon me good Signor Construction for T will not answer thee as the Pope did that I will do it in despite of the Grammar But I will maintain if it be not the truest Latin in our Kingdom yet it is the commonest For since the days of Adam women were never so Masculine Masculine in their genders and whole generations from the Mother to the youngest daughter Masculine in Number from one to multitudes Masculine in Case even from the head to the foot Masculine in Mood from bold speech to irnpudent action and Masculine in Tense for Without redress they were are and will be still inost Masculine most mankind and most monstrous Are all Women then turned Masculine No God forbid there are a world full of holy thoughts modest carriage and severe chastity To these let imefall on my knees and say You oh you Women you good Women you that are in the fullness of quotperfection you that are the crowns of nature s Work the complements of men s 39 excellences and the Seminaries5 of propagation you that maintain the World support mankind and give life to society you that armed with I We cannot all be everybody This is a clever variation on Vergil Eclogue 36 3 non omnia possumus omnes we cannot all do everything underlining the au thor s contention that women who dress like men are really trying to become men The Staggers is a disease of horses and other animals which causes reeling and falling 2 Deliberately incorrect Latin for this Woman coupling the masculine form of the adjective with the feminine noun this rnannish Woman 3 Priscian was a sixthcentury AD Roman gramrnarian to break his head was to violate his rules of grammar V 4 A series of puns on the root meaning of the grammatical terms gender number case mood and tense at this time the word case could refer to clothing 5 Seed plots nurseries THE CONTROVERSY the in nite power of Virtue are Castles impregnable Rivers unsailable Seas immovable in nite treasures and invincible armies that are helpers most trusty Sentinels most careful signs deceitless P1313 Ways failless true guides dangerless Balmsthat instantly cure and honsrs that never perishOh do not look to find Y01117 1131335mquot39th15 Dec 3 mation but with all honor and reverencedo 1 speak to you Y011 are Seneca s Graces women good women modest women true wornen ever young because ever virtuous ever chaste CV6r g10110115 W11311 I write of you I will write with a golden pen on leaves of golden paper now I write with a rough quill and black Ink on iron sheets the iron I deeds of an iron generation Come then you Masculine women for you are my Subject you that have made Adniiration an Ass and fooled him with a deformity ntsyer before dreamed of that have made yourselves Str gef things an ever Noah s Ark unloaded or Nile engendered7 whom to name he that named all things might stlldy 33 sage t0 give You fl tight atmbutl whose like are not found in any Antlqllal Y 3 5t 1dYa 111 311 Seamafls travel nor in any Painter s r You that are stranger than strange ness itself whom Wise men wonder at Boys shout at and Goblins theniselves start at you that are the gilt dirt which emb39roide39rsjPlay houses the painted Statues which adorn 39Caroches3 and the perfumed Carrion thatihad men feed on infhrothels tis of you I entreati and 9f your monstrous deformity You that have mad Y01117 b9d1 35 111 amic Boscadge or Crotesco worllt1 39not half nianfhalf woman half shfhalf esh half beasthalf Monster butall Odioiis all Devil that have Cast off the ornaments of your sexes to put on the garmentsiof Shame that 39 have laid by thebashfulness of your natures quotto gather the impudence of Harlots that have buried silence to 139 V1V slander that are all things but that which you should be and nothing less than friends to 6 In his treatise On Bene ts de Bene ciis Seneca an ancient Roman 1110131 Phi I logopher 3391id Playwright presented the mythological Graces threegbeautifiil virgins de picted dancing hand in hand as symbols of kindness and grat1tude A 7 According to Ovid s Metamorphoses some strange and monstrous creatiiiiltes emerged fromthe slime left by the receding waters after T116 813339 ood Creatures Sun 3139 to those thought to be produced in the mud of the Nileis annual oods 8 Stately coaches 39 I 39 9 Treat 4 IO Boscadge is a decorative design irnitating branches and folfiage crotesco ispvit ing or sculpture that fantastically combines human and animal orms interwoven I foliage and owers 1 1 Anything rather than 266 Hit Mulier virtue and goodr1ess that have madethe foundation of your highest detested workfrom the lowest despised creatures that Record can give testimony of the one cut fromthe CommonwealthattheGallows the other is well known From tl391C 139S1I you got thefalse armory of yellow Starch for to wear yellow on white or white upon yellow is by the rules of Heraldry baseness bastardy and indignity the folly of imita tion the deceitfulness of attery and the grossest baseness of all base ness to do whatever a greater power will command you From the other you have taken the monstrousness of your deformity in apparel exchanging the modest attire of the comely Hood Cowl Coif hand some Dress 01 Kerchief to the cloudy Ruffianly broad brimmed Hat and wanton Feather the modest upper parts of a concealing straight gown to theloose lascivious civil embracement of aFrench doublet being all unbuttoned to entice all of one shape to hide deformity and extreme short waisted to give a most easy way to every luxurious ac tion the glory of a fair large hair to the shame of most ruffianly short locks the side39thick gathered and close guarding Safeguards to the l I1 quotSome background is necessary to understand this reference to a scandal that rocked English society in the early seventeenth century The scandal revolved around Lady Frances Howard who although married to the earl of Essexiwhile both were still children had by January 1613 embarked on an affair with Robert Carr earl of Somerset and the king s favorite SoInerset s political and personal mentor the Writer Sir Thomas Qverbury convinced of the fundamental wickedness of quotLady Frances determined to end the relationship but Somerset was deeply infatuated with his mistress and broke with Overbury over the issue Both King James and his queendetested Overbury for his intru sive arrogance and in April 1613 James found an excuse to have him imprisoned in the Tower In September 1613 Lady Frances succeeded in obtaining anannulment of her marriage to Essex on grounds of his supposed impotence and three months later with the king s blessing she married Robert Carr at Whitehall in a lavish ceremony Iii Sep tember of the same year Sir Thomas Overbury had died in the Tower but not until the summer of I61 5 did the fact emerge that he had been murdered by Lady Frances with the help of her close friend Nlrs Anne Turner History leaves no doubt as to the guilt of the two women for eventually all who had assisted them confessed freely Mrs Turner a dressmaker who had introduced the fashion of the yellow ruff and cuffs into the court a fashion that James despised was sentenced to be hung Lady Frances was also sen tenced to death but her sentence was commuted by James and after a term of imprison ment she was pardoned The author of Hic Mulier links the crime of these two women with their mode of dress James insisted that Mrs Turner the one cut from the Com F inonwealth at the Gallows go to her death wearing a dress cuffs and a ruff that had 39 beenstarched with yellow although Lady Frances may not have worn all the masculine fashions attributed to her by the author we know from a famous portrait in the Na tional Gallery that she wore ruffs with extremely lowcut revealing gowns I 3 Long outer petticoats 267 4 THE CONTROVERSY short weak thin loose and every handentertaining shorthases 14 for Needles Swords for Prayerbooks bawdy legs for modest gestures Q giantlike behaviors and for Women s modesty all Mimic and apish in civility These are your founders from these you took your copies and without amendment with these you shall come to perdition Sophocles being asked Why he presented no women in his Tragedies but good ones and Euripides none but bad ones answered he pre sented women as they should be but Euripides women as they were T These Mermaids or rather lvlerMonsters who dress bizarrely in men s fashions probably never practiced corneliness or modesty Al though theymay associate with or be related to persons of gentle birth they themselves are but rags of Gentry torn from better pieces for their foul stains Some are not even descended from gentry but are rather the stinking vapors drawn from dunghills these people rnayexist on the fringes of good society for a time but even tually they will fall back to the place from whence they came and there rot and consume unpitied and unremem bered And questionless it is true that such were the first beginners of these 8 39lastdeformities for fromany purer blood would have issued a purer 1 p5 birth there would have been some spark of virtue some excuse for imitation But this deformity hath no agreement with goodness nor i39no di erence against the weakest reason it is all base all barbarous 39base in respect it offends man in the example and God in the most S unnatural use barbarous in that it is exorbitant from Nature and an S Antithesis to kind going astray with ill favored affectation both in attire in speech in manners and it is to be feared in the whole courses and stories of their actions What can be more barbarous than with the gloss of murnming Art to disguise the beauty of their cre39a S tions To mould their bodies to every deformed fashion their tongues 14 Plaited lcnee length open skirts 39 I5 The author twists this reference to his own purpose for the Greek philosopher Aristotle in his Poetics actually quotes Sophocles as saying that he presented men as they ought to be and Euripides men as they were 16 The society of Renaissance England consisted of the titled leisured classes the nobility and the gentry and the commons yeomen husbandmencraftsmen etc who worked for their living and were not considered wellborn The distinction was a real and important one though somewhat fuzzy at the dividing line between gentry and commons and merchants and yeomen in the upper echelons of the commonalty were sometimes quite Wealthy 17 Natural disposition nature 18 Like actors in costume and mask 268 Hic Mulier to vile and horrible profanations and their hands to ruf anly and um c 39 39 D 39 ivil actions To have their gestures as piebald and as motley var1ous as their disguises their souls fuller of in rmities than a horse or a prosntute and their minds languishing in those in mjties If this be not barbarous make the rude Scythian the untamed Moor the naked Indian or the Wild Irish Lords and Rulers of Well governed Cities But 139 StS this d f0Im1tY then only in the baser in none but such as 39 I are the beggary of desert that have in them nothing but skittishness and peevishness that are living graves unwholesonie Sinks quartan Fevers for intolerable cumber2 and the extreme injury and wrong of nature Are these and none else guilty of this high Treason to God and nature y A Oh yes a world of other many known great thought good wjghecj happy much loved and most adrnired are so foully branded with thih infamy of disguise And the marks stick so deep on theirnaked faces and more naked bodies that not all the painting in Romeor Fauna 311 Conceal them but every eye discovers them almost as low as their niiddles it is anfinfectionthat emulates the plague and throws itself amongdt WOIHC11 0 all degrees all deserts andall ages from the Capitol to the Cottage are some spots or swellings of this disease 39 Yet evermore thegreater the person is the greater is the rage of this sickness and the 39 more they hfwe t0SUPPOH th quot3IH iI139 11CC0f theirliortunes the more they bestow in the augmentation of their deformitiesNot only such as will not work to get bread will nd time to weave herself points to truss herloose Breeches and she that hath pawned her credit to get a Hat will sell her Smock to buy a Feather she that hath given kisses to have her hair shorn will give her honesty tohave her upper partsipur Lntoba l1rench doublet To conclude she that will give her body rohave er 0 y deformed will not stick to give her soul to have her mind satis ed But such as are able to buy all at their own charges they swim in the excess of these vanities and will be manlike not only from the head to the waist but to the very foot and in every condition man in body by I9 Many Elizabethans considered these nationalities to be fundamental uncivilized Y 20 Destruction 21 Probably signi es nature here 22 Ties ending in metal tags 2 Co LV39s39 l THE CONTROVERSY attire man in behavior by rude complement man in quotnature by apt ness to anger man in action by pursuing revenge man in wearing weapons manquot in using weapons and in brief so much man in all things that they are neither men not women but just good for nothing Neither great birth not great beauty not great wealth can save these foolish women from one quotparticle of disgrace To support this point the author includes two stanzas by the poet 8 T O the speaker in the poem attests that he would love a virtuous woman above one of high birth beauty or wealth 39 39 Remember how your Maker made for our rst Parents coats not one coat but a coat for the man and a coat for the woman coats of several fashions several forms and for several euses the rnan s coat t for his labor the woman s t for herquot modesty And will you lose th model left by this great Workmaster of Heaven 39 A l The long hair of a woman is the ornament of her sex and bashful shamefastness her chief honor the long hair of avman the vizard quotfor a thievish or murderous disposition And will you cut off that beauty to wear the other s villainy The Vestalsli in Rome wore comely gar ments of one piece from the neck to the heel and the Swordplayers motley doubletswith gaudy points The rst begot reverence the lat ter laughter And will you lose that honor for the other s scorn quotThe weapon of a virtuous woman was her tears which every good man pitied and every valiant man honored the weapon of a cruel man is his sword which neither Law allows nor reason defends And will you leave the excellent shield of innocence for this deformed instrument of disgrace Evenfor goodness sake that can ever pay her own with her 39 own merits look to your reputations which are undermined with your own Follies and do not become the idle Sisters of foolish Don Quixote to believe every vain Fable which you read or to think you 2 3 Personal quality or accomplishment 24 The stanzas are from A Wife by Sir Thomas Overbury probably written in an effort to dissuade his friend Robert Carr from marrying the divorced FrancesHoward see note I2 above I 39 25 In fact the passage in Genesis 3 21 does not differentiate clothing by sex Unto Adam also and to his wife did the Lord God make coats of skins and clothed them 26 Mask i 39 27 Virgin priestesses who tended the sacred re of the goddess Vesta in ancient Rome 28 Probably Roman gladiators 29 The hero gf Miguel de Cervantes s satiric romancewho tries to act out all the fantasies of chivalry 270 His Mulier may be attired like Bradamant who was often taken for Ricardetto her brother that you may ght like Mar za and win husbands with conquest or ride astride like Claridiana and makeGiants fall at your stirrups The Morals31 will give you bettermeanings which if you shun and take the gross imitations the rst will deprive you of all good society the second of noble affections and the third of all be loved modesty You shall lose all the charms of women s natural perfec tionshave no presence to win respect no beauty to enchant men s hearts not no bashfulness to excuse thevilest imputations The fairest facecovered with a foul vizard begets nothing but af fright or scornand the noblest person in an ignoble disguise attains to nothing but reproach and scandal Away then with these disguises and foul vizards these unnatural paintings and immodest discoveries Keep those parts concealed from the eyes that may not be touched with the hands let not a wandering and lascivious thought read in an enticing Index the contents of an unchaste volume Imitate nature and as she hath placed on the surface and super cies of the earth all things needful for man s sustenance and necessary use as Herbs Plants Fruits Corn and suchlike but locked up close in the hidden caverns of the earth all things which appertain to his delight and plea sure as gold silver rich Mineralsand precious Stones so do you dis cover quot unto men all things that are t for them to understand from you as bashfulness in your cheeks chastity in your eyes wisdom in your words sweetness in your conversation and severe modesty in the whole structure or frame of your universal composition But for those things which belong to this wanton and lascivious delight and pleasure as eyes wandering lips billing tongue enticing bared breasts seduc ing and naked arms embracing oh hide them for shame hide them in the closest prisons of your strictest government Shield them with 2 modest and comely garments such as are warmand wholesome hav mg every window closed with a strong Casement and every Loophole furnished with such strong Ordinance that no unchaste eye may come near to assail them no lascivious tongue woo a forbidden passage not 30 These are heroines of romances who play masculine roles In the romantic epic Orlando Fmioso by the Italian poet Ariosto Bradamant is a brave and virtuous woman who engages in feats of knighthood and Mar za is a pagan warrior 31 Allegories the author advises women to view these female gures as symbols rather than as literal role models 32 Reveal 2397T THE CONTROVERSY 39 no profane hand touch relics so pure and religious Guard them about with Counterscarps of Innocence Trenches of humane Reason and impregnable walls of sacred Divinity not with Antic disguise and Mimic fantasticalness where every window stands open like the Sub 39m39a3 and every window a Courtesan with an instrument like so many Sirens to enchant the weak passenger to shipwreck and destruction Thus shall you be yourselves again and live the most excellent crea tures upon earth things past example past all imitation 39 Remember that God in your first creation did not form you of slime and earth like man but of a more pure and re ned metal a substance much more worthy you in whornare all the harmonics of life the per fection of Symmetry the true and curious consent of the most fairest colors and the wealthy Gardens which ll the world with living Plants Do but you receive virtuous Inmates as what Palaces are more rich to receive heavenly messengers and you shall draw men s souls unto you with that severe devout and holy adoration that you shall never want praise never love never reverence P But now methinks I hear the witty offending great Ones replyin ex cuse of their deformities What is there no di erence among women No distinction of places no respect of Honors not no regard of blood 39 or allianceP Must but a bare pair of shears pass quotbetween Noble and I ighoble between the generous spirit and the base Mechanic Shall we be all goheirs of one honor oneeestate and one habit Oh Men you are then too tyrannous and not only injure Nature but also break the Laws and customs of the wisest Princes Are not Bishops known by their lliters Princes by their Crowns judges by their Robes and Knights by their spurs But poor Women have nothing how great i soever they be to divide themselves from the enticingshows or mov ing Images which do furnish most shops in the City What is it that either the Laws have allowed to the greatest Ladies custom found convenient or their bloods or places challenged which hath not been engrossed into the City with as great greediness and pretense of true 3 3 The exterior slopes of a ditch In this somewhat confused metaphor female sex uality is compared to precious metals to be buried shameful evils to be imprisoned and the contents of a besieged city to be defended all by the proper clothing 3439 A poor district abounding in prostitutes in ancient Rome 3 5 A member of the lower classes a manual worker 272 member of the gentry Hic Mulier 39 title as if the surcease from the Imitation were the utter breach of their Charter everlastingly quot For this cause these Apes of the City have enticed foreign Nations to their cells and there committing gross adultery with their Gewgaws have brought out such unnatural conceptions that the whole world is not able to make a Democritus big enough to laugh at their foolish ambitions Nay the very Art of Painting which to the last Age shall ever be held in detestation they have so cunningly stolen and hidden amongst their husbands hoards quotof treasure that the decayed stock of Prostitution having little other revenues are hourly in bringing their acuon of Detinue 39 against them Hence being thus troubled with these Popinjays andloath still to march in one rank withfools and Zanies have proceeded these disguised deformities not to offend the eyes of goodness but to tire yytl1iigdi11l is 11te11E t1jL gquot39 yg 10be quot 39 mesgossandunmann lyintrude1s Nay look if this verylast edition of disguise this which is so full of faults cor ruptions and false quotations this bait which the Devil hath laid to catch the souls of wanton Women benot as frequent in the demi Palaces ofBurgers and Citizens as it is either at Masque Triumph Tilt yard or Playhouse Call butto account the Tailors that are contained within the Circumference of the Walls of the City and let but their Hells and their hard reckonings be justly summed together and it will be found they have raised more new foundations of this new dis guise and metamorphosized more modest old garments to this new manner of short base and French doublet only for the useof F reeman s 3 Noblewomen the offending great Ones defend their Inasculine sty1eof39dres39s 39 as a response to the fact that there is no distinction of attire to separ39ate39high and low born women women of the mercantile classes in the Cityquot of London constantly ape their betters fashions and carry them to I391d1Cl1lO11S extremes Hence the nobility 111 vented tlns style of dress to bring contempton their quotlowerclass imitators 37 A Sexual metaphortheir outlandish costumes are the offspring concep tions of adultery with foreign styles of dress and gross imitationsof court styles 3 8 A fth century BC philosopher who laughed at the pretensions of quothis time 39 The coloring of the face Pq cosmetics p0 39 391 40 An action at law to recover something wrongfully detained by the defendant in other words prostitutes are suing these women for wrongfuluse of their stock in trade 41 Public celebrations and tournaments especially frequented by the upper classes 42 Containers for a tailor s discarded materialf 4 3 Here the term freeman apparently designates a freeborn individual who is not a 773 THE conrnovansr wivesand their children inone month than hath been worn in Court Suburbs or County since the unfortunate beginning of the rst devil ish invention quot T e p 39 39 Let therefore thepowerful Statue of apparel ebut lift up his Battle Ax and crush the offenders in pieces so as everyone may be lltI10W11 bY the true b39adge of theirblood or Fortune And then these 39Chimeras 5 of quot deformity will be sent back to hell thereburn to Cinders inthe 39 ames39oftheir own malice 1 39 39 39 39 Thus methinks I hear the best of offenders arguenor canlblame a high blood to swell when it is coupled and counterchecked withbase ness and corruption Yet this shows an anger passingtnear akin to envy and alludes much to thesaying of an excellent Poetr W Women never of 3O Lovepbeauty in their Sex but envy ever L Theyhave Caesar s ambition and desire to be one and alone but yet to offend themselves to grieve others is a revenge dissonant to Reason And asfEurip39ides saith a woman of that malicious nature is a erce Beast and most pernicious to the Commoriwealth for she hathxpower by exampleto do itva world of injury 39 39 39 39 39 39 i I A woman s disposition should be gentle her thoughts according to a poet cited by the author should be attended with remorse In quotC011 trast to the ideal woman quotthose who indulge 111 the new fashion have given a shameless liberty to every loose passion in their attempt to 39 control the men who should rule them they endanger their personal fortunes and reputations as well as those of their families and their sex The author includes a staI1z21b57 p8 3P DS I fI0H1 the B001 of Justice of The Faerie Queene Such is the cruelty of womenkind When they have shallten off the shamefast band 39 With which wise Nature didthem strongly bllld Tobey the hests of niarfs well hand 44 Laws governing what each class may or may not wear the noblewomen claim 39 that the fashion of masculine attire would disappear if dress distinctions between Classes of women were maintained and enforced by law I 45 In Greek mythology the chimera was a firefbreathmg femalepmonster with the head of a lion the body of agoat and a serpent fora tall 46 Behests commands 274 Hit Mulier That then all rule andreason they withstand To purchase a licentious liberty Butvirtuous women wisely understand 39 That they were born to base humility Unless the heavens them lift to lawful sovereignty To youtherefore that are Fathers Husbands or Sustainers of these new Hermaphroditesquot belongs the cure of this 39Impostume 3 It is you I that give fuel to the flames of their wild indiscretion you add the oil which makes their stinking Lamps de le the whole house with lthy smoke and your purses purchase these deformities at rates both dear and unreasonable Dolyou but hold close your liberal hands for take strict account of theemployment of the treasure you give to their ne39c essary maintenance and these excesses will either cease or else die 39 smothered in the Tailor s Trunkfor Want of Redemption i Seneca speakingof liberality willby no means allow that any man should bestow either on friend wife or children any treasure to be spent upon ignoble uses for it not onlyirojbs the party of the honor of bounty and takes from the deed the name of a Bene t but also makes him conscious and of the crimes which are purchased by such a gratuity Be therefore the Scholars of Seneca andyour Wives Sisters A and Daughters willbe the Coheirs of modesty Lycurgiis the lawgiver made it death in one of his Statutes to bring in any new custom into his Commonwealth Do you make it the utter loss of your favor and bounty to have brought into your Family any newfashion or disguise thatmight either deform Nature or be an in jury to modesty So shall shamefastness and comeliness ever live under your roof and your Wives and Daughters like Vines and fair Olives ever spread with beauty round about your Tables 39 The iacedaemonians5 seeing that their children were better taught 47 Book 5 canto 5 stanza 25 The stanza describes the tyranny of the Amazon queen Radigund over Artegall the hero of the Book of Justice As a symbol of Artegall s I ensiavement Radigund forces him to wear women s clothing and to spend his time spin ning and carding The relationship causes both of them rmsery for Radigund is secretly in love with Artegall but cannot bring herself to serve the lowly vassal of her might The last line of the stanza cited refers of course to Queen Elizabeth regarded by most Elizabethan tliinkers as a legitimate exception to the ideal of female submission 48 Pride or insolence 39 I 39 49 Traditional founder of the constitution of ancient Sparta 50 Citizens of ancient Sparta 27539 TIIE CONTROVERSY by examples than precepts had hanging in their houses in fair painted tablets all the Virtues and Vices that were in those days reigning with their rewards and punishments Oh have you but in your houses the fashions of all attires constantly and without change held and still fol lowed through all the parts of Christendom Let them but see the mod est Dutch the stately Italian the rich Spaniard and the courtly French with the rest according to their climates andthey O blush that in a full fourth part of the World there cannot be found one piece of a Chair acter to compare or liken with the absurdity of their Masculine Inven tion Nay they shall see that their naked Countryinan which had p city with his Shears to cut from every Nation of the World one piece or patch to make up his garment yet amongst them all could not nd this lIiscellany or mixture of deformities which only by those which whilst they retained any spark of Womanhood Were both loved and ad mired is loosely indiscreetly Wantonly and most unchastely invented And therefore to knit up this imperfect Declamation let every Fernale Masculine that by her ill examples is guilty of Lust or Imitation cast off her deformities and clothe herself in the rich garments which the Poet bestows upon her in these Verses following 7 Those Virtues that in Women merit praise 2 Are sober shows Without chaste thoughts Within True Faith and dueobedience to their mate i And of their children honest care to take 276 Reproduction of the 1677 title page With permission oftlze William Andrews Clark Memorial Library University of California Los Angeles lie Qsrghce Containing The Platform and Desigrze 39 c of the Discourse HERE is nothing more nice and delicate than to Treat on the Subject of Women When a Man speaketh quotto their advantage it is presently imagined a peece of Gallantry or Love And it is very probable that themost part Judging of this discourse by the Title will take it at rst for an effect of the one or other and will be glad to know the truth of the motive and designe thereof Take it thus The most happy thought that can enter into the minds r of those who labour to acquire a solid Science afterlthat they have been instructed according to the Vulgar Method is to doubt if they have been taught aright and to desire to dis cover the truth by themselves i In the progress of their inquiry it occurs to them neces sarily to observe that we are lled with prejudices that is to say opinions past upon things without true Examination And that we must absolutely Renounce them to attain to clear and distinct Knowledges In the designe of insinuating so important a Maxime we have believed it the best to choose a determinate and fa 55 THE WOMAN AS GOOD AS THE MAN rnous Subject where every one takes an interest to the end that having demonstrated that a Sentiment as ancient as the World of as great extent as the Earth and as Universal as Mankind is a prejudice or errour39 the Learned might at length be Convinced of the necessity of Judging of thl gs by themselves after having examined them and not to referre themselves to the opinion or credit of other men if they would avoid being deceived Of all prejudices there is not any to be observed more proper for this designe than that which men commonly con ceive of the inequality of the two Sexes Indeed if we consider them in their P1 Sf311i C011d1T1011 we may observe them more different In their civil functions and those which depend on the mind than 111 Such as b 1011g to the body And if we search for the reason of this in ordi nary discourse we nd that in all the World those that have Learning and those that have none and even Women themselves agree to say that they have no share in Sciences nor Employments because that they are not capable thereof that they have not the parts of men and that theY 0113111 111 all things be inferiour to them as they are After having tryed this opinion according to theRule of Verity which is to admit of nothing for truth but what is supported by clear and distinct Notions On the one hand It hath appeared false and grounded on a prejudice and Popu lar tradition and on the other we have found that both 361163 are equal that is to say that Women are as noble as perfect and as capable as men This cannot be estabhshed but by re futing two sorts of adversaries the vulgar and almost all the learned The former having no other ground for what they be lieve but Custome and some slight apP6a139311C3S3 the best way to confute them seems to be to let them see how that Women have been Subjected and excluded 5013 S01e11lC and Employments and having led them through the Princi pal conditions and occurences of life give them 000381011 l0 acknowledge that Women have advantages which render them equal to men and this is thedesigne of the rst part of this Treatise 56 The Preface The second is employed to shew that all the arguments of the learned are vain And having established the Sentiment of equality by positive reasons Women are Justi ed om the defects of which they are ordinarily accused by making appear that they are either imaginary or of little importance that they proceed only from the education which is given them and that they mark in them considerable advantages This Subject maybe handled two wayes either in a flourishing brisk and complementive Stile or otherwayes after the manner of Philosophers by Principles to the end of being instructed therein to the bottom Such as have the true idea of eloquence know well that these two stiles are almost inconsistent together and that one cannot enlighten the mind and tickle it by the same Meth ode It is not but that the ourish may be joyned with reason but that such a mixture often hinders the end which ought to be proposed in discourse which is to convince and per swade that which is pleasing musing the mind and not suf fering it to rest on what is solid And as men have peculiar regards for Women if in a treatise made on their Subject we mingle any thing that is gallant and courtly those that read it pursue their thoughts too far and lose sight of that which ought chie yto affect them Wherefore there being nothing in the World that con cerns Women more than this desi e where we are obliged to speak in their favour matters of the greatest force and verity as far as the capriciousness of the World can suffer it we thought that it behooved us to speak seriously and give notice thereof lest that the conceit that it might be a peece of airy Gallantry should make it slightly perused or rejected by scrupulous persons We are not ignorant that this discourse will render a great many male contented and that they whose Interests and Maximes are contrary to what is proposed here will not fail to cry out against it To give means to answer to their complaints we advertise persons of Spirit and particularly the Women who are not the Spaniels of those that take an 57 THE WOMAN AS GOOD AS THE MAN thority over them that if they give themselves the trouble to read this Treatise with the attention at least that the variety of matters therein contained does require they will observe that the Essential Character of truth is clearness and evi dence Which may serve them to lmow whether the objec tions that may be adduced against them be considerable or not And they may remark that the most specious shall be made to them by people whose profession seems at this day to engage them to renounce experience common sense and themselves that they may blindly embrace all that agrees with their prejudices and interests and oppuge all kinds of Truths that seem to oppose them And we pray consider that the bad e ects which a pan ick fear may make them apprehend 39om this enterprise may never perhaps happen in one single Woman and that they are counterpoised with a great advantage which may re dound therefrom there being perhaps no way more natural or sure to draw the greatest part of Women from idleness to e which they are reduced and the inconveniences that attend it than to perswade them to study which is almost the sole thingin which Ladies at present can imploy themselves by making them know that they are as proper thereto as men And as there are none but unreasonable men who abuse the advantages that custome hath given them to the preju dice of Women neither can there be likewise any but indis creet Women that should make use of this peece to make them rise against men who would treat them as their com panions and equals In ne if any one be Choaked with this discourse for what reason soever it be let him quarrel with Truth and not the Author and to free himself from peevish ness let him say to himself that it is but an Essay of wit it is certain that this j urk of imagination or a like hindering truth from gaining upon us renders it much less uneasie to those who have pain to suffer it E 58 The 97anrhz7or 95 The llnzyrlejzu reQlgn er htquot WELL foresee that my pains in making this inge nious French Author speak English will according to the bias of prejudiced and interested hurnours undergoe various Censures a great many men especially those who de e theFrench with their Shoptooles will be at 39 it Tooth and Nail and cry out that so many outlandish Trinckiorns5 having already crept into use amongst the Women he that would endeavour to introduce more is no friend to the liberty of the Subject But such men do but hunt their own shadow my intent by this Translation being quite contrary When I Considered that of all Nations The English did most candidly assert and sutably entertain the worth of the 39 lovely Sex and by civility and good nature as well as prud ence and justice eely grant an equality to Women in all things wherein established and unalterable customes might not be violated which strangers even the French themselves the meat comphmenters of that Sex do by the force of Philos ophy and with reasons which wrestle against prejudices but at most discourse of I thought I could not do less for the Sat isfaction of such English Men who do not understand my 59 Tie first ism Wberein is sitewn That the Vulgar Opinion is Prejudicated and that comparing impartially that which may be remarked in the Conduct of Men and Women we are obliged to acknowledge an intire Equality between both Sexes L eggs EN perswade themselves of very many things for which they can give no Reason because their Assur ance is founded onely upon slight Appearances by which they suffer themselves to be hurried and would have as strongly believed the contrary if the Impressions of Sense or Custom had thereto determined them after the same man ner Setting aside a small number of Learned all the world hold as a thing unquestionable That the Sun moves about the Earth Though that which appears in the Revolution of Dayes and Years equally inclineth those who attentively consider to think That it is the Earth that takes its course round the Sun Men imagine that in Beasts there is a certain Knowledge that guides them by the same reason that wild Savages fancy some little Spirits to be within Clocks and other Engines which are shown them where of they under stand not the Fabrick or Movements Had we been brought up in the midst of the Seas with out having ever come Ashore we should not have failed to have believed as Children do when they put off in Boats 63 THE WOMAN AS GOOD AS THE MAN that in our Floating houses the Land went from us Every one esteems his own Countrey the best because there he 18 most accustomed and that the Re11g1011 Wherem he hath been Nursed is the True which he ought 10 f0110W 2111111011311 he hath never perhaps dream d of examining or comparing the same with others We nd our selves alwayes more m clined for our Countreymen than for Strangers W311 111 mat ters where Right is on their side We aremore pleased to Converse with those of our own Profession than others though neither their Wit nor fertue be so great And The Disparity of Estates and Conditions make many Judge that Men amongst themselves are altogether unequal If we enquire into the ground of all these diverse Opin ions we shall nd them bottom d on Interest 01 01510111 and that it is incomparably more difficult 10 d1 31917 Men fmm such Sentiments wherein they are engaged by Prejudice than from the Opinions which they have embraced 1113011 The M0 tive of the strongest and most COI1V1I1ClIlg Arguments Amongst these odd Opinions we may 139 30k011 lb mm mon Judgement which Men make of the Di quotereiice of the two Sexes and of all that depends thereon 111616 13 E01311 mistake more Antient or Universal F013 both Knowmg and Ignorant are so prepossessed with the Op1I110D8 That Women are inferiour to Men in Capaclly and Worth and that they ought to be placed in that dependance wherein We see them that the contraiy Sentence will not miss to be eyed as a Paradox and piece of Siiigu1aI1tY9 However for the Establishing of it it would not at all be necessary to use any positive Reason if Men were II10I 6J11S1i and less interested in their Judgements it might su ice 10 advertise them That hitherto the difference of the Sexes to the disadvantage of the Female hath been but very lightly discoursed of and that to judge soundly Whether OFT 337 have obtained any Natural Preeminence beyond theirs we ought to think thereon seriously and without Partiality re jecting all which hath been hitherto believed upon the 81111913 Report of other Men without Tryal or EXal111I1a11011 64 The F irsr Parr It is certain that if a Man would set himself in this State of lndifferency and Neutrality he must acknowledge on the one hand that it is Weakness and Precipitancy that make us reckon Women less Noble and Excellent than our selves and that certain Natural lndispositions render them obnoxious to the Failiiigs and Imperfections that are attributed to them and thereby contemptible to many And on the other hand he must see That these very Colours which cheat People con cerning their own Subjects when they slightly pass them over would serve to undeceive them if they sounded them a little deeper In short if that Man were a philosopher he would nd that there are Natural Reasons which invincibly prove that both Sexes are a like both as to Body and Soul But as there are not many Persons in a condition of themselves to put in Practice this Advice so it must remain useless without some pains be taken to labour with Men and 39 to put them in the way of making use of it And seeing the Opinion of those who have less studied is the most general with it we shall begin our Enquiry Let every Man in particular be asked his Thoughts of Women in general and that he would surely confess his Mind he will tell you withoutquot doubt That they were not made but for Man That they are t for nothing but to Nurse and Breed little Children in their Low Age and to mind the House It may be the more Ingenious will add That there are many Women that have indeed Parts and Conduct but that even they who seem to have most when they are nearly examined discover still somewhat that speaks their Sex That they have neither Solidity nor Constancy nor that depth of Judgement which they think to nd in themselves And that it hath been an E ect of Divine Providence and Wisdom of Men to have barred them from Sciences Gov ernment and Oflices That it would be a pleasant thing in deed to see a Lady in the Chair in quality of a Professor teaching Rherorick or Medicine marching along the Streets followed by O cers and Sergeants putting in Execution Lawes Playing the part of a Counsellour pleading before Judges Seated on a Bench to Administer Justice in Supream 65 a j THE WOMAN AS GOOD AS THE MAN Courts Leading of an Army giving Battel and Speaking be fore States and Princes as the Head of an Embassy I do confess such Practices would surprize us but for no other reason but that of Novelty For if in modelling of I States and establishing the different O ces that compose them Women had been likewise called to Functions we should have been as much accustomed to have seen them in Dignity as they are to see us And should have found it no more strange to have seen a Lady on a Throne than a Woman in a Shop If these Blades be pressed a little further we shall nd their mightiest Arguments reduced to this That as to Women matters have alwayes past as now they go which is a mark that they are really such as they are esteemed And that if they had been capable of Sciences and O ices Men would not have denyed them their shares These kind of Reasonings proceed from the Conceit that we have of the Equity of our Sex and a false Notion which Men forge to themselves of Custom It is enough with them to nd that a thing is established to make them believe it well grounded And as they judge that men ought to do noth ing without Reason so the most part of People cannot imag ine but that Reason hath been consulted for the introducing of such Practises as they see universally received and fancy to themselves that Prudence and right Reason have estab lished the Customes to which they both oblige us to con forme since without breach of Order we cannot therein dispence with our Obedience Every one sees in his own Countrey the Women in such Subjection that in all things they depend on Men without being admitted to Learning or any of those Condi tions that afford opportunity to become remarkable by the advantage of quot3 Parts No Body a irms that he hath ever seen them treated otherwise And all know That matters go so with them every where that there is no place in the World where they are not used after the same manner as we nd at Home In some Countries their Usage is worse where they are regarded as Slaves In China they keep their Feet little 66 The F irst Part from their Childhood to hinder them from rambling out of Doors where they never see any thing but their Husbands and Children In Turkey the Ladies are strictly enough con ned And in Italy they are not much better Almost all the People of AS161 A iica and America use their Wives as we do our ServingMaids They are no where imployed in any thing but that which is esteemed low and base And because they only discharge the lesser care of Huswivery and Nurses Men commonly perswade themselves that for that end alone they are m the World and that they are uncapable of any thing else They cannot easily represent to themselves how matters would be otherwayes it appearing impossible to alter them what endeavour soever be used The wisest Lawgivers 9 founding their Common Wealths have estabhshed nothing on this Account in favour of Women All their Laws seem only to have been made to con rm Men in the Possession they have got Most part of Men who have passed for Learned have not said any thing to the advantage of Women And the Conduct of Men in all Ages and Places of the World appears so uniform in this case that it seems they have conspired or otherwayes as many imagine have been led thereunto by a secret Instinct that is to say LettersPatent om the Author of Nature Men are still the more perswaded in this when they con sider in what manner the Women themselves support this their Condition They look upon it as a thmg natural to them whether it be that they re ect not upon what they are or that being born and bred in dependence they make the same Judgement thereon as Men do Now upon all these views the one and the other let themselves believe both That their Spirits are as different as their Bodies and that there ought to be as great disunction betwixt the two Sexes in all the Functions of Life as there is in those which are peculiar to either Whilst in the meantiine that perswasion like the most part of those which we draw from Use and Cus tom is nothing but Prejudice formed in us by the appear ances of things for want of closer Examination and of which we might easily undeceive our selves if we would but take 6739 THE WOMAN AS GOOD AS THE MAN the pains to return back to the Fountainhead and judge in many Occurencies of that which hath been done in former times by what is practised at this day and of the Custom of the Antients by what we see in Vogue in our own times Had Men followed this Rule in many of their Sentiments they had not so easily fallen into mistakes And as to what con cerns the present state of Women they would have acknowl edged that they have not been subjected by any other Law than that of the stronger and that it hath not been for want of Natural Capacity or Merit that they have not shared with us in that which raises our Sex above theirs 39 Indeed when we consider quotseriously the Affairs of this World both past and present we nd that all agree in this That Reason hath alwayes been the weakest And it seems that Histories have only been composed to Demonstrate that which every one sees in his own time That ever since there hath been Men in the World force hath alwayes prevailed The greatest Empires of Asia in their beginnings have been the work of Usurpers and Thieves And the scattered Wracks of the Grecian and Roman Monarchies have not been gath ered but by those who thought themselves strong enough to resist their Masters and domineer over their Equals This Conduct is no less visible in all other Societies And if Men behave themselves so towards their Fellows there is great likelyhood from Stronger Reason That in the beginning they have done so every one towards his Wife And this is almost the manner how it hath happened Men observing that they were the stronger and that in relation of Sex they have some advantage of Body fancyed that they had the same in all the Consequence was not great for Women in the beginning of the World Affairs being in a I Condition far different from what now they are when neither Government Science Office nor Religion were established the Notion of Dependence had in it nothing at all of lrksome I Imagine that Men lived then like little Children and all the Advantage that was was like that of Play Men and Women who then were simple and innocent were equally employed in labouring of the Land or Hunting as the Wild Indians do 68 39 The First Part at this day The Man took his Course and the Woman her s39 And they that brought Home most Pro t were commonly most esteemed The lriconveniencies that attend and follow the big Belly weakening the strength of the Female for some Interval of time and hindering them to labour as formerly required necessarily the Assistance of their Husbands and the more Sim whim they W61 6 taken up with the care of their young Children This produced some Regards of Es teem and Preferrence in Families which then were only composed of Father Mother and some little Babes But when F3m11135 began to be enlarged and that in the same llouse lived not only the Father but the Father s Mother the Children s Children with Brothers and Sisters Elder and younger Then did Dependence dilate it self and become more sensible Then was to be seen the Mistriss submitting 39 to her Husband the Son honouring his Father and he com manding his Children And as it is most difficult for Brothers 31WaYeS Perfectly T0 3gT6 We may easily conceive that they lived not long together before that some Difference hapned amongst them The Elder stronger than the rest would con descend to them in nothing So quotForce obliged the Lesser to bow under the Greater and the Daughters to follow the Ex ample of their Mother lt is easie to be imagined that in such Families there were then several different Functions That the Women being boundto stay at Home to bring up their Children took the Care within Doors The Men more free and strong charged themselves with the Affairs abroad and that after the Death of the Father and Mother the FirstBorn took upon him the Government The Daughters accustomed to the House had no thoughts of going abroad but some Younger Brothers discontented and more erce than they refusing to submit to the Yoak were obliged to withdraw and set up for themselves And so several of the same Humour meeting to gether made a shift to live on their Fortunes and easily con tracted Friendship Who nding themselves without Estate S011ght out means to purchase what they wanted and seeing 69 THE WOMAN AS GOOD AS THE MAN there was no other way but to take from their Neighbours they fell upon that which came next to hand And to con rm themselves in the Possession of their New Conquests at the same time made themselves Masters of the owners The voluntary Dependence which was before in Fami lies ceased by this Invasion Fathers and Mothers With them Children being constrained to obey an unjust Usuiper So that the Condition of Women became harder than before For as till then they had never been marryed but to Men of their own House and Family they were afterward forcedto take Strangers and unknown Husbands Who 01113 0011331 ered them as the loveliest part of their Booty It is ordinary with Conquerours to despise those amongst the Subdued Whom they judge the weakest And the Women appearing to be such by reason of their Employ ments which required not much Strength were looked upon as inferiour to Men Some there were who contented themselves with this rst Usurpation but others more ambitious encouraged by the success of their Victory resolved to proceed in their Con quests The Women being more humane than to serve such unjust Desigries were left at Home and the Men chosen as the most proper for such Enterprizes where there 18 need of Force In this state of Life matters being no otherwayes es teemed but as Men thought them useful to the ends whifh they proposed and the desire of Dominion being new 6 come the strongest of Passions which could not be satis ed but by Violence and Injustice of which men were the only Instruments It is no wonder that they were preferred 10 Women Men likewise serving to maintain th C011 l11 393St5 which they had made Their Counsels were only taken for to S establish their Tyranny because none were so t to put them in Execution And so the Mildness and Humanit Of Women was the sole cause which excluded them from hav ing any share in the Administration of Publick Covemment The Example of Princes was quickly imitated bY their Subjects every one would ca1TY 11 OVPT ms 3 m9am n3 nd private men began to rule more absolutely in their Families 70 The First Part So soon as a Lord found himself Master of a People and con 39 siderable Countrey he shaped it into a Kingdom made Laws for Government chose his O cers from amongst the Men and raised to Places those who had best served him in his Enterprizes So notable a Preference of one Sex above the other lessened still more the Esteem for the Women and their Humour and Course of Life being far from Butchery and Warr Men believed them no otherwayes capable to con tribute to the Safety and Preservation of Kingdonies but only by helping to people them States and CommonWealths could not be established without the placing of some Distinction amongst those that did compose them So Marks of Honour were introduced for distinguishing of Orders and Signes of Respect invented to testi e the Difference which was acknowledged to be amongst Men And to the Notion of Power was added the External Submission which is commonly rendred to those who have the Authority in their Hands a lt is not at all necessary to tell you how God hath been known of Men but it is certain that since the beginning of the World he hath been adored by them though the Worship which Men have rendred to a Deity was never Regular but since they were assembled in Bodies to make up Publick Societies Now as Men were accustomed to Reverence the Pow ers by External Marks of Respect they thought it likewise their Duty to Reverence God by some Ceremonies which might serve to manifest the Sentiments which they enter tained of his Greatness Temples were built Sacri ces ap pointed and Men who were already the Heads of Govern merit failed not also to take to themselves the care of that which concerned Religion And Custom having now prepos sessed the Women with an Opinion that all belonged to Men they contented themselves without aspiring to any part of the Publick Ministry But the Idea which Men conceived of a GodHead being extrearnly corrupted by the Fables and Fic tions of Poets they forged to themselves Divinities both Male and Female and appointed Shee Priests for the Service 71 THE WOMAN AS GOOD AS THE MAN of those of their Sex but still with Subordination to the Con duct and Pleasure of their Priests Women have been likewise known to have Governed great States but we must not imagine that it was because they have been called thereto out of a purpose of Restitution of their right but because they had the Dexterity so to dis pose of Affairs that Men could not snatch the Authority out of their Hands It is true there are at this day Hereditary States where the Females succeed to Males as Queens or Princesses But we have no reason to believe but that if Men have suffered the Scepter to fall into the place of the Distaffe it was only that they might prevent the People from falling together by the Ears33 And that if they have permitted Female Regen cies it was in consideration that the Mothers who alwayes extreamly love their Children would take a more particular Care of their States during their Minority So that now the Women being otherwayes imployed but in their Huswivery and nding therein business enough let us not think it strange that they have not invented any of those Sciences whereof the greatest part at rst have been but the work and task of some idle Loyterers The Aegyptian Priests who had not much to do busied themselves in chatting together concerning the Effects of Na ture which seemed most to touch them And after much talk ing and reasoning began to make Observations the noise of which stirred up the Curiosity of some Men to come in search of them But Sciences being but then in the Cradle did not allure the Women out of Doors Besides that the Jeal ousie which already imbroyled the Husbands would have lled them with Suspition that their Wives had gone to visit 39 the Priests rather for Love to their Persons than Learning which they had obtained After that several Men had received some tincture of this new Learning they began to assemble themselves in cer tain Places to discourse thereof more at leisure where every one speaking his Thoughts Knowledge ripened and Col ledges and Accademies were appointed where the Women 72 The First Part were not admitted but in the same manner were excluded from Learning as they had been from all the rest Notwithstanding the Restraint wherein they were kept hindred not but that some of them procured the Conversa tion and Writings of the Learned whereby in a short time they equalled the progress of the most Ingenious But Cus tome having already enjoyned an impertinent Decorum that Men durst not come to their Houses nor other Women visit them for fear of giving some umbrage they made no Disci ples nor founded Sects but all the Light which they had at tained uselessly dyed with themselves If we observe how Modes and Fashions creep into use and how they are dayly imbelished we may judge That in the beginning of the World People took no great care of their Dress Ali was then simple and plain nothing minded but necessity Men ea d Beasts and fastening their Skins to gether framed to themselves Habits But afterwards Com modiousness began to be devised and every one accowtering themselves according to their fancy the Fashions that were most decent were presently followed and they that were un der the same Prince strove to conform themselves to his Mode s It happened not so with Modes and Fashions as with Governments and Sciences the Women here had their share with Men who perceiving them by their dress more lovely took no care to rob them thereof And both the one and the other nding that some sort of Apparel set off more grace fully and rendred more amiable the Person both strove to nd out the Knack But the Employments of Men being greater and more important hindered them from the more 39 eager Pursuit The Women herein shewed their Prudence and Skill For observing that new Ornaments made them more agree able and dear to Men and thereby their Condition more sup portable they neglected nothing which they thought might serve to render themselves Charming and Lovely To that end they employed Gold Silver and Precious Stones as soon as they grew in Vogue And seeing that Men had de 73 E THE WOMANAS GOOD AS THE MAN prived them of Means to make themselves Conspicuous by their Parts they applyed themselves solely to nd out that which might render them amiable and pleasing In this they have very well succeeded For their Beauty and Attire have advanced them to greater Esteem in the Eyes of Men than all the Books and Learning of the World could ever have done This Custom hath been too well Established to admit of any future Change the Practice thereof hath continued to our times and it seems to be a Tradition too antient to be now contradicted or opposed In appears clearly from this Historical Conjecture That according to the manner of dealing familiar to all M en it is only by Force and Empire that they have reserved to themselves these Extrinsicali 3 Advantages from which the Female Sex is debarred For to warrant them to say That it hath been grounded on Reason they must never have com municated them amongst themselves but to those who have been most capable Alwayes made the Choice of such with exact Scrutiny and Discretion Never have admitted to study but such as they knew disposed for Letters Never raised to Charges but those that were ttest for Employment and excluded all others And in short Never have set any Man on any thing but what was suitable to his inclinations We see the contrary daily put in Practice For there is nothing but Chance Necessity or Interest which engageth Men in the different Conditions and States of Civil Society The Children learn their Father s trade because that it hath alwayes been mentioned to them One is forced to the Gown who would have been better pleased with the Sword had it been at his own choice and the ablest Man in the World shall never enter into Employment if he want iMoney to buy his Place How many are there groveling in the dust who would have made themselves famous had they been but in the way and how many Clowns are there that might have become meat Doctors had they been sent to School We have but lit tle ground to pretend that the present Virruosi are only such of the times who have the best Genius for the things wherein they excell and that amongst so many Persons buryed in 74 The F irsz Parr ignorance there are none who with the same means which 39 they have had could have rendered themselves more cap able Why is it then that we assure ourselves that Women are less fit for such things than our selves sure it is not Chance but Unavoidable necessity that hinders them from playing their parts I urge not that all Women are capable of all Sciences and Employments that any one is capable of all No Man pretends to so much but I only desire that consid ering the Sex in general we may acknowledge an aptitude in the one as well as the other K 579 3 Let us but glance a little upon that which we see dayly in the play and smaller divertisernents of Children The Girles show therein a more gent e air more of Wit and greater dexterity And when fear or shame does not sti e their Humours their Discourse is more ingenious and pleasant and their conversation more lively brisk and free They Learn sooner what they are taught if they be equally played They are more industrious more painfull more sub miss more modest and more reserved In a word we may remarke in them in a more eminent degree all those excel lent qualities which beingifound in young Men make them esteemed tter for high matters than those who are other wise their equalls 39 Notwithstanding that that which appeares in the two Sexes whilst they are as yet in the cradle is sufficient to make us conclude that the more lovely gives also the fairest hopes yet men take no notice thereof Masters and Teaching are onely for the Men Particular care is taken to instruct them in all which is thought proper to form and improve the mind3955 whilst in the mean time the Women are let languish 39 in Idleness Softness and Ignorance Or otherwise grovel in low and base imployments But for all this we need but two eyes to perceive that the case of the two Sexes is just like that of two Brothers in the same family Where the younger notwithstanding of the neglect of his breeding makes often appear that the elder has no advantage over him but the start in coming into the World 75 22 A THE RELIGIOUS NARRATIVE magical realisrn A character like Garcia Marquez Remedies la Bella in One Hundred Years of Solitude is wafted into the ether on the end of a sheet like a nun beingtransported to Heaven But in the seventeenth century such raptures took nuns momentarily out of reach of hierarchical authority They were important as expressions of female piety At the same time tl1CY C011f1fm d mg even reproduced the identification of women with the irrational gtlwe 2 son JUANA EXPLORES SPACE Jew asco Ploibtg Looms ualer and hqpresewfaElm Mi 5939 N wjazk Columbia OnwyszlJ mg The previous chapter described how the gotesque emaciated body of the mystic her potentially transgressive feelings and rough lan guage were converted into legitimate language Potentially a threat to clerical power the mystical nuns of New Spain ceded discursive space and did not trespass on male preserves such as the pulpit the body politic and publication Sor juana In s de la Cruz on the other hand not only trespassed at least symbolically on cler ical terrain but directly defied the clergy s feminization of igno rance From a contemporary vantage point she is thus easily cast in the role of the individual challenging social and literary con ventions although itis doubtful whether modern notions of in dividuality are applicable to her The individual often fades at crucial moments in Sor 39ua na s poetry or reappears with unex pected vehemence to marka distance from the j39oylesswriting of the mystical nuns whose goal was ultimate silence The irony was that in refusing this feminine convention of silence Sorjuana found herself transformed into a fairground freak somethingof a New World marvel who was constantly on show exhibited as she herself recognized as a rare bird because she was a woman who wrote on religious matters and a nun who wrote profane poetry Bothreligious and secular authorities saw political advantage in her celebrity Lima had its Santa Rosa who was canonized during Sor Juana s lifetime Mexico had its Virgin of Guadalupe whose cult was just beginning to ourish in the seventeenth century In 2 4 THE RELIGIOUS NARRATIVE a was tar eted as the szwmsiiiifsarszssr n Even so her renunciation of vvrltnlg 111 hf nal Years an tger exemplary death provided mat al for 3 5a11SfYmg Comierslon tog Whibha aCC rdjng to one Ccinimentatot causencsla Win gfeaflr jsused ishment than her wit wrmns and talents 5 dehwaf i smss as a secular symbol although this probably cause e1 ess anx than being a candidate forsa1nth0Od bl Pat17 n5WV 1 W r first ions to exhibit the spiritual wealth of the lTevv 011 the tide collection of poetry published Madnd in 1689 precasta an Inundaci n Castcilidd i3a 3 Verltfble mundauon 0 e n th 39 tl spring suggesting an abundant over owing talent 011 e n e 39 b d the outpourings of the Tenth gig h dPCfiue1 J3 frvhidh in different meters idioms 115 1 39 and styles fertilize various subjects With 6138311 Subtlev C ear a1d enious and useful verses O e g eX9mP1e5 enteFt m t uIprise 4 This lafig lagen lvortl1Y Of 3 m d31 11 Pubhclty campaign 39 f 39 ul readers for Whom every iliihigizhtiii nfIilteCn ia1 h1391lTwIIb1ill vs disproportionate In the third edition of her poems published in Barcelona 3 P1quot 3f3t0139Y n N essay by Father Tineo de Morales refers to her veolfkhas a 5 World uueasuxe brought by the vvavgs to ithbe Spams s Ofiaof b 39 uce y someone ou mijt afyltajudieogiiah i 39ltlnvsidiild only be found in the New Of 3 b 4 we as m the ole Warts size is Avis en terrisai I doubt V31 Y much W 6 er seestclir Juana was in fact singled mt mm an early age To begin with she was legi mate a fact she did her best to overlook and one which was unknown to her first biogr3Ph rgt Father Caliela and was only brought to li t in this centuI39Y5 50139 Juana rapidly 39 e this inauspicious begin i gn 39h0WeVe139 At an early age Ogcrczdlsntransported from her native village of Nepantla to M33dC0 s e W City where she became a protegee of the viceroy 3 Wife the C mteS3 of Mancera the Laura of her early poems In 1669 She enters the convent of Santa Paula of the IIieronornite order as she explal gda 39 9 1 n burr nn nnnnnnnnn t we mumnb d cause of her absolute reect10Il0f m3I33913ge S 393 119 3 CW in burying her name however for her fame and notor16tY 5 Her conflicts with the clergy her defense of vvom I1 5 ght to 133ma her renunciation of profane vvritillg two Years before her death SOR JUANA EXPLORES SPACE 25 perhaps under pressure from the Church all these vvellknovvtn aspects of her life and work have provided a wealth of possible narratives some of which are even now being transposed to the stage and screen These contemporary stories have tended to rep resent Sor Juana as a heroine pitted against a villainous Church depicting her as a Woman ghting a male institution an artist forced into conformity by official ideology a woman vvhose talents were held in check by sexual repression7 The problem with such narratives is that they impose a false unity on a corpus of Writing in which the author s ownership of Writing is alvsfays in question and in which publication was be yond the connol of the individual in addition the discontinuous nature of literary production the different conventions of the genres in which Sor Juana Wrote and the inevitable distancing of the em irical I om the I that frames the utterance make an at v 39 P Y tempt to trace the radiography of her soul a hazardous prospect Indeed the corpus of Sor Juana s Work is formed by a number of discrete and often very different interventions in the language games of her time This Vfittgensteiniaii term is singularly ap propriatequot for Sor Juana s moves Within different genres At the same time these games are played according to rules and Within symbolic systems that are located f institutions We therefore need a concept such as discursive practice or discursive do main toquot account for the stabilization of discourse and the de ployment of particular symbolic constellations to maintain power The resourcefulness of Sor Juana in nding Ways to destabilize such constellations especially when they involved the natural association of women with igorance and men with learning is extraordinary ranging from the camou age of allegory the dis guise of parody 4 of what was accepted as feminine dis course obeisance self denigration to anonymity and the ref verse the foregrounding of a gendered author How can quotWe grasp these different interventions Without turning them once again into an exemplary master narrative In the first place it is important to situate the genres in which these different tactics are employed Within two broad discursive domains in which the symbolic repertoires of the society of New Spain vvereat work In colonial New Spain the domains of discourse were constituted around the viceregal court and the Church which were never en tirely separate since courtly relations vvere apt to be transcoded into the religious Sor Juana describes herself as sacri cing at J Lv I 2 6 l TIIE RELIGIOUS NARRATIVE the altar of the divine Countess of Paredes and the religious was ttanscoded into the courtly as for instance in her discussions of Christ s courtly behavior his D or fz39neza1 If I refer to domains of discourse rather than the more familiar Foucauldian term discursivepractices it is because I wish to stress not only institutional affiliations but the symbolic importance that attaches to certain spacesin this case the palace and the convent and the allegorical bodies personi ed courtly virtues or personified theological virtues withwhich they were associated In England and in France at this time new domains of discourse had come into being around the marketplace and the printing shop Litera ture was gradually emerging as one such domain independent of court and Church In New Spain on the contrary there was as yet no possibility of a literature that was not closely bound to courtly or religious patronage 39 A THE PALACE As A DOMAIN 01 mscouast The seventeen zicentury vziceregal court was instrumental in socializing children and adolescents and setting standards of decorum and behavior For women it was a relatively free space between the fatherdominated parental home and the husband dominated marriage This intermediate stage of court life provided the model for the theatrical space of Sor uana s two secular plays Los empeiios de and case The Pledges of a House and Amor es mzis laberinto Love is a Greater labyrinth Although these plays faithfully reflect the conventions of Spanish Golden Age theater nevertheless as is often the case in Sor uana s work they mimic the convention to the point where its arbitrariness be cornesvisible In GoldenAge Spanish drama it is male honor that is the pre dominant concern in Sor uana s theater the predominant con cern is the confusion and rnisrecognition brought aboutgby the ne cessity of choice The house becomes a space of disguise transvestism play and riddles before the nal decision when all will be resolved by matrimony Yet this space of uncertainty is always one of distress and dislocationboth in her plays and in many of her poems perhaps because to be without an estate in colonial New Spain was to be exposed to be a nonperson More sos JUANA EXPLORES SPACE if 2 7 over the choice forcriollo women lay between two highly con Oiled 3quot3tes mau1mony and the convent so it is not surpris ing that in her plays and in many of her sonnets a choice between equally balanced alternatives and often equally undesirable alter na vesl can 031 be made bY 311 arbitrary act of will Wghulieconsuucpjrve reading of S01quotIuana s moments of indecision ea 1 sffm to 9 mdlcatei especlally as the leap into decision is th r y a ways represented as mortal like that of Phaeton It was 8 palace however that provided her with a model both for the theatrical space of plotting and designing and on a more ab stract level for the playful mimicry of choice although the 1am guage and practices of courtly behavior disguised the crude prac ticalities behind the exchange of women The values of which her poetry and theater speak are in consequence distinctly foreign to our understanding of psychology and often do violence totha1 understanding Freud s oedipal theater transposed the struggle fol gibal Sfllccessionginto the heart of the modern bourgeois fans ily e aristocratic values that compete 111 Sor uana s loas sketches P e1feiimed befofe 339eH81011S and secular plays include memoi gzento equzo fortzma fmeza acaso deserving graciousness H119 6856 and ClTl3I1CCl10tlOI1S as alien to us as sibling 11 V3117 fear Of C33t13t10I1 and sublimation would have been to the seventeenth century Not only did these values permeate Sor Juanafs Yvritings but in hmquotl30et139Y she used court genres such as games riddles amorous contests dances and she often referred S 39 5 171173315 Cilreftllly observing conventions of hierarchy and I e an appropriate homage Yet even the fact that women might have enjoyed a fleeting superiority at court the ability to choose even if only in play and to refuse could hardly cornpen T sate for the harsh realities of the rnarriagemarket and the Church s subordination of women in a hierarchy that made the pursuit of u uth and knowledge a masculine occupation THE RELIGIOUS D OMAIN Sor Juana was to give many reasons for entering the convent but all of them add up to the fact that the cell was preferable to mar nage leagrllmg a hlgher goal than bearing children She contrived to enter the convent without relinquishing her connectionspto the a 4 r V m umw 9 23 THE RELIGIOUS NARRATIVE court butshe wouldlfinda substantially different grid within this domain of discourse one that de ned learning as masculine and mystical knowledge or hysteria as feminine This separation was reinforced by the institutional rules of the Church Women could not preach or administer the sacraments and therefore there was no imperativefor them to learn VVritingby women even by holy women was treated with suspicion A fanciful biogaphy of the Virgin written by the Spanish nun Maria de Agreda was published with a long apologicz by a Father Satnaniego who feltobliged to cite precedents for this unusual female authorship and this despite the fact that Maria de Agreda had attempted to deny any author ship by claiming that the biography had been dictated to her by the Virgin It was not even thought necessary for nuns to read sacred texts although one Meitican authority Father Juan Diaz de Arce had in the sixteenth century suggested that learning was desirable in members of the religious orders and was necessary in parents for the pious instruction of theirchildren17 But the Jesuit confessor Antonio Niiiiez de Miranda who more than anyone had wanted to save Sor Juana and the males who were attracted 10 her by having her enter a convent believed that nuns should know only enough to help them understand the o ces13 Saint Paul s injunction that women should be silent in church was interpreted in many ways most of them unfavorable to women Its narrowest interpretation was sin1p1Y l39h j t 3h Y 3h0 11d not preach but there were many who interpreted it as meaning that women should not speak on rehgious matters or read sacred books Confessors both encouraged and tightly controlled the writing of nuns often confiscating and hiding their notes on myst ical experience Nuns were naturally enough influenced by this control and many held writing in suspicipn Sor Juana mentioned a superior who thought writing to be a thing for the Inquisi tion 2 Other nuns criticized Sor Juana s handwriung because it 7 resembled that of a man and was therefore an indication of her n ansgression of boundaries THE NEUTER Q Sor uana s relationship to these domains of discourse court and Church was not however overtly transgressive She did not practice a carnivalesque inversion of low and hlgh I101 Off f 3 SOR JUANA EXPLORES SPACE 29 gotesque body in defiance of the classical body of the state nor did she cross those boundaries of signification which would have meant falling into heresy or the babble of the ilusczs see chapter 3 In fact in one respect she followed no consistent path at all but rather opportunistically took advantage of the moves that were open to her within the patronage of court and Church In these interventions she sometimes drew attention to the fact that she was a woman at other times she deployed an impersonal sub ject or adopted a male persona Further living in a convent did not prevent her from engaging in activities that belonged tothe public sphere For instance in 1680 she was commissioned by the cathedral authorities to quotdesign aniumphal arch for the viceroy s enny into Mexico City and in her explanation of the allegorical paintings she took care to draw attention to the fact that the arch was designed by a woman She appropriated the space of dispu tation in her refutation known as the Carra renago rz39ccz of a sermon by Father Vieira emphasizing the fact that the opponent s position was occupied by a woman OC 4435 In her plays she borrowed the discourse of students and mimicked black indige nous and regional speech thus acquiring a symbolic mobility that enabled her to change her gender class and race Sor uana s voices are multiple and sometimes they fade into the convention itself into the sacred language of the Bible in parts of her reli gious play Elcgivino Narciso The Divine Narcissus and in her religious 5XeI39CiSCS23 Nevertheless each of these different positions of enunciation constitutes a move within a particular set of rules and equently it is a destabilizing move either because the enun ciating and gendered voice mimics the conventions to the point of parody or because it takes gender differentiation out of the rules of the game thus untying the apparently natural association of the male with power These various interventions nevertheless suggest something more A than opportunism They suggest a problem around the constitu tion of women s subjectivity and around constituting woman as an authoring subject especially when the authoring was in the do main of religion Because certain discourses for instance the ser mon were authorized only when spoken by quali ed subjects Sor Juana was constantly forced to seek alternative forms of authori zation for instance obedience to the command of a superior or to deploy disguises The fictionalization of the I and the system F of representation that worked through allegorical characters were 394 necessary masks S30 S I THE RELIGIOUS NARRATIVE Both mimicry and allegory are forms of concealment the flrst being according to Luce lrisarava WPICEHY 3 W ma 5 PW an attempt to try and recover the place of exploitati0nbY diSC0UIS6 With out a gwmg herself to be simply reduced t1 3 It mearlisbtgo resubmit herself to rdeas about herse a 1 ate 8 1 M rated inby a masculine logic but 50 as 110 make able y as e ect of playful repetition What Was 5 l1PP E it lg CF31 invisible the coverup of a poss1ble operanon oth e e n in language It also means to unve the fact at vvoea are such good It is because they arelSnotbs1mp4y I sorbed inthis funct1onvTbey also remam as aw ere Yet as 1 have already suggested Sor Juana vvas I10t lI1teIeStelc1aIi the feminine in language so long as that fetnm1ne Was fl mYSt1 7 babble just as she was not interested in s1tr1PlY m f 1T1ng P r eI relations Her procedure can perhaps be de3mb d 35 an 35 gt 3 l sidestepping that produced a 116W kind Of Subject One of her instruments W35 31e 0139Y 31th0 18h allegory Self Sge l s a double function in her work bemg intended both to make V15 6 matters of faith which otherwise would be too abstract an to conceal certain themes from the vulgar as the Eg Pquot13 15 hail done out of reverence for the gods and so as not 150 vulsarlze the H173quot tery to common and ignorant Pe P1e25 M013 imP 139t3nt1Y 31133017 allowed apparently disparate discourses to be hnked6bY the 13 eration of the intellect while admitting their g1395P3151t5 Ellie 339 matic Works personi ed abstractions often resolve pro ematu ideological areas such39 as the use of force during the Conques and the conversion of the indigenous or elucidate di cult mat ters of dogma The ingenious and often stramed companson betvtegn Pagan mythology and Christian plot is exempli ed 1n the rehglous play El Divine Narciso which transposes the story of the pass1ofnNand the transubstantiation of Christ 111 the Host into the mythO 39I cissus and Echo Yet it could not have escaped 5913 luana 5 not ce that the allegorical procedures of conceahng matters that ei ieather must decipher through the play of resemblance was not e e role that she assigned to the creator of all th1n53 F0 39 mstaflces In her Respuesta ct Sor Pilate 1 de la Cruz RCSPOHSC 3 5 139 F1l t she demonstrates that very different diSCiPli 5 3 1 eahtY m terconnected Knowledge Consists f 339e eal 1g th vanam s mid hidden linlcs which their Author put 111 th1S universal cham 1n SOR JUANA EXPLORES SPACE J 3 I such a manner that apparently they correspond and are linked with admirable unity and harmony Everything comes from God who is at once the center and the circumference from whom comes and to whom goes all created lines 3 Like Athanasius Kircher a Jesuit philosopher whom she greatly admired Sor Juana found the World to be a marvelous com 39 pendium of analogies a labyrinth through which the philoso pher guided as if by Ariadne s thread can be admitted without danger into the penetration of created nature Because the soul cannot have access to umnediated knowledge of the divine it must take the indirect route allowing itself to be guided by the indi cations furnished in the symbolic language of things 3 Knowl edge meant assembling and ordering elements according to the laws of co2zi2en39entiz aemulatio analogy and sympathy of a vir tually inexhaustible yet replete universe The poetics that cor responded to this philosophy was ingenuity a metaphoric yok ing of incompatible quotelements which allowed the poet to reveal not only his Wit but also the intricate concatenations that were God s signature on apparently discrete phenomena Such a poetics also implied the hereticalnotion that the poet was godlike Hence the need to nd digressive paths that avoided both the babble of the possessed mystic and derniurgic creativity DIGRESSION AND TRANSGRESSION This poetics Whose classic formulation is to be found in the Spanish theorist Baltiasar Gracian suggests an author made in the likeness of God a position that would certainly have been a difficult one Ffor a woman to assume The nearest Sor Juana comes to an moring in this sense is in her allegorical poem Primero Sueiio a quot oem that according to her Respuesta a Sor Filotecz was the only Enrork she had not written on command or outside the patronage ystem Although the poem alludes to and imitates the style of the oledades of the Spanish poet Luis Gongora and although con emporaries recognized this affiliation Sor Juana breaks With this ifather insigni cant Ways In Gongora s poem the protagonist that is not superior to creation but subject to its laws Whereas ngora s poem liberates literature by putting religion in paren ses Sor Juana s poem Written under greater constraints has to simulate the secular process of production representing the Work s a male pilgrim Sor Juana s poem is motivated by an ungendered 4 he I4 a39 39 3 Tquot 39i 32 A THE RELIGIOUS NARRATIVE as the involuntary and Godgiven effect of fantasy This 11551 mulation and simulation point prec1sely to Sor l1aI13 5 PI b1em 0 authorship her attempt to estabhsh ar neuter Sor Juana equently claimed that as a nun she was no longer 3 woman that souls ignore distance and sex that her bodyngi neuual or abstract in so far as it is the repository of the 50111 but it is in this long philosophical poem that she makes hffr mg serious attempt to speak in the space of the neutral subject 8 6 calls soul This soul does not correspond to an unconsciou fa 101 is it permanently separated tombody and time but rather 13 1 3 function of abstract thought whlch can 01313 C 39 1339 when 31311 dis freed fro111 selfquot In Protestant En laIldJ 301111 lvmmn W0 339 scribe a similar process of abstraction i What Worlds or what vast regions hold The Immortal mind that hath forggook Her mansion in this fleshly nook For Sor uana s soul this liberation 1 s fleetmg The soul momen tarily feels the delirum of space Cquotf39J1 Yet S15Pende i Ens pended and proud Ebut IT b itd a cowardly retreat e ore the fearful prospect o equ 8 The Primero Sue o is usually read as the flight Of bl 5 u1 that has been released home its bodily impedlm nts bj S1e3Ps 115 3tt393mPt to attain absolute knowledge of the world thJ011gh mmmve P31 optic Platonic vision and when this fails 1135 at 3 31Pt E affair the same end by orderly progr6SSlQI1 thF011h the Anstote an 3 39 gegories The second search 15 halted because the soul U rderstand the simplest phenomenon of nature although itsth H0 knowledge persists Vi th dayhght and the aWa1lt I11318 of f3 Se 3 the shadowy inner world of disembodied fantasydissolves In the more certain light Of d3Y This admittedly schematic summary suggests a d1SpfUf1tY he tween the will to knowledge that is all too closeto Satamctphnde and the safer road that allows celebration of creanon W1 git transgression It is however a mistake to msist too II1iCh 011 6 poem s narrative cohesion For it is po ss1ble that the story 10f the poem is not a story at all that 11 is like the y la of Triste e Roy in Borges story Death and the Compass whose Et i39rlfI39 seems immense because of mirrors which incessantly re ect its symmetrical rooms Like the villa of TristeleRoy Sor Juanais poem 1S obSeSS1V 1Y symmetrical The progressive onset of night at the begm l g 9f SOR JUANA EXPLORES SPACE 33 the poem is mirrored in reverse at the end when night disappears and the sun comes out At the same time the troping is differently nuanced as the soul enters the eld of light or darkness Light and dark alternatively reveal and conceal images Neither light nor dark have a stable Manichean set of connotations Though night brings out the forces of transgression it also allows fantasy like a light house to illuminate the mind At the end of the poem this source of powerful illumination gives way to an39otherimagethat of a magic lantern on which shadows icker in an unsatisfactory re ection of reality Thus light sometimes signifies illumination but at other nines confusion and bedazzlement Night brings out Hansgession but also represents the secrecy necessary in any ap proach to the sacred 39 Light and dark revelation and secrecy enlightenment and con fusion melancholy and joy suggest a binary system Yet the poem also has its triadic patterns first the pyramid of darkness that rises om the earth then the rising of the Moon identi ed as the uiform goddess as Luna related to heaven Diana related to earth and Persephone related to the underworld The threesided pyr annals of Memphis are analogies of the structure of the soul di vided into understanding intellect and spirit The cosmos is di vided into heaven earth and water and living creatures into the angelic the animal and man who links the heavenly and the earthy spheres all signi cance depends on the Trinity and the union of God with his created world through the passion and the Eucharist Finally there is also a fourfold pattern consisting of the fourlaws of resemblance analogy sympathy contiguity and emulation that knits together a heterogeneous archive that includes the won ders of the ancient world natural phenomena like Mount Olym pus the animal and vegetable worlds optics pharmaceutics ge omeny and logic the Platonic and the Aristotelian the Incarnation j pagan mythology the body and its humors and so on 0 The reader like the protagonist of Death and the Compass easily gets lost in the play of symmetries especially as the soul s ight is continually halted by long digressions metaphorical para ow These digressions form plots within a plot setting up con trasts and similarities across the grain of the diegesis Digression also permits the poem to wander into the byways of knowledge mmenting on the sympathies and antipathies of Galeno s sci ence the great chain of being the diversity of languages that re suited hem the punishment of those who built the Tower of Babel phrase and hyperbaton transgression which shifts the syntactical 3839 THE RELIGIOUS NARRATIVE The paradox of Sor Juana s exploration of space is that it must appear to be undertaken in sleep although it is Written by an au thor who is awake and Who like God in her universe fabricates an intricate labyrinth that conceals and reveals Her sleep is not a dark night of the soul but the translation of the self into the realm of abstraction Her exploration ends naturally with the coming of dawn and an awakening consciousness of the body and of tin1e 4 Far from being disappointed the sleeper avvakes to a joyful World The sun restoring to the exterior senses their complete opera tions and illuminating the World with as more certain light re places the shadows The gendered I that now awakens is the author of the poem who isleft only with the memory of a ight of fantasy But that memory will reshape and celebrate a luminous Utopian landscape a chiaroscuro in which light falls on a re deemed nature vvhose meaning is given by the Incarnation It is as if in Walter Benjarnin s words Sor Juana s subjectivity like an angel falling in the depths is brought back by allegories and is held fast in heaven in God by ponderaci n mz39sterz39osa quot 1 Sor Juana uses allegory not to camou age heretical leanings but to provide a Utopian space for a knowledge and a poetics that can digress from rigid gender hierarchies Both knowledge and quotpo etics are purposive efforts to connect the seemingly discrete ele ments of the archive The breakdown of allegory those moments in the poem when the poet has to intervene in order to ensure a correct reading reveals the fact that its Utopian space where knovvledge and poetry meet is always susceptible to destruction by tendentious readings It is precisely the overt presence of this con trolling handthat signals the fragility of the space that it sets out to protect 510 TRESPASSING IN THE PULPIT Though in Primero Sue o Sor Juana explores authorship ambi lt gt tion and ethics under the guise of a neutral subject in poems writ ten without the camou age of allegory she fell back on the age old tactics of feigned humility She always maintained that she wrote only out of obedience to her superiors whether lay or ecclesiastic In the introductory poem of theverses published under the pa tronage of the Countess of Paredes the speaker refuses to claim ownership of the poems which by right belonged to the countess as her feudal superior She often employed the common female SOR JUANA39EXPLORES space 39 tacitic of mtesting her 1Bf Tl 3 it the better to show her Superi W When the Cathedral commissioned her to design the arch th 39 39 T 3 quoti 1 Z i Mar de 1a Law m W at er patrons were perhaps relying on the fact that her lack of learning and her soft nature would b e ective in soliciting favors 43 This retreat into wornanli ndqre of C0113 Slt393 3 rhetorical stratagem intended to p 39ght the lr lscl d I quot 3 I16 an Witty text Neptune Alegonco The Allegorical Neptune that follows She proclaims that this is Written by an igno ran Eprnap but that declarauon only serves to foreground every em re eifnce and ever Latin quotation useglinwwg jas Playlllful to the Palace Verged on insolence when uon for wheg Otlli relgmus mattelsuon x fy Opposed e ness Outwits t e s aveiiprotesting her hurmhty and unwol u 3 e master e latter 1S fO1TCCd mto a dangerous ac knowledgement of defeat that putshierarchical authority at risk inh139taCtIEiell Eevxts dsocurnent the longsta11ding struggle overquot IP e een or Juana and the lflstltutiollaliz cl power represented by confessors bishops and archbishops The rs is letter probably Written in 1682 in which she Km the D a erful m confessor Antonio N fiez de Miranda because hfhjd 39 t r s ti g use the 0 Aj a or 3 C1 191353 W ic Father Manuel F ernandez de Santa Cruz Bishop of Puebla published Without her knowledge in 1690 using the pseudonym Sor Filotea and giving it th 39 he E52333 A mi quot Letter Worthy of Athena the third 0739 1 01593 Written three months after the pub Ii canon of the Carta Atenagorzca and intended for the Bishop s private perusal The letterto Father Nunez de lIiranda is a recent discov d S is not C mP1ete1Y 9Utl51 tlCated44 The Respuesta at Sor F loT an was sent privately to the Bishop of Puebla and Was blish d h m1 151Y W 1700 All these documents belong to dngenre lzhaliciii cupies an ambiguous place between secrecy and publicity the let ter The lett lnsender is quotas geiderau addrlisses 3 Smgle reader known 3950 the 3 tune to e a private document although there are Plfib c lettiel395 find is an interpersonal act of communication which 0 en th nj 2 011811 not always depends on mutual trust What IS sig cant about Sor Juana s three letters is that they play on th e personal relationship between Sor Juana and the recipient in order to attack the mstltutlon that he represents As Michel de Certeau points out all institutions establish their NORTH ANDOVER MASS hi Q s9w a J A wmwak xmi 1 B RADS39I39REE39I HOUSE Y w Y aw 0 S uf H S 4 R n 3 V R N E H F 18 SHAxas1gt ARE s Srsrxxs feminist cosmology in this sense although it is a direction taken by groups currently interested in health and healing Here the redbodied ame haired disappearing and reappearing queen in recent poetry may well be projection of the menstrual cycle transmuted to the capacity of renewing or A giving birth to one s self Ready or not we must speculate that anatomy is part of epiphany Our bodies our visions is one of the aesthetic implications of feminist thoughts The physical experience of a body converts into emotional attitudes and symbolism according to Mary Douglas in her social anthropological study N cztuml Symbols Exploration in Cosmology In systematic symbolizing thought such as cosmology we base our images in the system we know best the body But Douglas suggests there are really two bodies the physi cal and the social Body symbolism especially as derived from body expres sion in blood breath and excrement engages a social context in which the physical is perceived For those who can identify themselves with authority and established institutions with holding in physical control and social control may become metaphors of each other Women as a group and others whose social experience is marginal may value escape abandonment and release more than formal behavior For Douglas the high degree of women s membership in possession cults and ecstatic religions is more convincingly explained by societal position than by sexual repression as psychoanalytic thought proposes We need a comprehensive theory of women s imagination that draws at the least from these suggestions Female imagination may work from biological patterning for emission of blood babies and milk compounded with existence in a social context that ambivalently worships and fears pre cisely that expressivity and limits female range accordingly If so then it is not surprising that women s imaginative reality including selfapotheosis emerges from a fused core of felt capacity and restraint of power power lessness of peculiarly female wish and fear Under receptive conditions of personalcultural upheaval and accessible symbolic forms as they developed for Jane Lead in the seventeenth century and again for poets and other women in the twentieth that core may well split to release the wish the queen who can if she chooses move as far as she likes in any directionbe she prophet poet crin39c or a new Mold of Imagination V 39 mfu 39 9 Sham mere 15lers vniaayl Essmgm waamu 255 6 Stars A saw me am sea x Bromjta e x iiwwua Uwvwi Ms M 2 Anne Bradstreefs Poetry A Study of Subversive Piety Wendy Martin Although Anne Bradstreet was careful to observe Puritan restrictions on the feminine role in her domestic life her feminist predilections are clearly expressed in her poetry In The Tenth Mme Lately Sprung Up in America published in England in 1650 Bradstreet included an elegy In Honor of the High and Mighty Princess Queen Elizabeth 0 Happy Memory in which she reminds her readers of a time when the prevailing patterns of power were reversed Nay Masculines you have thus taxt us long But she though dead will vindicate our wrong Let such as say our Sex is void of Reason Know 1133 a Slander now but once was Treason By celebrating Elizabeth I s political power and personal magnetism Bradstreet undermines the authority of the Puritan patriarchs Full fraught with honour riches and with dayes She set she set like Titan in his rayes No more shall rise or set so glorious sun Untill the heavens great revolutions If then new things their old forms shall retain Eliza shall rule Albion once again 361 This poem is a tribute to female power that is not regulated and controlled by men the Queen in her radiant splendor is depicted as inspiring her subjects rather than chastising or correcting her constituents as do the Puri 19 20 SIrAitnsmAn s Srsrnas tan magistrates Bradstreet s apotheosis of Queen Elizabeth is subversive in a culture in which history is providential that is viewed as a means for teaching and understanding the intricate design of God s plan for man In order to understand just how daring Bradstreet was it is necessary to examine the fabric of the Puritan society in which she lived When Anne Dudley Bradstreet 16121672 arrived in the new world with her father Thomas Dudley and her husband Simon Bradstreet she ad mitted that her heart rose in rebellion against the Puritan mission She was eighteen and unhappy about being forced to leave her comfortable life in the mansion of the Earl of Lincolnshire where her father was steward The emigration of the Dudleys and the Bradstreets from England was the result of political and religious di erences between the Puritans and King Charles I but the grievances that spurred the formation of the Massa chusetts Bay Colony and the vision that brought the Arabella to the Ameri can shore in 1630 were not hers but belonged to the two men she loved As John Berryman writes in his remarkable eulogy Homage to Mistress Bradstreet I come to stay with you and the governor and Father and Simon and the huddled men 3 39 39 39 39 The conviction of divine destiny that spurred the Puritans to endure the hardships of the ocean crossing was later called by Samuel Danforth the errand into the wilderness but this messianic mission was grounded in quot economic necessity as Well as in spiritual consensus The Massachusetts Bay joint stock company of which Thomas Dudley was a founder and Simon Bradstreet a deputy secretary speci ed the legal and nancial requirements of the pilgrimage ust as the enumeration of the spiritual duties of covenant theology shaped the religious destiny of the Puritan tribe V Anne Bradstreet was dismayed by the conditions at Salem in addition to sickness housing Was poor and food supplies uncertain Whatever degree of pride she possessed caused her to deny her part in the tribal destiny I came into this Country where I found a new world and new manners at which my heart rose But after I was convinced it was the way of God I submitted to it and joined the church at Boston This was not her rnission her heart rose but this was an assertion of self that had to besubdued and ultimately destroyed Her submission as she tells us is to join the church at Boston that is by joining the congregation she reconciled herself to the Puritan mission and to her fate as a sinner and a pilgrim According to Puritan doctrine the prideful monster of independence must give way to dependence on the Divine Will Redemption required the n A Lonesome Glee Poets Evefore I800 21 surrender of individual autonomy to God paradoxically liberty is conferred through bondage From the age of four or ve Puritan children were drilled in the lesson that the hopeless corruption of the human race could never be undone in Adam s F ail We sinned All they read in the New England Primer Anne 39Bradstreet s poem On Childhood emphasizes this conviction of the indelibility of original sin and the impossibility of ever again returning to a state of primal grace and innocence Stained from birth with Adam s sinful fact Thence I began to sin as soon as act 6 Salvation was uncertain and could not be earned by good works it was a gift from God whose in nite grace and mercy was extended to the Elect Because redemption was marked by faith not accomfalishrnents and salva tion or election was uncertain continual selfscrutiny and introspection were required in order to be ready for conversion introspection was neces sary in order to have a heart prepared to be called by God This extraor dinary uncertainty of spiritual destiny caused Puritans to scrutinize their lives for signs of salvation for visible evidence for an invisible state Experi ence was emblematic history providential Ironically suffering was a form of joy because the disaster that occasions it is a sign of God s love In a domestic version of the fortunate fall Anne Bradstreet Writes to her children 39 Among all my experiences of God s gratious Dealings with me I have con stantly observed this that he never su ered me long to sit loose from him but by one a iction or other hath made me look home and search what a was amiss so usually it hath been with me that I have no sooner felt my heart out of order but I have experienced correction for it which most commonly hath been upon my own person in sicknesse weakeness paines 39 sometimes on my soul in doubts and feeres of God s displeasure and my sincerity toward him S6 Anne Bradstreet accepted her illnesses as divine correction and as a reminder of her moral frailty After some time I fell into a lingering sick nes like a consumption together with a lamenesse which correction I saw the Lord sent to humble and try me and doe mee good and it was not altogether ineffectual Elizabeth Wade White speculates that Anne Bradstreet suffered recurrent illnesses due to a rheumatic heart7 it is sig ni cant that Anne Bradstreet s heartsickness was triggered whenever she was unable to sustain the tension which was at times almost unbearable for her between spirit and esh faith and doubt renunciation and tempta tion the regenerate and unregenerate and the eternal and temporal that is the core of Puritanism 3922 SHAK1srgtEA1u s Srsrras As one of the most strenuous forms of Christianity Puritanism is based on the central paradox that the death of the body brings the possibility of the eternal life of the spirit in union with God The body pulls the Christian toward earth Carnality is Satan s lure The body then becomes an arena for the battle between Satan and God Anne Bradstreet conveys the intensity of this struggle in her poem The Flesh and the Spirit a dialogue between two sisters about the desires of the body and the aspirations of the soul Sister quoth Flesh what liv st thou on Nothing but Meditation Doth Contemplation feed thee so Regardlessly to let earth go 3s1 s2 Flesh proceeds to catalogue the pleasures of this world honor fame acco lades riches Earth hath more silver pearls and gold Than eyes can see or hands can hold Spirit retorts Be still thou unregenerate part Disturb no more my settled heart For I have vowed and so will do Thee as a foe still to pursue And combat with thee and must Until I see thee laid in th dust 38283 Spirit berates Flesh for distracting her from God s glory with the bait of earthly treasures Scorning secular honor Spirit announces My greatest honor it shall be When I am victor over thee 383 The tension even enmity of body and soul in the Christian ethos is resolved only with the destruction of the body the unregenerate part which liberates the spirit from the body s cage so that it can wear royal robes More glorious than the glistr ing sun in a place where disease and death the in rmities of the body do not exist If physical su ering was a measure of piety Anne Bradstreet s letters occasional poems and poetic aphorisms are a litany of the struggling spirit I had a sore tt of fainting which lasted 2 or 3 days she writes on July 8 1656 On September 30 1657 she records It pleased God to visit me with my gold Distemper adding I can no more live without correction than without food 23 For the Puritans a iiction is a sign of the intimate bond between God and His children it is not an indication of cruelty God is a stern not a sadistic father On August 28 1656 Anne Bradstreet wrote 3 A Lonesome Glee Poets before 1800 23 God doth not a ict willingly nor take delight in grieving the children of men hehath no bene tt by my adversity nor is he the better for my prosperity but he doth it for my Advantage and that I may be a Gainer by it And if he knows that Weakness and a frail body is best to make me a vessell t for his use Why should I not bare it not only willingly but 39 joyfully 20 Anne Bradstreet s faith was often severely tested and her doubt was at times overwhelming sometimes I have said Is there any faith upon the earth And I have not known what to think 910 Sometimes Brad39 street s despair prevented her from sleeping 39 By night when others soundly slept And had at once both ease and Rest My waking eyes were open kept And so tolie I found it best 11 And she experienced more than one dark night of the soul I have often been perplexed mat I have not found that constant Joy in my Pilgrimage and refreshing which I supposed most servants of God have Yet have I many times sinkings and droopings and not enjoyed that felicity that sonietimes I have done But when I have been in darkness and seen no light yet have I desired to stay myself upon the Lord I 7 It was expected that all pilgrims would have trials and the afflictions that iAnne Bradstreet records in her letters are part of the tradition of the testing of the soul to which both men and women were submitted However CotL ton Mather s account of his soul s testing reveals signi cant di erences In his diary Mather recorded that once when he had doubts he lay prostrate on the oor lamenting his Loathesomeness overwhelmed by a Flood of Tears that ran down upon the floor this Conversation with Heaven left a sweet a calm a considerate a sanctifying an Heavenly Impression upon my Soul 3 John Winthrop also reported that he underwent a process of humiliation and preparation before receiving con rmation of his faith he wrote the good spirit breathed upon my soule and said that I should live 9 Although God s testing never ceased permitting no rest for the Puritan conscience Mather and Winthrop seem to have been comforted and sustained in their doubt and they appear to have been much more certain of God s love than was Bradstreet Her belief in God s grace was often the re 24 Snannsrizsru s Srsrans sult of her willed resolution her determination to resist temptation and her selfdiscipline enabled her to welcome spiritual and physical af iction as God s tender mercies 39 Perhaps Anne Bradstreefs doubts about her worthiness were more intense than either Mather s or Winthrop s because she did not shape the world in which she lived Both her father and husband were intensely involved in the governing of the church during frequent disputes about covenant theol ogy and the ne points of church membership Dudley was a church magistrate with Winthrop and Bradstreet was governor of Massachusetts Bay as pillars of the community they were called upon to make decisions about the relationship of the church Eldersthat is the elected representa tives of the church to the congregation Perhaps the social prominence and concrete responsibilities of these two men tended to mitigate their anxiety about salvation Although the Puritans believed that God could be served in a variety of ways that all callings were equa39l domestic piety is less impressive than public service Con nement to private life narrows the arena in which faith can be exercisedand tested The exhortation of Peter to declare the wonderful deeds of him that called you out of the darkness into his marvelous light I Peter 2910 is dif cult to execute in the kitchen or nursery it is more easily done from the pulpit or podium The eld of service available to Anne Bradstreet was her home her family and her poetry But even this internal private landscape was treacherous as the expulsion of Ann Hutchinson from Massachusetts Bay had demonstrated Ann IIutchinson s efforts to participate in theological issues by holding meetings in her home proved the very real dangers of stepping beyond the boundaries of prescribed behavior Her trial and subse quent exile demonstrated the dangers of listening too carefully to an inner voice which might be the voice of Satan and not God s at all Both Hutchinson and Bradstreet were in a double bind as part of the Puritan tribe they were obliged to go forth and make disciples of all nations Matthew 28 19 but the powerful intelligence of both women was not per mitted public expression It is not surprising that they found private solu tionsBradstreet in her poetry Hutchinson in her meetings at home how ever religious politics proved tobe more dangerous than writingpoetry Anne Bradstreet s isolation om the larger community was especially acute during her husband s frequent and sometimes long absences while he was on business for the church Her poems to Simon Bradstreet make it clear that she loved him deeply I If ever two were one then surely we If ever man were lov d by wife then thee a39 quot quot r v 4mm P V quotA Lonesome Glam i Pos39t before 1800 25 If ever wife was happy in a man Compare with me ye women if you can My Dear 8 Loving Husband 394 In another poem titled A Letter to Her Husband Absent Upon Public 3 Employment she asks How stayest thou there whilst I at Ipswich lye In still another she larnents Commend me to the man more lov d than life 39 Shew him the sorrows of his widdowed wife My dumpish thoughts my groans39irny brakish tears My sobs my longing hopes my doubting fears And if he love how can he there abide 39 396 39 She bewails my turtle true who now is gone and again expresses her longing for him Together at one tree oh let us bronze And like two turtles roost within one house And like the Mullets in one River glide Let s still remain but one till death divide s 398 As governor Simon Bradstreet s duties to his constituents were time consuming It would have been sel sh therefore sinful of Anne Bradstreet to claim more of his energy to make fL1rther demands on him would mean that she was interfering with his calling by placing herself between her husband and God Her role as wife and mother was carefully limited by Puritan custom which de ned marriage as a partnership for producingquot young Christians in which responsibilities were made explicit While accepting the necessity of marriage Puritans were concerned that conjugal love would tempt the married couple to lose sight ofGod and they were warned against such idolatrous unions when we exceedingly delight our selves in Husbands or Wives or Children it much benumbs and aims the light of the Spirit warned Iohn Cotton Anne Bradstreet s poems reveal that she struggled with the conflict between her love for her children and husband and her devotion to God repeatedly she reminds herself of her duty as wife and mother to assist her family in thequot service of God To love them for their own sake would indicate a dangerous attachment to this world There was considerable emphasis placed on the family as the basic unit of Puritan Commonwealth Cotton Mather asserted that wellordered famlhes naturally produce Good Order in other Societies When Families 26 SHAKEspEAan s Srsrrns are under an Ill Disciplined will feel the Error in The First Concoction 12 The relationship of husband and wife received considerable attention her duty was to keep at home educating her children keeping and improving what is got by the industry of the man 13 She was to guid the house and not guid the husband 14 Those husbands who failed to maintain a domi nant position were censured as John Winthrop s excoriation of Ann Hutch inson s husband demonstrates A man of very mild temper and weak parts and wholly guided by his wife 15 Similarly women who stepped beyond their domestic con nes through literature by reading or Writing were considered dangerous to themselves and society John Winthrop s journal entry for April 13 1645 re ects the Puritan bias against intellectual women Anne Hopkins has fallen into a sad in rmity the loss of her understand ing and reason which had been growing upon her divers years BY 0CC351 I1 of her giving herself wholly to reading and writing and had written many books Puritans expressed considerable scorn for women who wrote or published In 1650 Thomas Parker wrote a public letter condemning his sisterfor pub lishing a book in London Your printing of a Book beyond the Custom of your Sex doth rankly smell 17 This critical attitude toward women writers was especially difficult for Anne Bradstreet to accept because child hood traiuing prepared her to think of herself as an intelligentand articulate person Under her father s tutelage she learned Greek Latin and Hebrew she read Sidney Spenser Shakespeare Raleigh and duBartas She also probably read Homer Aristotle Hesiod Xenophon and Pliny and of course she read the Geneva Bible In general she was educated in the Elizabethan tradition which valued the educated and artistic woman It must have been extremely di cult for Anne Bradstreet to sustain her faith in her abilities as a poet in what she experienced as an alien environment But it was probably rebellion against her harsh punitive environment that energized her to write Perhaps it was even a matter of writing or going mad as 39 John Berryman suggests Versing I shroud among the dynasties Quaternion on quaternion tireless I phrase anything past dead far sacred for a barbarous place2 It is true that there is a dogged quality in some ofher longer works such as The Four Monarchies which suggests a need to persist in the creation of a large work that exceeded her desire for aesthetic expression She wrote s A Lonesome Glee Poets before 1800 27 her quaternions relentlessly with considerable ferocity possibly to subdue the considerable rage she must have felt as a thinking woman in a society which had no use for her abilities Anne Bradstreet persisted in her poetry until she had enough material for The Tent Muse which was published in 1650 due to the efforts of her brotherin law Reverend John Woodbridge who had taken her manuscript with him to London and had arranged for its publication there The fact that Anne Bradstreet did not seek publication directly but did so by proxy has been interpreted as a sign of her modesty and piety but this indirect approach was a practical way to circumvent the accusation of excessive ambition She was also careful to disclaim any interest in receiving the kind of attention given her male peers however more than one reader has per ceived irony in these lines of her prologue Give Thyme or Parsley I ask no bayes In the preface to her volume John Woodbridge proclaims it the Work of a Woman honoured and esteemed where she lives for her gracious demeanor her eminent parts her pious conversation her courteous disposition her exact diligence in her place and discreet managing of her Family occasions 3334 Woodbridge makes it clear that no time was taken from her family obliga tions to write her book it is the fruit but of some few hours curtailed from sleep and other refreshments 84 and he insists that he has pre sumed to bring to publick view which she Bradstreet resolved in such manner should never see the sun 84 The Tent M are reveals Bradstreet s interest in a gynocentric universe As we have seen her elegy of Queen Elizabeth is a tribute to female power that is not regulated and controlled by men the Queen eclipses the authority of the New England divines and her regal seIf assertion is a dramatic con trast to the fallen Christianquot woman whose only possibility for redemption lies in selfabnegation Queen Elizabeth s royal edicts provide a healthy corrective for the passivity of the Puritan woman who was compelled to attend church meetings three times a week but forbidden to take part in the interpretation of Scripture In her poems The Four Elements and Of the Four Humours in Mans Constitution Anne Bradstreet stresses the unity of life rather than the dominance of one group over another she creates a cosmology in which the Aristotelian hierarchy gives way to an elaborate allegorical scheme that depends on cooperation rather than competition Bradstreet creates an essen tially female cosmology that marks the shift from the stratified concept of 28 A SHArltEs1raRx s Srsrsxs the great Chain of Being in which disruption of the orderly sequence is perceived as chaos to a world in which balance is achieved by the mutual interaction of the elements The four elements earth air re and water and the four humors blood choler phlegm and melancholy are depicted as antagonistic sisters whose quarrels threaten to disrupt the universe In The Four Elements each sister was so intent on achieving dominance that the turbulence in the form of oods fires storms and earthquakes resulting from their wrangling threatened to destroy the cosmos In the hierarchical worldview such dis ruption is the harbinger of total chaos and therefore feared But in Brad street s cosmology the sisters struggle for dominance is resolved by their collective realization that each of them plays an essential part in the func tioning of the cosmos that the interaction of the elements creates balance The feared chaos gives way to the birth of a new worldview in which process takes precedence over product and dominance gives way to mu tuality This need for mutuality is also recognized by the sisters representing the four humors of the body Unless we agree all falls into confusion Let Sanguine with her hot hand Choler hold To take her moist my moisture will be bold My cold cold rnelancholys hand shall clasp Her dry dry Cholers other hand shall grasp Two hot two moist two cold two dry here be A Golden Ring the Posey unity 39 14546 Unity based on cooperation not order based on dominance becomes the key to Bradstreefs view of the universe Unlike Cotton Mather in Magmzlicz Christi Americani or Edward Johnson in WonderWorz39ng Proidcrizce of Scion Scwiomr in N ew England Brad street did not focus her energy on providential history or on the exemplary lives of the saints The communal destiny of the Puritan tribe did not en gage her imagination it was especially daring of her to ignore the acceptable subject of the Puritan Commonwealth because it was one of the few sub jects deemed appropriate for literary e orts By determining her own priorities Bradstreet quotrisked being branded as a heretic Ann Hutchinson had been exiled as an Antinomian for insisting on her intellectual autonomy and Bradstreet as a practicing poet ran the risk of denunciation by the church elders Bradstreet probably knew the details of Ann Hutchinson s trial and banishment Both Simon Bradstreet who was an assistant in the General Court and her father Thomas Dudley who quotA Loizesome Glee Poets before 1800 29 was deputy governor at the time of the trial were on the board of public magistrates that convicted Hutchinson Dudley was especially hostile to Hutchinson accusing her of being a troublemaker from the moment she landed in Massachusetts Bay and blaming her for endangering the founda tion of the church He was in short one of her harshest critics During the trial he badgered her with the subtlest distinctions in the points of theology attempting to trick her at every turn with his legalistic de nitions of differ ence between covenants of works and grace in order to get her to perjure herself Surely her father s hostility to Ann Hutchinson was not lost on Annequot Bradstreet Anne Bradstreefs father died in 1853 when she was forty one and his death marked a transition from the rigorous public codes of the old divines to a more relaxed and private approach to faith Although the compromises regarding church membership intensi ed anxiety by creating ambiguity 39 at least the inner life was less subject to the scrutiny of the church Elders Perhaps as a response to the growing liberalism of the church inthe years following her father s death Anne Bradstreetquot wrote poems primarily about her domestic life and private religious meditations In 1657 three years be fore her death she wrote a long letter to her dear children in which she enumerated her sicknesses and a iictions which she described as evidence of God s abundant Love to my straying soul which in prosperity is too much in love with the world One of her major poems of this period Contempla tions chronicled her struggle between her Worldly inclinauons and her long ing for eternity It is a poem of great power lyrical carefully crafted sum ciently accomplished to cause some critics to speculate about its having been read by the Romantic poets While describing the vanity of this life and her yearning for eternity she immerses herself innsensory experience celebrating the plenitude of nature and the generarivepower of the elements Then higher on the glistering Sun I gaz d Whose beams was shaded by the leavie Tree The more I look d the more I grew amaz d And softly said what glory s like to thee Soul of this world this Universes Eye No Wonder some made thee an Deity Had I not better known alas the same had I 371 Paradoxically the more the poet longs to transcend the world the more she feels drawn by nature s power Her metaphor of sun as the earth s hus band is suffused with eroticism 30 SnAKEs1rARE s Srsrsas Thus as a Bridegroom from my Chamber rushes And as a strong man joyes to run a race The morn doth usher thee with smiles 8 blushes The Earth re ects her glances in thy face Birds insects Animals with Vegative The heart from death and dulness doth revive And in the darksome Womb of fruitful nature dive 371 However the poem concludes with an acceptance of mutability and death and underscores the vanity of earthly desires In this poem Anne Bradstreet transcends this world by experiencing and even savoring its pleasures and her nal decision to reject earthly pleasures is achieved by immersing herself in them Bradstreefs Meditations Divine and Moral Written for her son Simon in 1664 convey an entirely different mood of spare practicality Based on the Bay Psalm Book these aphoristic meditations correlate domesticobservations with religious analogs In terse form they are spiritual exercises which docu ment a pilgrirn s progress 39 VI The finest bread bath the least bran the purest honey the least Wax and the sincerest Christian the least self love 49 4A The house which is not often swept makes the cleanly inhabitant soon loath it and the heart which is not continually purifying itself is no t temple for the spirit of God to dwell in 51 The spareness of language the carefully Worked out metaphors demonstrate not only discipline but a concentration on spiritual concerns characteristic of her later years Perhaps Anne Bradstreet s most effective poem certainly her most fre quently anthologized is Verses Upon the Burning of Our House July 10th 1666 Like Contemplations this poem s power is the result of the very poignant tension between her worldly concerns as represented by her household furnishings and her spiritual aspirations 39 Here stood that Trunk and there that chest There lay that store I counted best My pleasant things in ashes lye And them behold no more shall I Under thy roof no guest shall sit Nor at thy Table eat a bit 41 I quotA Lonesome Glee Poets before 1800 31 The poem leaves the reader with the painful impression of a woman in her n1id fties vvho having lost her domestic comforts is left to struggle with despair at her loss a loss Which however mitigated by faith in the greater rewards of Heaven is very tragic Farewell my Pelf farewell my Store The World no longer let me Love My hope and Treasure lyes Above 42 A poem Written three years later on August 31 1669 Longing for Heaven reveals a profound worldvveariness no longer is there a tension between earth and heaven temporal and eternal concerns instead there is a longing for release from physical frailty and hope for immortality As weary pilgrim novv at rest Hugs with delight his silent nest His Wasted limhes novv lye full soft That rnyrie steps have troden oft Blesses himselfto think upon His dangers past and travailes done 42 In the last months of her life Bradstreet was very sick her son Simon Brad street Wrote in his diary that she was vvasted to skin 6 bone much troubled with rheum and she had a badly ulcerated arm She died on September 16 1672 she Was sixty years old For most of her life she was the dutiful and loving Wife of Simon Bradstreet the devoted mother of eight children and the resolute child of God Her poetry re ects the tensions and conflicts of a person struggling for selfhood in a culture that was outraged by individual autonomy and that valued poetry toithe extent that it praised God Anne Bradstreet s subversive piety made her vulnerable to both her earthly and heavenly fathers but she dared to speak out and her voicequot can still be heard 3 5 Mquot v3v39 1quotteb 39 rv e s v 39 j 3 39 5 L Cempilcd with great variety of Wizand 9 L Learning full GfeDcIigiw Whercin cfpccially is contained a compicatf e a Bif ouri7e and Defcription o 9 45 9 ELEMENTS V The Eon AG ES ofMan Se A s o N S ofthe Year Tagcthcr with an cxa Epitome of the three s Mosarcbjes L ASSTRIAN P E R S f 4 N 9 e 752 The GEECIAN 0 the egg Uffbfi g 1 With diverfe other plcafam 8 ferious39 hams uuuo H By 3 Gentiewomah in N me E x ladd P T5efcom339 E tiaa Cafre ed 5 69 A3350 eaemd enfarged 5 as Add tz39a2 a f wemf otbw 39 0 Pam found amgngj ver apez3 a erab r Deg a 34307 frinted by aFm Fo ef 1673 H eeee eeeee zswe n c 0 N s T n u T 10 NS gm eginsfag ofzlae Roman Conamomwsaitii In 9 a 39 I39IIE JOHN HARVARD LIBRARY THE WORKS OF ANNEBRADSTREET Edited by Jeannine IIensiey Foreword by Adrienne Rich THE BELKNAP PRESS OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge Massachusetts 1967 40 V To MY DEAR CHILDREN This book by any yet unread I leave foryou when I am dead Thatquot being gone here you may find What was your living mother s mini 5 Make use of what I leave in love And God shall bless you from al30V A B My dear children I knowing by experience that the exhortations of Saints take most e ect when the speakers leave to speak 311 956 especially sink deepest which are spoke latest and l 1I1S ignorant whether on my death bed I shall have oppO1 mmtY to speak to any of you much less to all thought it the best whilsi I was able to compose some short matters for What E153 t0 C31 them I know not and bequeath to you that when I am no more with you yet I may be daily in your remembrance although that is the least in my aim in what I now do but i that You may gain some spiritual advantage by my experience 39 I have not studied in this you read to show my skill but t0 declare the math not to set forth myself but the glory of God It 1 had minded the former it had been PeThaPS better P1eaing to you but seeing the last is the best let itbe best pleasing to you The method I will observe shall be this I will begin With God s dealing with me horn my childhood to this day In my young years about 6 or 7 as I take it I bfgan I0 make conscience of my way and What I knew was Smful as lying disobedience to parents l3Ca I aV ided it If 3 any time I was overtaken with the like evils 1t W35 33 3 31753 trouble and I could not be at rest nll by prayer 1 had C011 p 241 fessed it unto God I was also troubled at the neglect of pri vate duties though too often tardy that way I also found much comfort in reading the Scriptures especially those places I 39 thought most concerned my condition and as Lgrew to have more understanding so the more solace I took in them In a long t of sickness which I had on my bed I often communed with my heart and made my supplication to the most High who set me free from that a iction But as I grew up to be about 14 or 15 I found my heart more carnal and sitting loose from God vanity and the follies of youth take hold of me About 16 the Lord laid His handsore upon me and smote me with the smallpox When I was in my affliction I besought the Lord and confessed my pride and vanity and He was 39 entreated of me and again restored me But I rendered not to 0f according to the bene t received After a short time I changed my condition and was married and came into this country where I found a new world and new manners at which my heart rose But after I was convinced it was the way ofGod I submitted to it and joined to the church at Boston 39 After some time I fell into a lingering sickness like a con sumption together with a lameness which correction I saw the Lord sent to humble and try me and do me good and it was not altogether ineffectual I 39 39 It pleased God to keep me a long time without a child which was a great grief to me and cost me many prayers and tears before I obtained onequot and after him gave me many more of whom I now take the care that as I have brought you into the world and with great pains I weakness cares and fears brought you to this I now travail inbirth again of you A Christ be formed in yciu I I 39 Among all my experiences of God s gracious dealings with me I have constantly observed this that He hath never suf feted me long to sit loose from Him but by one a liction or other hath made me look homequot i and search what was amiss so either some sin I lay under quotwhich God would have refohr ed 24239 as 3 243 7 Q I have often been perplexed that I have not found that CQn5l3m JOY 111 111 pilgrimage and refreshing which I sup posed most of the servants of God have although He hath not left me altogether without thelwitness of His holy spirit who usually thus it hath been with me that I have no sooner felt my heartout of order but I have expected correction for it which most commonly hath been upon my own person in sickness weakness pains sometimes on my soul 39 in doubts and fears of God s displeasure and my sincerity towards Him sometimes He hath smote a child with a sickness sometimes chastened by losses in estate and these times through His great mercy have been the times of my greatest gettingand advantage yeaquot I have found them the times when the Lord hath manifested the most love to me Then have I gone to searching and have said with Davidquot Lord search me and try me see what ways of wickedness are in me and lead me in the way everlasting and seldom or never but I have found be well with me I have sometimes tasted of that hidden manna that the world knows not a n ezer and have resolved with myself that against such a I promise such tastes of sweetness the gates of hell shall never prevail yet have I many times sinkings and droopings and when I have been in darkness and seen no lightyet have I desired to stay myself upon the Lord and when I have been in slckness and pain I have thought if the Lord would but lift up the light of His countenance upon me although He ground me to powder it would be but light to me yea oft have I thought were I in hell itself and could there nd the love of Hod toward me it would be a heaven And could I have been 111 heaven without the love of God it would have been a hell to me for in truth it is the absence and presence of God that makes heaven or hell I I Many times hath Satan troubled me concerning the verity of the SC1 iPt111quot S many times by atheism how I could know Whether there W35 3 G0d I IIEVEI saw any miracles to confirm or some duty neglected which He would have performed and by His help I have laid vows and bonds uponmy soul to per form His righteous commands I H If at any time you are chastened of God take it as thank quotH fully and joyfully as in greatest mercies for if ye be His ye quotii shall reap the greatest bene t by it It hath been no small support to me in times of darkness when the Almighty hath hid His face from me that yet I have had abundance of sweet ness and refreshment after a iction and more circumspection in my walking after I have been a icted39 I have been with God like an untoward child that no longer than the 1sodfiffas been on my back or at least in sightquot but I havebeen apt to forget Him and myself too Before I was a icted I wen astray but now I keep Thy statutes 39 I P I hhve had great experience of God s39 hearing my prayer and returning comfortable answers to me either in granting the thing I prayed for or else in satisfying my mind withou it and I have been con dent it hathbeen from Him becaus I have found my heart throughquot His goodness enlarged thankfulness to 39 I 39 fe1gnedP That there is a God my reason would soon tell me i lb 116 V7CJI1lt1I 0us works that I see the vast frame of the heaven and the earth the order of all things night and day summer and Winter Spring and autumn the daily providing for this 39 8139 eat h0quot1Seh01d 1113011 the earth the preserving and directing of all toits proper end The consideration of these things would with amazement certainly resolve me that there is an Eter aplBttmg hut how should I knowHe is such a God as I worship 111 Trinity and such a Saviour as I rely upon Though this hath thousands of times been suggested to me j me and those which I read of how did I know but they were 39 hath oft given me His word and set to His seal that it shall 1 not enjoyed that felicity that sometimes I have done But IEIn w t3agt245 prevail against it I know whom I have trusted and whom I haw be1i V 3d r3 that He is able to keep that I have com 244 me yet God hathhelped me overfl have argued thus w ithinysedlf That there is aiGod I see If ever this God hath revealed him self it must be in His word and this must be itmor none Have I not found that operation by it that no human invens 39 tion can work upon the soul hath not judgrdents befallen 5 divers who have scorned and contemned it hath it not been preserved through all agesmaugre all the heathen tyrants and all of the enemies who have opposed it Is there any story but that which shows the beginnings of times and how the world came to be as we see Do we not know the prophecies in it ful lled which could not have been so long foretold by any but God Himself lVhen I have got over this block then have I another put in my way that admit this be the true God whom we worship and that be his word yet why may not the Popish religion be the right They have the same God the same Christ the same word They only enterpret it nne way we another This hath sometimes stuck with me and more it would but T the vain fooleries that are in their religion together with their lying miracles and cruel persecutions of the saints which admit were they as they term them yet not so to be dealt withal quot f 39 e 0 1 The consideration of these things and many the like would I soon turn me to my own religion again But some new troublesl have had since the world has been lled with blasphemy and sectaries and some who have been accounted sincere Christians have been carried away with them that sometimes I have said Is quotthere faith upon the 39 earth and I have not known what to think but then I have remembered the works of Christ that so it must be and if it were possible the very elect should be deceived Behold saith our Saviour I have told you before That hath stayed 39 my heart and I can now say Return 0 my Soul to thy rest upon this rock Christ Jesus will I btiild my faith and if I L perish I peris but I know all the Powers of Hell shall never mitted to His charge p NquotW to the King imm01 t3l39 eternal and invisible the only WISE god be honour and glory for ever and ever Amen This was written in much sickness and weakness and is Very Weakly and imperfectly done but if you can pick any bene t out of it it is the mark which I aimed at L1 gTs 4 I 1 39 1 39 1I Zf1392l EPISTLE TO THE READER BY JOHN woonexxnoa Kind Reader Had I opportunity but to borrow some of the author s wit quottis possible I might so trim this curious work with such quaint expressions as that the Preface might bespeak thy further perusal but I fear twil1 be a shame for a man that can speak so little to be seen in the titlepage of this woman39s book lest by comparing I the one with the other the reader should pass his sentence that it is the gift of women not only to speak most but to speak best I shall leave therefore to commend that which with any ingeni 0115 reader will too much commend the author unless men turn more peevish then women to envy the excellency of the inferior sex I doubt not but the reader willquickly nd more than I can a p say and the worst effect of his reading will be unbelief which I will make him question whether it be a woman s work and ask is it possible If any do take this as an answer from him that dares avow it it is the work of a woman honoured and esteemed where she lives for her gracious demeanour her eminent parts her pious conversation her courteous disposition her exact diligence in her place and discrete managing of her family occasions and more than so these poems are the uiIbutofsome few hours curtailed from her sleep and etherquotrefreshments quotI dare add little lest I keep thee too long if thouquot wilt not believe the worth of these P in their kind when a man says it yet believe it from a woman when thou seest it This only I shall annex I fear the displeasure of no person in the publishing of these poems but the author without whose knowledge and con trary to her expectation I have presumed to bring to publioview what she resolved should in such a manner ne1rer see the sunquot but I found that divers had gotten some scattered papers a ecteds them well were likely to have sent forth broken pieces to the author s prejudice which I thought to prevent as well as to pleasure those that earnestly desired the view of the whole madam La Amema 450 14 0w B did contest for wealth for 31135 f0139a8e M 1 quotst do show their good and then their 1age L THE a s K er fours do intgmixed ts 1 3 PR 0 L o G U E r 39 Each er s halts and where themselvesdexcied HOW N dry contend Wlth moist C0 HOW air I earth no correspondence hold I And yet in 31 tel P3931393 how they gme To sing of wars of captains andjof kings How divers es make one unifY 35 Of cities founded cornmonwealths begun For my mean pen are too superior things Or how they all or each their dates have run Let poets and historians set these forth H My obscure lines shall not so dim their worth But feared Y011 1d I honour him but 3 39 P Who must reward a thieft with his duffll I shall not need mine to 61631 On what they are your mild crave Accept mybest my worst srouchsafe grave i5 From her that to yourself more du1Y 0F Than Water in the bou dless ocean ows J 2 But when my wond ring eyes and envious heart Great Bartas sugared lines do but read o er 001 I do grudge the Muses did not part Twixt him and me that over uent store 39 A Bartas can do what a Bartas will But simple I according to my skill h 6 0 Marc 20 I 42 ANNE BRADSTREET n 3 From schoolboy s tongue no rhet ric we expect N or yet a sweet consort from broken strings Nor perfect beauty where s a main defect My foolish broken blemished Muse so sings And this to mend alas no art is able Cause nature made it so irreparable 4 Nor can I like that uent sweet tongued Greek 5 16xe53 By art he gladly found what he did seek A full requital of his striving pain Art can do much but this maXim s most sure A weak or wounded brain admits no cure 5 I am obnoxious to each quotcarping tongue VV ho says my hand a needle better ts A po39et s pen all scorn I should thus wrong Eor such despite they cast on female wits If what I do prove well it won t advance 39I39hey ll say it s stol n or else it was by chance i 6 But sure the antique Greeks were far more mild Else of our sex why feigned they those nine And poesy made Cal1iope s own child So mongst the rest they placed the arts divine But this weak knot they will full soon untie The Greeks did nought but play the fools and lie 7 Let Greeks he Greeks and women what they are Men have precedency and still excel It is but vain unjustly to wage war Men canldo best and women know it well Preeminence in all and each is yours Yet grant some small acknowledgement of ours 8 And oh ye high own quills that soar the skies And ever with your prey still catch your praise If e er you deign these lowly lines your eyes G th c 1 imZme 01 Parsley wreath I ask no bays an and unre ned ore of mine 25 397 W39ll k 1 ma e your glist ring gold but more to shine 50 I78 c more I mused thehmqr 1tW i11d bt3 13rge my39139nind a39nd weak h T wi q any moe discouragements did SQeak All tho ts of further progress la1d as1de 39 ThOugh 0 er395uaded I as oft denied At length re pd Ved When maul Years had Past 39 To prosecute 1 story to the last And for the p hours not fewdid 5Pend 7 lank 1 many penned But fore I could acco ish H17 deslrequot quot 39 re My papers fell a prey to T331113 And thus 111739 Pains W1th thmgs I lost Which none had cause to wail I to boast No more 1 ll do sith I have spife p 8 361 A Although my monarchies thelr p H Nor matter is t this lat the World Hath many ages been upon his knees i N ew England Alas dear Mother fairest queen best And sit i th dust to sigh these sad alarms What deluge of new woes thus overwhelm 39lquothe glories of thy ever famous realm Ah tell thy daughter she may sympathize Old England 39 l i I t ignorant indeed of these quot139ny Woesquot r must my forced tongue ftl139esep griefs disclose 39 d must myself dissect my tattered state ch mazed Christendom stands wond ring at d thou a child a limb and quotdost not feel y fainting weak ned bodynow to reel his physio purging potion I have tzilien 8 bring consurnptionoranquot ague quaking 8 ess some cordial thou fetch om high 0 ch present help may ease my malady e L decease doth think thouishalt survive 39 A by my wasting state dost thinlc to thrive quot en weigh our case ifquott be not justly sad me lament alone quotwhile39tho1391 art glad A DIALOGUE BETWEiEN39OLI r ZENGLANJD AND NEW CONTGIERNI N G H THEIR PRESENT TROUBLES AN397NO1 64 239 With honour Wealth and peace happy and blest What ails thee hang thy head and cross thine arms What means this wailing tone this mournful guise 1 0 15 20 25 l 180 046 New England And thus a1asyour state you much deplore In general terms but will not say wherefore Whatrnedicine shall I seek to cure this woe If th wound s so dangerous I may not know But you perhaps would have me guess it out That hath some Hengist like that Saxon stout By fraud or force usurped thy ow ring crown Or by ternpestous wars thy elds trod down Or hath Canutus that brave valiant Dane The regal peaceful scepter om thee ta en Or is t a Norman whose victorious hand With English blood bedews thy conquered land Or is t intestine wars that thus offend Do Maud and Stephen for the crown contend Do barons rise and side against their king And call in foreign aid to help the thing Must Edward be deposed or is t the hour N That second Richard must be clapt in th tower f Or is t the fatal jar again begtm 39 quot 3 That from the red white pricking roses sprung Must Rich1nond s aid the nobles now implore To come andbreak the tushes of the boar If none of these dear mother what s your woe Pray do you fear Spain s bragging Arrnado Doth your ally fair France conspire your wrack Or do the Scots play false behind your back Doth Holland quit you ill for all your love rW hence is the storm from earth or heaven above Is t drought is t famine or is t pestilence Doth feel the smart or fear the consequence Your humble child entreats you show your grief Though arms nor purse she hath for your relief 5 181 such is 11er PQVCTW2 Yet Shall be found 5 5uPP113m f0 Y0111 help as she is bound 3 so 7 T Old England I must confess some of thosesores you name My beauteous body at this present rnaim 55 quot3But foreign foe T101 feigned friend I fear I For they have work enough thou knoW st elsewhere Nor 15 1t Alc1e s son nor Henry s daughter VVh 5e P1quot011t1 contention cause this slaughter Nor nobles siding to make John no king 35 P 70 0 French Lewis unyustly to the crown to bring 40 N0 Edward Riflhard to lose rule and life i39Nor no Lancastrians to renew old strife 0 Duke Of Y01 1lt nor Earl of March so soil heir hands in kindred s blood whom the did foil 7 5 o crafty tyrant now usurpsthe seat 0 nephews slew that so he might be great 0 need of Tudor roses to unite None knows which is the red or which the whiteyic 39 pain s braving eet a second time is sunk ll 30 France knows how oft my fury she hath drunk 33 Edward Third and Henry Fifth of fame er lilies in mine arms avouch the same sister Scotland hurts me now no more hough She hath been injurious heretofore at Holland is I am in some suspense 85 ut trust not much unto his excellence 91 Wants sure some I feel but more I fear 39 C1 501 the pestilence who knows how near girnine and plague two sisters of the sword 90 nruction to a land doth soon afford ey 1e for my punishment ordained on high g 39 P 39 For nought but title to a fading CI 0W11 5182 39 Unless our tears P1 3Vl3m39it39See d 7 But Yet 1 answer not what Y 1 d man To show the grievance of my tropipled izstpd 3 Ca Before I tell th eEect I39Illquot Showif 1 396 d laws Which are my sins the breach 0 sacre Idolatry supplanter V a nation i W ith foolish superstitious adoration E mi ht Are liked and countenanced by men 0 pg The Gospel niodden down and hath no righfi U Church o ices were sold and boughtifor T 11 e That POPE had hope to find jocimeevefreeafgam For Oaths and b1aSPhe1eSl1 lan age hear a 39 39 From Bellebub hlmsel clue thgu Most Hi 11 What Scoming of the saints of er 8 Vvhat injuries did daily on them ie 39 didth take what false reports what ruck names 87 b E their master s sake Not for their ogii Wit jijered among the rest And iih ll pfor the aimh was made a jest hYS lgjggdl breaki g and for drunkenness OI 3 G 39 J p 0u J end eoeets tzissgzt From Crymg bt11T Gd yclyif1genauselessly39 39 i Martyrs 6 ksl d d wn HOW many prmcely heads on bloc a1 0 1 39 1 eat ones done Mhongdl a df ifgiillflistlziadlcglirence h3P1e55 son 0 W31quot quot39 39 39e iquotquot 0 Jane W11 dldst thou diein ow 11118 Prim Because of royal stem that yvas thy crime For bribery adultery and1es 81 Where is the nation I can 1 par 723 With usury extbrtiCl1eililI1 39I2E l9lIf h s ts ri39 eae or mrswut transgression T 39139 egg av139p 39quot 39 quot quotquot 39 39 quot 1 dsandro0f S 39 d sa e e and e whence owe 95 7 100 105 T Of more than thoutcansthear or I relate That with high hand I still did perpetrate For these were threatened the woeful day 39 39 I mocked the preachers put it far away The sermons yet upon record dop stand p L That cried destruction ft my Wicked land 5 Ithen believed not now I feel and see The plague of stubborn incredulity Some lost their livings some in prison pent Who saw theirwrongs and hath judged righteousl And will repay it sevenfold in my lap This is forerunner of my afterclap Nor took I warning by my neighbour s falls saw sad Germany s dismantled Walls saw her people famished nobles slain Her uitful land a barren heath remain saw unmoved her armies foiled and ed 39 ives forced babes tossed her houses calcined aw strong Rochelle yielded to her foe housands of starved Christians therealso aw poor Ireland bleeding out her last ch cruelties as all reports have past ine heart obdurate stood not yet aghast w sip I of that cup and just t may be ahe bottom dregs reserved are for me 39 New England L all you ve said sad Mother I assent fearful sins great cause there s to lament guilty hands in part hold up with you arer in your punishmenfs my due is all you say amo1111tsto tl39139is39e ect V Some ned from house and friends to exilewent39 39 Their silent tongues to heaven did vengeance39cry 130 L 135 7140 145 39 T 15039 quot155 39 P h 150 39 A 39 184 e Not what you feel but what you do expect 395 Pray in plain termswhat is your present grief Then let s join heads and hearts for your relief Old England Wellto the matter then there s grown of late TwiXt king and peers a question of state Which is the chief the law or else the king One said lt s he the other no such thing Tis said my better part in Parliament To ease my groaning land showe d fhTeir intent To crush the proud and right to each man deal In To help the Church and stay the commonweal So many obstacles came in their way As puts me to a stand what I should say Old customs new prerogatives stood on Had they not held law fast all had been gone Which by their prudence stood them in such stead They took high Strafford lower by the head And to their Laud be t spoke they held i th tower All England s metropolitan that hour This done an act they would have passed fain No prelate should his bishopric retainquot Here tugged they hard indeed for all men saw This must be done by Gospel not by law Next the militia they urged sore This was denied 1 need not say wherefore The King displeased at York himself absents They humbly beg return show their intents The writing printing posting to and fro Shows all was done I ll therefore let it go But now I come to speak of my disaster Contention grown twixt subjects and their master They worded it so long they fell to blows gffhat thousands lay on heaps here bleeds my woes Eg at no wars so many years have known now destroyed and slaught red by mine own Ht could the eld alone this strife decide ne battle two or three I might abide vgiotigse may be ljegillllings of more woe h ows39but this may be my overthrow P1 me 1n this sad perturbation MY Plllnclred towns my houses devastation My weeping virgins and my young men slain MY wealthy trading fall n my dearth of 39 he seedtime s come but ploughman hath no 110 e ecause he knows not who shall in his crop i P 39 lhepoor the Want their pay their children bread heir woeful mothers tears unpitied 39 331 PH in thy heart remain 39 393nY Childlike love thou dost retain T 1 my relief do what there lies in thee d recompense that good I ve done to thee 7w New England M th 8 0 er cgase complaints and W1Pe your eyes ya a your ust cheer up and now arise r ry mother nurse and 1 your esh g s en bowe s gladly would refresh gnefs I Pity but soon hope to see f Ymlrttroubles much good fruit to be i see those latter days of hoped for good ugh now beclouded all with tears and blood I dark POP the day did clear 3 EW the sun In 5 brightness shall appear t e the nobles of thy noble land ventured lives for truth s defence that stand the thy commons who for common good 195 200 205 210 215 220 225 1r86 95 And thy infringed laws have boldly st00rd Blest be thy counties who did aid theestill With hearts and states quotto testify their will 39 Blest be thy preachersywho do cheer theeton O cry the sword o God andquot Gideon And shall I not on them Wish Mero s curse That help thee not withrprayers arms and purse And for myself let miseries abound l e If mindless of thy state I e er be found These are the daysthe Church s foes to crush To root out Popelings head tail branch and rush Let s bringABaal s vestments forth to Inakea re Their miters surplices and all their tire Copes rochets crosiers and such empty trash And let their names consume but let the ash Light Christendom and all the World to see 39 We hate Rome s whorewith all her trumpery Go on brave Essexwith a loyal heart Not false to king nor to the better part But those that hurt his people and his crown As duty binds expell and tread them down And ye brave nobles chase away all fear And to this hopeful cause closelyadhere T 0 Mother can you weep andhave such peers 7 5 VVhen they are gone then drown yourself in tears S If now you Weep so much that then no more The briny ocean will o er ow your shore 39 These these are they I trust with Charles our King I Out of all mists such glorious days shall bring That dazzled eyes beholding much shall wonder At that thy settled peace thy wealth and splend or391 T Thy Church and weal established in such manner That all shall joy that thou displayed st thy banner And discipliiteuerected so 1 trust 39 quotI 39 39 39 39 5 187 ihat liursing kings shall come and lick thy dust quot hen Justice shall 1nall thycquotou1tg take Without respect of person or of Case b J Patfin Tlbes shall cease and suits shall not st1cllt39lono ience and purse of clients oft to wrong 6 place Then high commissions shall fall to decay 265 And pursuivants and catchpoles want their pay S3I113i1 Y1 ilgpipy Ililation ever ourish When thus 111 peIa1 et1i E SSarn 11I1eesY lilrgtlxfeslsiziildngiif ish 397 2 0 There let thy name thy fame and glofy shine As did thine ancestors in Palestine Of what unjustly once she 11 d fr 39 Of all the Woes thou canst leftxhe be Epidtheei 275 t tt sis e east at 1 31 th J tear his esh and set yI I feet ZIYE liigclivRh S beck s d make his lthy den so desolate 0 th stonishment of all that knew his stat his done with brandished swords to Turlce 39 9 go or then What IS t but English blades dare do d lay her waste for so s the sacred doom 280 285 d Him you shall adore who now despise hen fullness of the nations in shall ow lt3 Jew and Gentile to one worship oquot0 hen follows days of happinessiand rejsti close lot doth fall to live therein is blest o Canaanite shall then be found i th 1a1d 290 188 55 J And holiness on horses bells shell stand 39 39 295 If this make way thereto th Slgh no more But if at all thou didst not see t before Farewell dear Mother Tightest Caustealpreva And in a while Y0u ll tell armthel 939 aquot OF ZUTPHLEN A 5 39 NNO 1586 10 Of poesy and susic he was king i His rhetoric struc Polymnia dead His eloquence mad p Clio could set down halia and M lpomen Gu say truth itness Arcadia penn Pt his youth l e not his tragic comedi 20 50 show the world they ihat this one volume shoul i exhaust your store i s witty works lurks 2 5 it some infatuate oQls soon o ght therein r a gm 30 x 194 we P have 1wond redat the hand of heaven ving one what wou1dhave served seven this golden was show red on any 39I3939hus Bartas p And whilst there s j or re or sea or land But lest mine igno L y To celebrate thy p mysong I ll leave thy praise to y shall do thee right I Here lies the pearl of arnassus glory The world rejoiced at s birth I Art and Nature joined by O Now showed what once they humanity And Nature s law had it been re To rescue him om death39Art had But Nature vanquishedA1i soBarta shall last While stars do stand 39 1 T 80 z ceshouljcl do thee wrongquot 39 E 2 death was sorry s high decree 39 IN HoNoUR39toFTHA Ti HiI39GlIi A1 ID i l MIGHTY PRINCESS QUEENlt 70 L ELIZABETH OF HAPPY MEMORY 39 The Proemquot quot A Although great Queen thou now in silence liet Ew 39 0 539 Yet thy loud herald Fame doth to the sky 39 08 I s wondrousrvvorth proclaim in every clime And so hath vowed while there is world or time 39So great s thy glory and thine excellence A The soundthereof rapts every human sense L r 39 so That men account it no impiety 39 To say thou wert 3 eshlyjdeity 2 Thousands bring o erings though out of date e Thy world of honours toaccumulate 39 t Mongst hundred hecatombs of roaring averse 39 0 2 115 Mine bleating stands before thy royal herse i Thou never didst nor canst thou now disdain T accept the tributeof a loyal brain Thy clemency did erst esteem as much The acclarnations of the poor asrich c 26 Which makesme deem my rudeness is no wrongquot 2 Though I resound thy praises n1ongst the throng 7539 A The Poem No Phoenix pen nor Spenser s poetry v No Speed s nor Camderfsilearned history 39 39 p 25 Elizafs Works wars praise can 39e er compact 39 The world s the theatre where39she did act No quotmemories nor volumes can contain The leven Olympiads of her happy reign Mme was so good so just so lean d so wise 39 I 39 e 30 J95 From all the kings on earth she won the prize Nor say I more than duly isher due Millions will testify that this is true Shehathquotwi39ped39oi th quot aspersion of hersex That women wisdom lack to play the rex Spain s monarch says not so nor yet his host She taught them better manners to their cost The Salic lawquotir71force now hadynot been If France had ever hoped for such a queen But can you doctors now this point dispute She s argument enough to make you mute Since rst the Sun didrun his ne er run race And earth had once a year a new old face Since time was time and man unmanly man Come show me such a Phoenix if you can Was ever people better ruled than hers Was ever land more happy freed from stirs Did ever wealth in England more abound Her victories in foreign coasts resound Ships more invincible than Spain s her foe She wracked she sackedquot she sunk his Armado Her stately troops advanced to Lisbon s39 wall Don Anthony in s right thereto install She nankly helped Frank s brave distressed king The states united now her fame do sing She their protectrix was they well do know Unto our dread virago WhIlt1t the 0W6 Her nobles sacri ced their noble blood Nor men nor coin she spared to do them good The rude untamedlrish she did quell Before her picture the proud Tyrone fell Had ever prince such counsellors as she Herself Minerva caused them so to be Such captains and such soldiers never seen As were the subjects of our Pallas queen gs Her seamen through all straits theworld did round Terra incognito might know the sound A Her Drake came laden home with Spanish gold Her Essex took Cadiz their Herculean hold But time would fail me so my tongue would too g To tell of half she did or she could do y Semiramis to her is but obscure More infamy than fame she didprocure She built her glory but on Babel s walls A W0rld s wonder for a while but yet it falls Fierce Tomris Cyrus headsrnan Scythians queen Had put her harness o had she but seen Our Amazon in th Camp of Tilbury judging all valour and all majesty Within that princess to have residence And prostrate yielded to her excellence 39 Dido rst foundress of proud Carthage walls VVho living consummates her funerals A A great Eliza but compared with ours How vanisheth her glory wealth and powers Profuse proud Cleopatra whose wrong nan1e Instead of glory proved her country s shame Of herwwhat worth in stories to be seen But that she was a rich Egyptian queen Zenobya potent empress of the East And of all these without compare the best Whom none but great Aurelius could quellflquot i Yet for ourQueen is no t parallel he was a Phoenixqueen so shall she be er ashes not revived F more Phoenix she er personal perfections who would tell ust dip his pen in th quotHeleconian well 39Which I may not my pride doth but aspire b read what others write and so admire wow say have women worth or have they none 35 40d 45 55 197 7o 75 89 35 90 95 100 198 Or had they quotsome but with our Queen is t gone r Nay masculines Y011h3V 39thU395 taxed quot115 10113 But she though dead will vindicate our wrong Let such as say our sea is void 39of reasou 5 Know tis a slander new but oncewas treason B111 happy England which had such a queen Yea happy happy had those days still hee 1391 i I 7 But happiness lies in39a higher sphere Then wonder not Eliza moves not ere 39 Full fraught with honour riches and with d2Y5 39 She setquot she set like Titan in his rays No more shall rise or set so glorious 51111 Until the heaven s greatfrevolution It then new things their old ioteesi shall tetein L Eliza shall rule Albion once again Her Epitaph 5 Here sleeps the queen this is the royal bed g V Di th damask rose sprung from the white paudred Vlfhose sweet perfume lls 39the alliilling air I This rose is withered once 50 10V 31Yh11quoti On neither tree did grow such rose before The greater was our gain our loss the more T tettet Here lies the ptide oiquotqueens patteinot Kings x So blaze it Fame here s feathers for thyiwlngs p I Here lies the envied yet unparalleledprillce whose living virtues espealltthough dead long since If many worlds as that fantastic frmed In every one be her 39gT 3t 8101 famedquot7 gist ii 105 110 115 120 39 125 Lest daughters of the Philistines 9R Nor uitful showers your P Nor elds of oE rings ever R grow For there the mighty ones 5 The bow of jonat Q Nor from the i D AV 1 D s LAM EN TA T I o N is f SA U L AN D JQNAT HAN f V11 SAM 1 5 19 N Alas slain is the head of Israel Illustrious Saul whose beauty did excel Upon thy places mountainous and high How did the mighty fall and falling In Gath let not this thing be spoken o N or published in the streets of Ascal I oice 10 Lest the uncircumcised lift up R Voice 0 Gilbo Mounts let never tops bestrew Nor any pleasant thing39e er ay you show 15 soon decay I The shield of Saul cast away There had his dignity 0 sore a foil AS if his head ne er the sacred oil Sometimes hem blood of ghastly slain 20 ne er turned in vain 39 d spoils of mighty men ord did Saul turn back again vely were they both in life With bloodless Pleasant and I And in was found no parting strife 2 5 swiftest eagles so were they an lions ramping for their prey quotO Isra s dames o er ow your beauteous eyes For V rant Saul who on Mount Gilbo lies Wh clothed you in cloth of richest dye 30 choice delights full of variety your array put ornaments of gold L wk l l EVERHONOURED MOTHER MRS DOROTHY DUDLEY WHO DECEASED DECEMBER 27 1643 AND or HEEAGE 5 Here lies A worthy matron of unspotted life A loving mother and obedient wife A iendly neighbor pitiful to poor Whom oft she fed and clothed with her store To servants wisely awful hilt yet kind And as they did so they reward did nd A true instructor of her family J The which she ordered with deitterity The public meetings ever did frequent if And in her closet constant hours she spent Religious in all her words and ways A Preparing still for death till end of days Of all her children children lived to see Then dying left a blessed memory A 3 ego wow ma lame 39 AN EPITAPH ON MY DEAR AND H 1 3939 V A st not whatto wish yet sure though 39 WW If P much excellence abideibelow A quotHo J excellent is He that dwells on I h Whos VI and beauty by his p we know xx 31116 P goodness wisdom glo P light Tm That this under world so P E y Mme than 53139 th was he nowinter and no night 15 y 3 Then on a stately 0 mine eye y i 39 y A Whose top H clouds seemedto39aspirei l H r39N J39 LQ o since UD t in thine infancy Thy strength more thy years admire i Hath hundred ters 4 thou wast born 20 Or thousand s ce thou br I thyshel139ofhorhP H 50gt an 35 Ii011ght k4 doth scornquot 4 R4 on g y g 5 Y The igher on the glistering Sun edquot H gr se beams was shaded by the tree more I looked the more I grew ed 393 A 25 p 2 V 1 r I ATLa 1A 1 1n n fhn a n 220 25 01 Yet in learning wisdom youth nor pleasure ere Sham 1 climb sound seek search or nd m summum bommz which may stay my mind 35 The is a path no vulture s eye hath Seen y ion erce nor lion s whelps have been p z ads unto that living crystal fountr p y thereof the world doth nought account PJ d sea have said tis not in mequot 49 With pearl cl gold it shall not valued be 6v 221 THE AUTHOR TO HER BOOK Thou illformed o spring of my feeble brain Who after birth didst by my side remain Till snatched from thence by friends less wise than true YVho thee abroad exposed to public view 5 Made thee in rags halting to th press to trudge For sapphireI1YXquot 0PaZ W110 Would 3hange3 Where errors were not lessened all may judge It s hid from 6 C Of 333511 the mum It Strange At thy return my blushing was not small Death and deg SB tion the fame hath heard My rambling brat PUA print should mhther call I cast thee by as one un t for light 10 Thy visage was so irksome in my sight Yet being mine own at length a ection would Thy blemishes amend if so I could a I washed thy face but more defects I saw And rubbing o a spot still made a aw 15 I stretched thy joints to make thee even feet yet still thou run st more hobbling than is meet in better dress to trim thee was my mind But nought save homespun cloth i th house I nd In this array mongst vulgars may st thou roam 20 In eritic s hands beware thou dost not come And take thy way where yet thou art not known for thy father asked say thou hadst none And for thy mother she alas is poor Vifhich caused her thus to send thee out of door 25 0 b it is horn heaven s declared 45 It brings to honou shall ne er decay It stores with Wealth time can t wear away It yieldeth pleasures T 0 beyond conceit Agd truly beautihes out deceit Vquot Nor snrength nor wisdo nor fresh youth shall fade 59 Nor death shall see but ar IIi3d This pearl of price this 0 me thls Sprmg Who is possessed of shall rei 0 a king Nor change of state nor cares CV31 533 v But wear his crown unto eterni 5 This satiates the soul this stays th mind i And all the rest but vanity we n P FINIS quotquot 224 as EEEORE THE BIRTH or oNE or HER CHILDREN v V a u things within this fading world hath end A ersity doth still our joys attend pU so strong no friends so dear and sweet But death s parting blow is sure to meet The past is most irrevocable thing yet oh inevitable How Dear death may my steps attend 39 How soon t ay be thy lot to lose thy friend We both are n orant yet love bids me These farewell to recommend to thee That when that ot s untied that made us one I may seem thineho in e ect am none And if I see not hal y days that s due What nature would grant to yours and you The many faults that 5 you know I have Let be interred in my ovious grave If any worth or virtue me Let that live freshly in thy mory And when thou fee1 st no z I no harms Yet love thy dead who long thine arms And when thy loss shall be g with gains Lookto my little babes my dear ains And if thou love thyself or 1oved st These 0 protect from stepdame s inj B And if chance to thine eyes shall bring D pga With some sad sighs honour my absent D And kiss this paper for thy love s dear QG Who with salt tears this last farewell did PoF O 39 A B IO p gt s225 TO MY DEAR AND Lovmo OHUSBAND If ever e then surely we If ever man were loved by wife then thee If ever wife was happy in a man C0mP3139e with 1113 Ye W01I1 I1 if you can prize thy love more than whole mines of gold 5 01 all the riches that the East doth hold My love 13 such that rivers cannot quench Nor ought but love from thee give recornpense Thy love is such I can no way repay 10 ihe heavens reward thee manifold I pray quothen Whlle We 1N6 in love let s so persevere Tha 39 I whim W3 11V I10 more we may l1VI3939 ever 292 5 HERE FOLLOWS soMEvERsEs UPON THE BURNING or OUR HOUSE jULY mm 1666 COPIED OUT or A LOOSE PAPER In silent night when rest I took For sorrow near I did not look I wakened was with thund ring noise And piteous shrieks of dreadful voice That fearful sound of Fire and Fire Let no man know isxrny desire 10 1 starting up the light did spy And to my God my heart did cry To strengthen me in my distress And not to leave me succorless Then coming out beheld a space i 15 The ame consume my dwelling p1ace 39 I 39 And when I could no longer look I blest His name that gave and took 39I39hat laid my goods now in the dust Yea so it was and so twas just 20 It was His own it was not mine Far be it that I should repine He might of all justly bereft But yet su icient for us left Then by the ruins oft I past 25 My sorrowing eyes aside did cast 39 l And here and therethe places spy IVhere oft I sat and long did lie 39 Here stood that trunk and there that chest There lay that store I counted best 30 My pleasant things in ashesJie 39 And them behold no more shall I 6 293 Under thy roof no guest shall sit Nor at thy table eat a bit N o pleasant tale shall e er be told I 35 Nor things recounted done of old No candle e er shall shine in thee 0 Nor bridegroom s voice e er heard shall be In silence ever shall thou lie Adieu Adieu all s vanity I I Then straight I gin my heart to chide t 9e O j And did thy wealth on earth abide 39 39 Didst x thy hope on mold ring dust The arm of esh didst make thy trust Raise up thy thoughts above the sky 45 hiH mists away may y 39 Thou hast an house on high erect Framed by that mighty Architect With glory richly furnished A Stands permanent though quotthis be ed 39 50 It s purchased and paid for too I By Him who hath enough to do A price so vast as isunknown Yet by His gift is made thine own y 39I here s wealth enough I need no more 55 Farewell my pelf farewell my store The world no longer let me love My hope and treasure lies above scla Ctquot Ml 4 3 Anne Bradstreet more poems I Contemplations I678 Hensley edition Poem available online at httpwwwamericanpoemscompoetsAnneBradstreetI4708 I Sometime now past in the Autumnal Tide When Pboebus wanted but one hour to bed The trees all richl clad yet void of pride Were ilded o39re by his rich golden head Their feaves and fruits seem39d painted but was true Of green of red of yellow mixed hew Rapt were my senses at this delectable view 2 I wist not what to wish yet sure thought I If so much excellence abide below How excellent is he that dwells on high Whose power and beauty by his works we know Sure he is goodness wisdom glo light That hath this under world so ric ly dight r I More Heaven than Earth was here no winter and no night 3 Then on a stately Oak I cast mine Eye Whose ruf ing top the Clouds seem39d to aspire How long since thou wast in thine Infancy Thy strength and stature more thy years admire Hath hundred winters past since thou wast born Or thousand since thou brakest thy shell of horn If so all these as nought Eternity doth scorn 4 Then hi her on the listering Sun I gaz39d Whose Eeams was s aded by the leafy Tree The more I looked the more I grew amaz39d And softly said what glory39s like to thee Soul of this world this Universe39s Eye No wonder some made thee a Deity Had I not better known alas the same had I 5quot Thou as a Bridegroom from thy Chamber rushes And as a stron man joys to run a race The morn dot usher thee with smiles and blushes The Earth reflects her glances in thy face Birds insects Animals with Vegative Thy heat from death and dullness doth revive And in the darksome Womb of fruitful nature dive 6 Thy swift Annual and diurnal Course Thy daily straight and yearly oblique path Thy pleasin fervour and th scorching force All mortals ere the feeling cnowledge hath Thy presence makes it day thy absence night Quaternal seasons caused by thy might Hail Creature full of sweetness beauty and delight 7 Art thou so full of glory that no Eye Hath strength th shining Rays once to behold And is thy splen id Throne erect so high As to approach it can no earthly mould How full of glory then must thy Creator be Who gave this bri ht light luster unto thee Admired adored or ever be that Majesty 8 Silent alone Where none or saw or heard In pathless paths I lead m wand39ring feet My humble Eyes to lofty kies I rear39d To sing some Song my mazed Muse thought meet My great Creator I would ma ni That nature had thus decked iberally But Ah and Ah again my imbecility 9 I heard the merry grasshopper then sing The black clad Cricket bear a second part They kept one tune and played on the same string Seeming to glory in their little Art Shall creatures abject thus their voices raise And in their kind resound their maker39s praise Whilst I as mute can warble forth no higher lays 10 When present times look back to Ages past And men in being fancy those are dead It makes things gone perpetually to last And calls back months and years that long since fled It makes a man more aged in conceit Than was Metauselczfa or39s grandsire great While of their persons and their acts his mind doth treat II Sometimes in Eden fair he seems to be See glorious Adam there made Lord of all Fancies the Apple dangle on the Tree That turned his Sovereign to a naked thrall T Who like a miscreant39s driven from that place To get his bread with pain and sweat of face A penalty imposed on his backsliding Race I2 Here sits our Grand dame in retired place And in her lap her bloody Cain new born The weeping Imp oft looks her in the face Bewails his unknown hap and fate forlorn His Mother sighs to think of Paradise And how she lost her bliss to be more wise Believing him that was and is Father of lies I3 Here Cain and Abel come to sacrifice Fruits of the Earth and Fatlings each do bring On Abel39s ift the fire descends from Skies But no such sign on false Cain39s offering With sullen hateful looks he goes his wa s Hath thousand thoughts to end his brot er39s days Upon whose blood his future good he hopes to raise 14 There Abel keeps his sheep no ill he thinks His brother comes then acts his fratricide The Virgin Earth of blood her first draught drinks But since that time she often hath been cloy39d The wretch with ghastly face and dreadful mind 1 Thinks each he sees wi serve him in his kind Though none on Earth but kindred near then could he find I5 Who fancies not his looks now at the Bar His face like death his heart with horror fraught Nor Malefactor ever felt like war When deep despair with wish of life hath fought Branded with guilt and crusht with treble woes A Vagabond to Land of Nod he goes A City builds that walls might him secure from foes I6 Who thinks not oft upon the Father39s ages Their long descent how nephews sons they saw The starry observations of those Sages And how their recepts to their sons were law How Adam sig d to see his Progeny C1oth39d all in his black sinful Livery b Who neither guilt not yet the punishment could fly 17 Our life compare we with their length of days Who to the tenth of theirs doth now arrive And thou h thus short we shorten many ways Living so ittle while we are alive In eating drinking sleeping vain delight So unawares comes on perpetual night And puts all pleasures vain unto eternal ight 18 When I behold the heavens as in their prime And then the earth though old still clad in green The stones and trees insensible of time Nor age nor wrinkle on their front are seen If winter come and greenness then do fade A Spring returns and they more youthful made But Man grows old lies down 139 1 I181I1S where once he39s laid I9 By birth more noble than those creatures all Yet seems by nature and by custom curs39d No sooner born but grief and care makes fall That state obliterate he had at first Nor youth nor strength nor wisdom spring again Nor habitations long their names retain But in oblivion to the final day remain 20 Shall I then praise the heavens the trees the earth Because their beauty and their strength last longer Shall I wish there or never to had birth Because they39re bigger and their bodies stronger Nay they shall darken perish fade and die And when unmade so ever shall they lie But man was made for endless immortality 21 Under the cooling shadow of a stately Elm Close sate I by a goodly River39s side Where gliding streams the Rocks did overwhelm A lonely place with pleasures digni 39d I once that loved the shady woods so well Now thought the rivers did the trees excel And if the sun would ever shine there would I dwell 22 While on the stealing stream I fixt mine eye Which to the long39dfor Ocean held its course I markt nor crooks nor rubs that there did lie Could hinder ought but still augment its force 0 happy Flood quoth I that holds thy race Till thou arrive at thy beloved place Nor is it rocks or shoals that can obstruct thy pace 23 Nor is39t enou h that thou alone may39st slide But hundred rooks in thy clear waves do meet So hand in hand along with thee they glide To Taetis house where all imbrace and greet Thou Emblem true of what I count the best O could I lead my Rivolets to rest T S0 may we press to that vast mansion ever blest 24 Ye Fish which in this liquid Region 39bide That for each season have your habitation Now salt now fresh where you think best to glide To unknown coasts to give a visitation In Lakes and ponds you leave your numerous fry So Nature tau ht and yet you know not why You watry fol that know not your felicity 25 Look how the wantons frisk to task the air Then to the colder bottom straight they dive Eftsoon to Neptune 395 glassy Hall repair To see what trade they great ones there do drive Who forra e o39re the spacious seagreen field And take t e trembling prey before it yield Whose armour is their scales their spreading fins their shield 26 While musing thus with contemplation fed And thousand fancies buzzing in my brain The sweettongued Philomel ercht o39re my head And chanted forth a most rneibdious strain Which rapt me so with wonder and delight I judg39s my hearing better than m sight And wisht me wings with her aw ile to take my ight 27 O merry Bird said I that fears no snares That neither toils nor hoards up in thy barn Feels no sad thoughts nor cruciating cares To gain more good or shun what might thee harm H Thy clothes ne39er wear thy meat is everywhere Thy bed a bough thy drink the water clear Reminds not what is past nor what39s to come dost fear 28 The dawning morn with songs thou dost prevent Sets hundred notes unto thy feathered crew So each one tunes his pretty instrument And warbling out the old begin anew And thus they pass their youth in summer season Then follow thee into a better Region Where winter39s never felt by that sweet airy legion 29 Man at the best a creature frail and vain In knowledge ignorant in strength but weak Subject to sorrows losses sickness pain Each storm his state his mind his body break From some of these he never finds cessation But da or night within without vexation Troub es from foes from friends from dearest near39st Relation 30 And yet this sinful creature frail and vain This lump of wretchedness of sin and sorrow This weatherbeaten vessel wrackt with pain Joys not in hope of an eternal morrow Nor all his losses crosses and vexation In weight in frequency and long duration Can make him deeply groan for that divine Translation 3I The Mariner that on smooth Waves doth glide Sings merrily and steers his Barque with ease As if he had command of wind and tide And now becomes great Master of the seas But suddenl a storm spoils all the sport And makes liim lon for a more quiet port Which 39gainst all agrerse winds may serve for fort 32 So he that faileth in this world of pleasure Feeding on sweets that never bit of th39 sour That39s full of friends of honour and of treasure Fond fool he takes this earth ev39n for heav39ns bower But sad af iction comes and makes him see Here39s neither honour wealth or safety Only above is found all with security 33 0 Time the fatal wrack of mortal things That draws oblivion39s curtains over kings Their sumptuous monuments men know them not Their names with a Record are forgot Their parts their ports their pomp39s all laid in th39 dust Nor wit nor gold nor buildings scape time39s rust But he whose name is graved in the white stone Shall last and shine when all of these are gone H Lines 7191 An Elegy Upon that Honorable and Renowned Knight Sir Philip Sidney Who was untimely slain at the Siege of Zutphen Anno 1586 I678 Hensleyedition 191 The poem typically enough for Bradstreet deals with worthiness of the knightquot poet Sidney and her own unworthiness to praise him It concludes with this neat riff followed by a formulaic Epitaph for Sidney But now into such lab rinths I am lead With endless turns the way I find not out How to persist my Muse is more in doubt Which makes me now with Sylvester confess But Sidney s Muse can sin his worthiness The Muses aid I craved t ey had no will To give to their detractor any quill With high disdain they said the gave no more Since Sidney had exhausted all t eir store They tookfrom me the scribbling pen I had I to be eased of such a task was glad Then to revenge this wrong themselves engage And drave me from Parnassus in a rage Then wonder not if I no better sped Since I the Muses thus have injured I pensive for my fault sat down and then Errata through their leave threw me m pen I My poem to conclude two lines they eign Which write she bade return t to them again So Sidney s fame I leave to England s rolls His bones do lie interred in stately Paul s Embracing the Absolute The 39 Politics of the Female Subject in SeventeenthCentury England BY CATHERINE GALLAGHER g yags 1 ant awi whom we it is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth century women think of as the forerunners and founders of feminism were a3m 3t Without V099quot 39 dated with the tion Tories Sinceseventeenthcentury Tory itdeolggii 0 a Z0 e family and radicai pamarchahsm of Robert Fiimer a pa tar absolute power of the father the kingdom and asserting the divinely lira 399 I d b the fact that Tory ladies king hl5quot0rla 3 have been UnderStandabcll pdJLZ page of the absolute subor and gentiewomen wrote the earliest extenl et Cnticiirnatic assertions of women39s dination of women in marriagehand the ear ies S3 9 rational and moral eClU3liY Wli m393 3 H de Some historians have to be sure ClU9Sil0lid tlhe fav ii EgnOgje gnS to ology with Filmerian patriarchalism and WW9 l 9 093Var are no help in exptaiw Filmer Their revisions of the ideological history OWE th and ea y elgh ing the surprising predominance of Tories among seventeen no Consistent teenthcentury feminist writers it may be the case that th39eb Vt 39en Tories and differences between momrchlsts a nd pamamen aria oliticai rights butthen Whigs on the issues offamily organization anclll wgmzn d litijetween the ipamea if one would expect early feminists to be equa y ivi e rt then the deep there were no gender issues at all on the agenda of eltgler 53 Yi i 39 T 39 m andfeminismis still buried me soon y V a gltoynzegihfheenmcogliustained attempts to shed some light on the relationship 39 l 39 I nthe Hilda Smith has suggested that it resides not so much in the ideo ogica as i l es whose sociological dimension of Toryism She 8FQU3Slh3t Wome fthedC05f S ertain Op 39 terests were represented by the TOFIGS Were F9l3iFV lY del3 V9 lgortunities and privileges during the seventeenth century and this relative depri l f all Vaiion made them conscious of the unfair restrictions gliceadngg hnei igg ass women As the privileges of rank were called into ques 39 ta es aristocratic men acquired new political economic and educational advan g GENDERS Number 1 Spring 1968 copyright 1988 by the University of Texas Press CATHERINE GALLAGHERquot ladies and gentlewornen may havelfelt a relative erosion or their social power even if no actual loss of position can be substantiated A sensed loss of status her argument goes would have ledcertain especially perceptive women of these classes to the painful revelation that their femaieness and not their rank deter mined their social power and to the concomitant wish that distinctions of rank would override those of gender Hence their Toryisrn bygivirig political articula tion to their desire to restore or protect a stable social hierarchy both encouraged the general habit of critically reflecting on social arrangements and linked their interests as ladies and gentlewomen to the restorationof that hierarchy This explanation seems plausible as a first step but it is not quite adequate to dispose of some troubling counterevidence The emphasis on social class fails first of all to explain why many very prominent aristocratic ladies of the period found it easyto maintain and even extend the privileges of their rank within the context of Whig politics Especially in the very late years of the century when the Tory party properly speaking came into being and the country undenivent an un precedented politioization social class does not seem to have been a reliable indicator either of which women became politically active or of what their party affiliation was In other words there was an across theboard increase in upper class women39s partisan political activities during this periodquot that belies the claim that a general class experience created a bond between the interests of upper class women as a group and Toryism The sociological model will therefore re quire considerable refinement before it can give us such an accurate account of the differences between Whig and Tory ladies that we would be able to see what special factors in the social experience of rnonarchist women might have inclined them toward feminism or what some writers have called protofeminism in the meantime those of us who are not social historians might look to the texts of the Tory feminists themselves for pieces of the puzzle That is what I will be doing in this essay Several of the works of Margaret Cavendish 16261673 and Mary Astell 16661730 will provide tliQevidence for my contention that Toryisrn and feminism converge because the ideology of absolute monarchy provides in particular historical situations a transition to an ideology of the absolute self It is the paradoxical connection between the roi absolu and the moi absolu that l wish to trace in the early history of feminism Margaret Cavendish was a notorious eccentric and hence it is difficult to argue for her representativenesseven within the tiny sorority of seventeenthcentury women writers By her own account she was an isolated child painfully shy As a teenager during the Civil War she became a maid of honor to the queen and at court she met William Cavendish thirty years her senior then marquis of New castle and leader of the loyalist forces in the north of England She married William in 1645 and like the rest of the English court they spentquot the next fifteenyears in exile When they returned to England with the restoration of the monarchy the Cavendishes lived a retired life Margaret dressed in an outlandish fashion and published books that most of her contemporaries found simply incomprehensible If it is difficult to see Margaret Cavendish as representative of seventeenth PAGE25 T PAGE 26 GENDERS century women writers it is even harder to imagine her as a typical early feminist indeed historians of feminism have found her atroublesome ancestress embar rassingiy apt to deliver such sentences as the followirtgwhich opens her i655 book The World39s Olio it cannot be expected l shouid write so wisely or wtttily as Men being of the Effeminate Sex whose Brains Nature hath mix39t with the coldest and softest Elements Histories of feminismmevertheless routinelyinclude her even though they have a difficult time finding appropriate quotationslr for in Cavendish s works about her self andjhelr writing feminists have seen early asser tions of a woman39s need for selfinscription r Such assertions are bound up with Cavendish s willful eccentricity the very characteristic that also links her protofeminisrrt and her absolutist rhetoric in her proclamations of what she calls her quotsingularityquot she insists that she lS an auto telic selfsufficient being not a secondary creature a satellite orbiting a domi nant male planet but a self centered orb eccentric because outside of anyone else39s circle in describing and justifying this absolute singularity Cavendish re peatedly invokes the model of the absolute mcgtriarch At first glance these two absolutes the absolute monarch and the autotelic woman who claims to rule her self seem logically incompatible But Cavendish39s works manifest their interde pendence and especially their interdependence for a woman seeking preemi nence through writing Cavendish s Toryism iargeiy consists of her commitment to absolute monarchy but most of her defenses of this form of government turn into defenses of sin gularity itself The monarch becomes a figure for the seif enclosed autonomous nature of any person In her writings there are dozens of instances of this figural use of themonarch but one of the most instructive is in her preface to her biog raphy of her husband Although there be many sorts of histories yet these three are the chietest i a general his tory 2 A nationai history 3 A particular history Whichthree sorts may not unfitly be corn pared to the three sorts of governments Democracy Aristocracygand Monarchy The first IS the history of the known parts and people of the world the second is the history of a particular nation kingdom or commonwealth The third is the history of the life and actions of some particular person The last the history of the single person which corresponds to monar chy is the most secure because it goes not out of its own circle but turns on its own axis and keeps within the circumference of truth The comparison made here between any particular life history and monarchy stresses the security that is gained by staying within the bounds of singularity and the comparison relies on a third metaphorical term that of planetary motion The book that centers on a single self like the state that centers on a single ruler comprises a selfcontained world that turns on its own axis and makes itsowri circle inside the history of the particular individual is epistemological security it keeps within the circumference of truth just as within the absolute monarchy is political security What is imagined here is a plurality of worlds each based Oil that model of singularity the monarchy Each individual each book becomes whole true distinct a world unto itself only by virtue of the authoritative metaphor 1uiu an C disputed quotunenviedquot because there can be no shortage of such worlds CATHERINE GALLAGHER PAGE 22 of absoiute monarchy Hence what at first appears to be an absolutisrn that would merely lead to the subjection of all individuals except the monarch was actually for Cavendish the foundation for a subjectivity that would make its own abso lute claims 39 39 Cavendish frequently urges these claims against those who would limit her in tellectual activity on the basis of her sex in describing her fitness for authorship she claims quotmy minde is become an absolute Monark ruling alone my thoughts as a peaceable Commonwealthquot Moreover Cavendish explicitly links her gen der to this absolutist model of subjectivity claiming at the beginning of her book The Blazing World for example that restrictions on her worldly ambitions have directed her inward toward the microcosm of the self I am as Ambitious as ever any of my Sex was is or can be which is the cause That though i cannot be Henry the Fifth or Charles the Second yet I will endeavour to be Mar garet the First and though I have neither Power Time nor Occasion to be a great Con queror like Alexander or Cesar sic yet rather than not be Mistress of a World since For tune and the Fates would give me none l have made One of my own thus believing or at least hoping that no Creature can or will Envy me for this World of rnine I will return to this text and to the problematic self that ultimately emerges from it but for now l simply want to stress its feminization of the writing subject who is isolated and complete unto herself The desire for absolute power is circum scribed qualified according to this passage by Cavendish39s sex Not having been born a monarch she cannot like a man gain empire through conquest Hence she retreats to the empire of the mind where her absolute rule is un We should not be misled by this passage though into concluding that Caven dish presents herself as a woman whose ambition has simply been defeated or diverted by her femaleness lfer emphasis on the microcosm of the self does sug gest a compensatory withdrawal because her sex confiicts with her ambitions she retreats to the domain of subjectivity And such a narrative implies that the absolutist desire the ambition exists prior to the gender awareness that thwarts it However much in Cavendish s texts suggests that the absolutist desire the desire to be the sovereign monarch itself derives from a certain female disability not from her inability to be a monarch but from her inability to be a full subject of the monarch Of the two available political positions subject and monarch mon arch is the only one Cavendish can imagine a woman occupying And this of course accorded with her historical experience women were excluded from all state offices except that of monarch Even in her fantasy worlds Cavendish keeps recreating these allornothing political alternatives for women in The Blazing World for example an extended fantasy of imperial power the empress rules alone her ministers are eunuchs and no other woman is allowed to have em ployment in Church or Statequot p 18 Since the only model of political being avail able to women in Cavendish s writings is that of monarch a woman39s ambition can only take the absolute form Her mode of constructing her gender then not only 39 directs her absolutism toward the domain of the self but also generates that de PAGE 28 GENDERS sire for absolute domain in the first place by obviating the alternativeapolitical subjecthood Thus as the following passage from her Sociable Letters emphasizes women come to occupy the position of monarch because of their exclusion from the polity 39 As for the matter of Governments we Women understand them not yet if we did we are excluded from intermedlirig therewith and almost from being subject thereto we are not tied nor bound to State or Crown we are free not Sworn to Allegiance nor do we take the Oath of Supremacy we are not made Citizens of the Commonwealth we hold no Offices nor bear we any Authority therein we are accounted neither Useful in Peace nor Serviceable in War and if we be not Citizens in the Commonwealth i know no reason we should be Subjectsto the 39 Commonwealth Andthe truth iswe are noSLibjects 3 it is this extraordinary assertion we are no Subjectsquot that forms the logical foun dation for that ambitious statement quoted earlier i will endeavour to be Mar garet the Firstquot Exclusion from political subjecthood allows female subjectivity to become absolute Cavendish then feminizes her absolutism from the outset This is most clearly seen when she contrasts it to her husband s absolutism She presents William Cavendish as circumscribed always by the terms of political subjection and hence unable to escape a selfsacrificing subordination T l have heard him say several times that his love to his gracious master King Charles the Second was above the love he bore to his wife children and all his posterity nay to his own life and when since his return into England I answered him that l observed his gracious master did not love him so well he replied that he cared not whether His Majesty loved him again or not For he was resolved to love Him The subjectivity of the male absolutist is here presented as impaired by the need to choose between the self and the monarch Since only one can be absolute William Cavendish must constantly choose against himself During their long exile Margaret reports that she suggested to William that he like her find satis faction and a sense of his own complete being in political norisubjection But to the royallst male Margaret implies such nonsubjection is simply nonbeing quotMy Lord being in banishment i told him that he was happy in his misfortunes for he was not subject to any state or prince To which he jestingly answered that as he was subject to no prince so he was a prince of no subjects A perfectly constituted subject of the king William Cavendish becomes merely abject in the monarch39s absence whereas Margaret becomes absolute Accord ing to Margaret the monarch for women is always a simultaneous presence absence He is the cynosure the guiding star that directs her to her own self hood But the very completeness of her selfhood modelled on him then makes the monarch irrelevant Cavendish writes as it banishment is every woman39s natu ral political condition and one that allows her to be in miniature what Charles it was on a grander scale during the years of their shared exile an absolute mon arch without a country The beheading of Charles i may have spelled the end of dynastic rule in England just as it showed that the country had never had a truly I 5 Ein CATHERINE GALLAGHER PAGE 29 absolutist state Nevertheless the royal martyrdom and exile also confirmed the f th 1 39 39 ai o many absolute monarchrsts and certainly the loss of the state created an important imaginative opening for Cavendish During the years when the Ca endishes like the rest of the English court were exiled in France and H ii Ci Charles ll was himself the ruler of a kind of fantasy kingdom In a sen tho an 39 Iiteraiizedthe monarch39s metaphoric signi cance The real kin h at 8 e ems ruler of what amounted to a microcosm had almost been regucid igzosrivgig k d 39 Sglg3rE11ariggn23nhcnt ad practicallyenacted the metaphorical equivalence of 30V9i9lQl39l private person Margaret Cavendishs loyalty to her monarch did not preclude this identi cation as her husband39s did She like th k I 39 I In quot TheeEg ig393vlgrfglli gtfggilt1FtQlgkeher had no terrestrial realm According to s ou on y have made his rule more perfect F0 h tUravj gggjinoigeoa irif 1112 rcigeatlea an immaterial World fully inhabited by immaterial Cea SOUR nay not onely so but he m s jects and all this Within the compass of the head or 39 39 33 Create a World of what fashion and Govemment he will and give the Creatures thereof such motions gures forms colours perce tions it meases Am 35 it is in VOW power to create such a World What need yogi to veniijrislin reputation and tranquility to conquer a gross material World For you can enio no mor l I 39 material world than a particular Creature is able to en oy39 which is but a small yart co 8 a lilg the Compass of such a world for it is impossible that a Kingdom npay a Cint shouldbquot d 39 39 39 d d e 39 l0Y by One person at once except he take the pains to travel into every part an en tire the inconveniencies of going from one place to another Th F dinL1ln EiQSlifC i1Chag S ll 3 d DFVai9n the reduction of his realm to private The monarch in th ave een the perfection of his absolute control for a metapho c reveer l 1 ilQnUmlh n Serves as a convenient historical pivot t d t sa in avendish s work the private woman completely re ire urns into a gure for the emperor l by this retirement live in a calm silence wherein l have m t 39 Dance d j 2 y Con ernplatzons free from distur Th an my mind lives in peace and my thoughts in pleasure My mind is entertained wi my own thoughts and takes as much Delight as Augustus Caesar did to hav h M caenas the Patron of Poets sit and hear Virgil and Horace read their W k ti 9 3 3 Mind takes Delights in its dear Mecaenas which is Contemplation anlr to Lhrgifiet itinlg Sctmyl Tho 39 v 39 l I 0e lca I k e enses to write down and then to send them out to the Dub IC view of the World So that the Mind and Thoughts imploy the Senses and the Senses imploy the Mind and Thoughts and thus I take Pleasure within my self Th 39 ehpquotVa9 arid theC01JlTlY dep d on one another in this conceit The court Fat er than the empire is that which serves as an analogue for the sell because th 39 t 9 DW8 9 W0ITl8l39l has already been imagined as a self sufficient court Complete with h 39 m0 3l39C i patron poets ministers and heralds And this utterly private self f y 0 0 M P Pubnck World ma non b M u not change it for allthe Pleasures of the Mistress of th Y o e 39 istress of the World for I should not desire to be at which is too Big to be Commended too Selfwilled to be Ruled too Factious to be Govern d too Turbulent to live in Peacequot quot3 1 PAGE 30 GENDERS in Cavendish39s writings then the absolute is reirnagined as that which she con ceives to be the private and the feminine But this entails the concomitant re imagining of the feminine as absolutely privatesubjective and yet nonsubjected This idea of femininity maintains its immemoriai association with a private se questered place However the significance of these texts lies in their transforma tion of the idea of privacy for women in Cavendish39s worksthe private realm is not simply country retirement nor is it the sphere of the family 001 the 303quot 91 domestic productivity nor the space of erotic encounter It is rather absolute pri vacy void of other bodies and empty even of other minds The frontlspitef le 10 he Philosophical and Physical Opinions shows Cavendish sitting in a s u y com pletely empty of books and the legend reads Studious She is and all Alone Most visitants when She has none iler Library on which She looks it is her Head her Thoughts her Books Scorninge dead Ashes without tire For her owne Fiames doe her lrispire This utter solitude complete and autotelic is strikingly different from traditional ways of imagining feminine privacy and subjectivity The woman here is in no sense a relative creature However as the legend of the frontispiece also Stresses this is a strangely haunted and even feverish solitude There is a sense of alarm raised especially by the image of the flaming head And this is just one of numer ous instances in which Cavendish seems imperiled by her total selfreferentiality For paradoxically selffragmentation is entailed in her very metaphors of abso lute sovereignty Throughout her writings when a kingdom of the self is invoked it carries with it implications of multiplicity one is a commonwealth And the more grandiose the metaphor of the microcosmic monadic self the more pluralized an entity the indi vidual becomes This Lady only to her self she Writes And all her Letters to herself indites For in her self so many Creatures be Like many Commonweaiths yet all Agree Man39s ileads a World where Thoughts are Born and Bred But in all lleads doth not a Caesar Fleign A Wise Augustus hath not every Brain And Reason in some Brains from Flule39s put out By Mad Flebellious Thoughts and Factious Flout And Great Disorder in such Brains will be Nor any Thought with Reason will Agree But in her Brain doth Fleason Govem well Not any Thought gainst Reason doth Rebel Herecthe link between absolute subjectivity lJlan sHead s a Worldquot and the need for an absolute emperor is explicit but so too is the slippage of both from figures of singularity to images of almost infinite plurality For in her self so many Creatures bequot The subject in order to be absolute must have subjects Thus the CATHERINE GALIAGHER PAGE 31 model of the self based on absolutism with its implicit image of the self as a mi crocosm leads in Cavendish39s works to a multiplicity of subjectivities Nowhere is this logic more eiabqrateiy ram ied than in her extended fantasy The Blazing World and nowhere is its connection to her gender more apparent That book as i remarked earlier beginsiby revealing the bond between the femi riization of the absolute and the new absoiutism of the private female Because Cavendish is not a man the opening epistle claims her ambition takes an abso lute form and her absolutism takes a private form This private dominion of the self though requires some external articulation its proof lies in the creation of an imaginary world that is the world of the book The desire to be a singular authority leads first to an insistent militant subjectivity and then to a multlpiication of worlds belonging to the self each of which circum scribes yet another self The self isa world and the proof of its self suf ciency is that it can make a world in fiction utterly fantastic and quotsingularquot the worldquot of the text we are reading However it turns out that the textual microcosm of The Blazing World depicts not just one but several worlds According to this fantasy an infinity of worlds is arranged in two different dimensions First an infinite num ber of them we are told are strung together like beads on a chain Joined at their poles each turns on its own axis The blazing world of the title is only one of these Second the text gives us another dimensionof multiplication by imaging the in finite recessing of worlds within worlds And these two directions of multiplication intersect The most important world in the chain of worlds the blazing world of the title has an empress seemingly a figure of the ambitious authors wish fulfiilment who rules absolutely However by recreating the self as a fantasy empress inside the world that is according to the preface supposedly inside herself the text be gins a process of in nite regression The self is no longer coextensive with its mi crocosm just as the blazing world is not coextensive with the microcosm of the text Hence frustration enters the fantasy For we are told the Empress here which although she possesses a whole World yet enjoys she but a part thereof neither is she so much acquainted with it that she knows all the places Countries and Dominions she Goverrisquot p 97 The fantasy of absolute power over a world which figured itself in absolute mon archy is hence no sooner articulated than it finds monarchy an inadequate gure for absoiute power in a movement we have already noted as characteristic of Cavendish s thought the story then explores the superior alternativeof making worlds in the mind it depicts the privatization of the absolute which the epistle told us was the origin of the text in the first place Whyquot asks one of the guiding spirits in the blazing world should you desire to be Empress of a Material World and be troubled with the cares that attend Government when as by creating a World within your self you may enjoy all both in whole and in parts without con trole or opposition and may make what World you please and alter it when you please and enjoy as much pleasure and delight as a World can afford youquot p 97 Thus inside the story both the empress and her scribe who is named Margaret Cavendish and who says like the author of the book quotmy Ambition is That I would be an Empress of a Worid and I shall never be at quiet until I be PAGE 32 GENDERS onequot p 94j adopt the superior alternative of creating Worlds within them I selvesquot p 98 Presumably the character Cavendish s world will like the blazing world also contain a Margaret Cavendish who wishes to be empress of a world and decides instead to create a microcosm etc ad in nitum These imaginary worlds therefore display the same infinite recessiveness that Cavendish anticipating Leibniz believed existed in every particle of nature As Leibniz expresses it Each part of matter can be thought of as a garden full of plants or as a pond full of fish But each branch of the plant each member of the animal each drop of its humors is also such a garden or such a pondquot2 Caven dish had arrived at this vision as early as 1653 when she began exploring how Small Atomes of themselves a World may makequot beginning of Poems and Fan cies The epistemological implications of such a vision are various Cavendish like Aphra Behn who was the first English translator of Fontenelle39s Plurality of Worlds seems to have been fascinated by the radical perspectivalism of the New Science its destruction of a hierarchy of knowers Because she assumes that each unit of matter englobes a selfsufficient and radically distinct consciousness she is able to imagine that there is no privileged perspective of universal knowl edge such as that which might earlier have been attributed to the topmost posi tion on the great chain of being the position occupied by the male human being in Cavendistfs poetry for example we are invited to see the hunt from the per spective of the hunted animal the feast from the perspective of the food the ball from the perspective of the microscopic inhabitants of a lady39s earring Absolut ism and relativism then become two sides of one logic in her works she uses perspective to decenter the universe by insisting on the eccentricityethe abso luteness of all knowing However when this decentering is accomplished on the writer herself when the divisibility of matter becomes the divisibility of the self subjectivity begins a regressive self pursuit in The Blazing World for example absolutism entails the elusiveness of subjectivity 1 the absolutist imagines the self as microcosm 2 the microcosm requires an absolute ruler a figure of the self in the world of the self 3 the ruler of the microcosm finding herself to be but a part of the micro cosm she inhabits must create yet another microcosm in order to meet the de mands of alosolutism Such a text finally imagines subjectivity as an infinite un fathomable regression of inferiority We are by now perhaps overly familiar with this structure it is a classic mise en abyme Indeed we might call Cavendish the seventeenthcentury s Ms en abyme The character Margaret Cavendish in the microcosm who is determined to create a microcosm functions like the escutcheon on the escutcheon When the repre sentation of the whole is reiterated as a part of the whole it unsettles the very identity it was intended to anchor And the absolute monarch of course as repre sentation of the whole functions in just the same way This vision of subjectivity is clearly a splendid generator of texts and although it may dizzy the reader it does not necessarily presage the death of the subjectquot about which we hear so much Indeed Cavendish s texts show that the infinltude of selfhood accompanies the birth of the subject Specifically in this case it is connected with the birth of the woman as subject That which seems the undolngrof the stability of the self is that quotquotquot CATHERINE GALLAGHER PAGE33 which allows subjectivity to come into existence as an excessiveness of conscious ness in relationship to all objects but especially in relationship to itself as object But useful as such a vertiginous self may be in textual production and compel ling as it may seem in its elusive inexhaustibility this aspect of Cavendish s model of the self was ultimately unsuited to the needs of the Tory feminists who followed her Those women who argued at the end of the century for the reform of female education and the elevation of women s social status retained Cavendish s stress on the autotelic woman butremoved her from the vortex of solipsistic regression They freed woman s sovereign self from the complete political and social isolation in which Cavendish had placed her ln theworks of Mary Astell a committed and consistent Tory feminist of the late seventeenth century we can see a more socially engaged use of absolutist poli tics This is not surprising since Astell writing at the end of the reign of William and in the early years of Queen Annals reign was muchmore active in and committed to party politics properly speaking than was Cavendish Political parties in our modern sense of the word did not really come into existence until the late seven teenth century when a dramatic growth inpoiitical writing both manifested the new forms of political division and helped create them2 Astell was only one of dozens of women political writers in this period the overwhelming majority of whom were on the High Church and Tory side Thus in contrast to Cavendish who served as her own patroness and constantly stressed the privacyquot of her writing enterprise Astell was a polemicist engaged in specific contemporary reli glOUS and political debates and indebted to her allies and publishers Moreover Astell was the prot gee of powerful Tory patronesses and surrounded by a circle of likeminded studious women3 Hence the social political and economic di mensions of a woman39s existence as well asher intellectual and moral depen dence on other women often occupy the foreground of Astell39s treatises Never theless the ideal gure dominating her writing like that dominating Cavendish39s is the singular woman contemplating her own mind Moreover as in Caven dish39s work the figure for this figure is the absolute monarch Aithough Astell39s ideas of personhood are always qualified by an insistence on Godas the only absolute being she nevertheless begins her arguments for im proving women39s lot in her most famous feminist work A Serious Proposal to the Ladies by asserting that women must come to see themselves as their own ends must shake off the custom of evaluating themselves as merely relative to men We value them men too much and our selves too little if we place any part of our desert in their Opli llOi39lquot2quot Like Cavendish Astell uses the language of sover eignty to describe the freedom of the inwardlooking woman Women she writes have a39natural goodness of Temper within which should allow them to be busted in obtaining Empiresquot p 5 The empire to be gained is that of the self and at is mine gained by constructing oneself as the standard of value the loud est Encomrums are not half so satisfactory as the calm and secret Plaudit of her own Mind which wou39d not fail on a review of it self to anticipate that delightful Eulogy she shall one day hearquot p 9 The woman39s own inner voice of moral au A thority becomes the anticipatory echo of the divine judgment Moreover Astell like Cavendish also imagines the private realm to be that of the PAGE 34 GENDERS mind alone listening to and looking at itself Feminine privacy is recommended as a Cartesian practice of subjectivity The disadvantage of quotliving in the World she writes is that the quotMindquot becomes preoccupied with Perceptions which external Objects occasion and is not at leisure to taste those delights which arise from a Reflection on it self nor to receive the Ideas which such a Reflection con veys and consequently forms all its Notions by such ideas only as it derives from sensation being unacquainted with those more excellent ones which arisefrom its own operations and a serious reflection on them and which are necessary to correct the mistakes and supply the defects of the other From whence arises a very partial knowledge of things nay almost a perfect ignorance in things of the greatest moment Pp 2526 However as the above quotation suggests Astell39s self auditing selfregarding woman is very different from Cavendish39s Both take the internal workings of the mind to be of the greatest moment but for widely divergent reasons Whereas Cavendish saw the mind as a solipsistic enclosure where she could entertain her self and pursue her own fleeting image endlessly Astell saw it in explicitly Carte sian terms as the first object of rational enquiry Many seventeenthcentury women writers were inspired by Descartes dualism to assert their intellectual equality with men for if as Descartes argued mind has no extension then it also has no gender in Astell39s systemquot of thought then the male monopoly on knowledge was revoked not through the matterbound per spectivalism that attracted Cavendish but through the creation of a matterless substance identical with the subject neither body nor soul but Mind Astell s problems in imaging female subjectivity as well as her use of the figure of the ab solute are consequently very different from and in many ways opposite to those of Cavendish Cavendish is constantly involved in a dynamic of multiplicity worlds break down into atoms that are themselves worlds and hence must break down even further just as the microcosm of the self by its very separateness must be multiple The invocation of the monarch as figure only exacerbates this problem for Cavendish cannot claim to be the monarch of herself without identifying herself with onlya small part of herself hence her preoccupation with partwhole rela tions Astell on the other hand faces a pattern of sameness Cartesian dualism insures against infinite multiplicity by making one clean break between body and mind The mind for Astell becomes the real self and although it seems neces sarily to double itself when engaged in selfreflection Astell insists that it experi ences itself as selfconsistent The figure of the monarch is not called upon to unify or subdue a potentially anarchic assemblage of parts of the self but is rather the earthly representative of the absolute that underlies all selfconsistency The lucid selfperceiving subjectivity that Astell emphasizes has knowledge of its own rational nature and of God as its ultimate aim lts completeness and self consistency derive from and refer back to the ultimate Mind God39s Unlike Caven dish then Astell does not imagine her sovereignty to be predicated on her status as a nonsubject of another Sovereign indeed her logic closely following Des cartes argument for the existence of God is quite the reverse the absolute both God and monarch is the necessary foundation for each individual subjectivity Rational subjectivity and hence individuality comes into being only by subjection to the absolute Supreme Being CATHERINE GALLAGHER 39 PAGE 35 Astell subscribed to the Cartesian premise that God gave each human being male Oi female sufficient rationality to deduce knowledge of primary truths for exarrlnr le th truth of God s sovereignty and thatof his representative the mon a 39 V9 SW0 H19 Church and High Tory pamphlets begin with attacks on mere tradition Moderation Truly Stated for example opens by telling the reader to take nothing on trustquot i would intreat him neither to believe Me or any other Writer on our bare word to take nothing upon Trust but to see with his Own Eyespand to judge according to his own Understandingquot25 And one39s own under standing soonadvocates complete submission to princely power in an oases for the true Christian quotacknowledges that Power which is from above originally delegated from the King of Kings and as such submits to ithowever unjustly exercised Being a complete selfreliant rational subject then leads one into religious and political subjecthood but one s rational selfsufficiency also derives from is 39 imparted by and is a representation of the absolute Being Far from excluding each Other therefore the individual39s rational selfreliance and her subjection to the monarch depend on each other For Astell absolutism did not imply solipsism nor did it exclude women from the political realm Rather it guaranteed access to reality and hence served as the basis for the abstract equivalence of all subjects both male and female all are rational and all are equally subjected I The SOVGFEIQFW aS the figure of singularity does not subdue the diverse im pulses of her subjects but rather calls upon the rational nature of each to over C0m through selfdiscipline all that does not conform to reason in her two bestknown works A Serious Proposal to the Ladies 1694 and Reflections upon Marriage 1700 Astell stresses the necessity of due subordination to lawful au thority bUi ihai auihoiiiy because it derives from God is mirrored in the reason ing power of the subject A blind Obedience is what a Rational Creature should never pay nor would a soverei n receive it did he rightly understand its Nature For Human Actions are not otherwise valuaglo than as they are conformable to Reason but a blind Obedience is an Obeying without Rea SOB for Ought We kflow against it God himself does not require our Obedience at this rate he lays before us the Goodness and Reasonableness of his Laws and were there any thing in them whose equity we could not readily comprehend yet we have this clear and sufficient Reasoih Oil Which to found our Obedience that nothing but what39s just and fit can be en J0lil39d by 3 Just a Wise and Gracious God 39 it follows from this somewhat circular logic that there cannot be a lawful arbitrary power for Gods representative is the representative of reason and reason by definition is never arbitrary It also follows that the monarch the divine represen iill39i39Ol39S evejryone39s true self which is also synonymous with reason Astell s Wom g atretairge at instilling a sense ofthe ultimate integrity of the rational self in en u rough the mirroring she describes integrity and subordination are linked thglgifagnponance of Astel sabsolutist thought forfeminism then is that it rinks esian account of subjectivity and the equality of women and men as sub jects of the monarch The singularity of the female subject would not be at all im Dalred by State Service and hence Astell unlike Cavendish Complains of the NDEFIS PAGE 36 GE laws and social conventions that withhold government offices frgvm gggeig J2 course of the World does not often lodge Power and Authority in o she remarks in The Christian Religion Professed tho by the use i3 made Of them 39t W e G p does not shew the Justice so nei er iS I or themquot29 This passage although it seems a pat conclusion to everything Astell has been arguing about women subjecthood and sovereignty also reveals a contradiction she can never overcorne it saysnthat the course of the World denies stir pc3vv to women but that Providence sometimes interferes and gives em R that in justicequot is theirs The obvious difficulty here is ho Astell3theC 3trdiB1rf tiallst can distinguish between the USUa39 Course Of the WW1 d Tan 1USt 0n rather how she can account forthe usual course of the wor at as 88 J1 mess instance of her recurrent problem having described Sl7QUafliY ra onat Sub subordination as sovereignty and sovereignty 83 i3aFtltquot1 Q it Tearran ed Her stance Astell is at a loss to account for the way the world is alto ugh Sodas di nc absoiutism operating on an identitarian model cannot exp ain m f m Such an tions between the sexes but it also cannot deny them because BY 0 important part of the apparatus of due subordination b Astell recurs to this problem in work after work Qefleially Wing I0 301V9 i Y first linking singularity and obedience to lawful authority and then counterposirig both against the lax multiplicity of mere custom and the usurpation of authority This pattern is fully traced in the following passage WW3 is CiU0t d at length fl order to convey its complex logic Here singularity becomes the warrant of rig t conformity and hence she stresses the very singuiarity of what she has to Say 0 the subject Perhaps I may be thought singular in what ltam abrgut to siayi1at1LiRclxtirrtrlLl3quoti3ag39a 322 warrant me and sinceit is aTruth o grea impo ance S without regarding the singularity 1 therefore beg leave to say that m st Sf Igngr nc1i3919 and Vices that Women are subject to are owing to our paying I00 Elie 3 ft Us when GOD peopie39s judgments and too little to our own in suffering others to U ge has not only allow39d but requirdus to judge for our selves H h em GOD had i am certain that this principle of UdgmQ Of 01 3elV93 in 3 93 W erto our Lawful left us his liberty wili introduce no disorder into the World or f3930 t9 Jientcf th ri as We Governors Rather it wili teach us to be as tractable and submissive 0 us u o are careful to judge rightly for our selves in such matters wherein God has not appointed any to judge for us The insinuations of those who have only U5393939F3d 3 emwe OV 91 Understandings being one of the principai causes of our disobedience to Lawful Aut 0f Y Because sooner or later we shall be convinced of the dishonour and damage 0i being any ones Property and thence grow suspicious of and uneasy at the just Commands Oi those who have a right to prescribe in some cases I What is it that chains us down to the siaVEFY 07 3 the 339 Y C 3t m3 0 the Age eto aEJet of our time the expense of our Fortunes half 989 l0 the d PF8FlQ 0 VBVY i because we must do as others do and are afraid oi singularity Framed by two assertions of singularity the central paragraph of this passage rules out any multipiicity of authorities that would complicate th unitary re l gan ship between subjection and the rational subject He to whomt e woman CATHERINE GALLAGHER PAGE 37 not listen is precisely he who commands on the basis of his difference from her especially his sexual difference for the lawfui governor will appeal to their like ness their shared reason instead of rnereiy demanding a slavish obedience premised on the woman39s status as his property This reference to property identi fies the potential usurper as the woman s husband or father whose tyranny might disaffect her from reiigious and civil authorities That is a usurper over the empire of the self is not only someone who has no Eegai authority a false prophet or demagogue but also a legally constituted governor a husband or father who commands excessively and justifies himself on the demoralizing grounds of sex ual difference Since the absolute is lodged in the seif in one s own reason the authority that does not refer itself back to that reason is not authority at all but is rather interference with authority Thus the womarrs fear of standing out of being exceptional in her singularity her desire to lose herseif in the grey sameness of custom actually spawns invldious differences the differences of sexual hierarchy and heterodox belief in the above passage which is taken from The Christian Religion Professed as well asin her Reflections upon Marriage we can thus see a gendered version of a characteristic absolutist impulse to obliterate intermediate ievels of social power between the individual subject and the monarch in the latter work Asteii does not argue against the power of husbands instead she insists that to marry is to elect a monarch for lifequot This contention then forms the basis of her warning against doing such a foolish thing The only man fit to marry would be one whose will were subordinate to the dictates of reason since reason is one consistent substance subordination to such a man would only be like subordination to God39s appointed regent self subordination And thus she returns us to the logic of identity wherein nothing interferes between the self and the absolute The logic of identity was all the more powerful for Astell during the reign of Queen Anne for in herthe monarch and the rational female found a single image The terms in which Astell describes the queen stress her singularity in her reli gious and political pamphlets she argues against the Catholics that the queen whom she saw as the restorer of the Stuart dynasty is no feudatory prince owing allegiance to any other earthly power against the Dissenters and parliamentar ians she argues that the queen39s sovereignty does not originate in the people Catholics and Dissenters are alike mistaken she claims in thinking that the queens power should be mediated through the pope or the Parliament The queen39s power is singular because conferred directly by God Moreover it is the queens duty to remove impediments between her subjects and God by sup pressing dissent and discouraging heterogeneity of opinion Predictably it is to this figure of singuiarity and sameness that Astell constantly addresses her pleas for female improvement As a High Church Tory ali of her hopes she claims must be founded on this solitary regent But may we not hope from the magni cence of a truly Glorious Prince that she will not do less for Her own Sex than she has already done for the other but that the next year of Her Majesties Annals will bear date from her Maternal and Royal Care of the most helpless and most neglected part of Her Subjects If she over loollts us we have no turther prospect for PAGE 38 GENDERS where ever other People may carry their views we of the Church of England have no hope 39 beyond our Present Sovereign Beyond our Present Sovereignquot was precisely where Margaret Cavendish had thought she lived indeed as we39ve seen a curious identificationthroughdiffer enoe with the absent monarch the exiled Charles ll ruled Cavendish s absolutist rhetoric Astell39s absolutism was just as powerfully and problematically inspired by Anne For although Anne could figure the sovereignty of woman and monarch simultaneously she could also manifest the practical impossibility of such sover eignty The poignancy of the above quotation derives from the fact that it was writ ten after Astell had become aware that Anne would not found a seminary for ladies mainly because her powerful ministers forbade it on the grounds that it would seem popish indeed the context of the above quotation is a bitter com plaint against those ministers who are afraid of dispeopling the World and driving Folks into Monasteries p 141 The queen because she is not in reality truly singular and sovereign but is rather controlled by male ministers is actually un able to establish the institution that would protect and nurture the singularity of her female subjects A shadowy counterimage of Anne thus haunts these quotations signifying the bondage of women to an irrational hierarchy based on sexual differ ence as a woman even the queen defers to the opinions of men rather than the dictates of reason Nevertheless the foundation of Astel39s unitary logic would crumble if she ceased to define herself as the everloyal subject of the a1lpowerfu female sovereign ironically Anne39s entire reign was a symptom of the weakness not the strength of dynastic ruie Strict Stuart succession would have brought the Old Pretender to the throne At the end of Anne s rule the Tory party suffered enormous set backs and the kind of feminism Mary Astell had represented also declined Nevertheless the modes of female subjectivity that absolutist thought first en abled have endured and adapted themselves to the most disparate political systems English feminism whichhas generally preferred to see its origins in vari ous antiauthoritarian movements remains indebted to the absolutist imagination For in its historical context that imagination paradoxically supplied the terms of ernancipatedquot subjectivity NOTES 1 Hilda L Smith Reason39s Disciples SeventeenthCexntury English Feminists Urbana 1982 pp 3 1 Joan K Kinnaird Mary Asteil and the Conservative Contribution to English Feminismquot Journal of British Studies 19 no 1 Fall 1979 53 For accounts of individual Tory feminists see First Feminists British Women Writers 1581799 ed and with an introduction by Moira Ferguson Bloornlngton In diana University Press and Old Westbury the Feminist Press 1985 2 Gordon 1 Schoohet Patriarchallsrn ln Polltlcal Thought The Authorltarlan Family and Political Speculation and Attitudes Especially in Seventeenth Century England New York 1975 chaps 739 and 8 Schochet asserts that quotFilrner s books became the backbone of Tory ideologyquot p 120 See also Smith Reasons Dlsclples pp 57 202 3 Among those who question Hlmers centrality to Tory thought are James Daly in Sir Robert Filmer CATHERINE GALLAGHER PAGE 39 and English Political Thought T oronto 1979 pp 15963 and J G A Pocock in Virtue Commerce and History Essays on Political Thought and History Chiefly in the Eighteenth Century Carnbridge 1985 pp 95 22223 39 39 4 Smith Reasons Disciples chap 1 quot 5 Geoffrey Holmes and W A Speck The Divided Society Party Conlllctin England 16941716 Lon don 1967 pp 8287 Fiuth Perry The Celebrated Mary Astell Chicago 1gs5 p 133 6 Kinnaird for example uses protofeminisrnquot to avoid implying that these women held 3 39 of be efs corresponding to those of modem feminists 7 Biographical material on Margaret Cavendish comes from her own autobiographical writings pub lished with her Life of the First Duke of Newcastle 8 other Writings London 1916 and from Douglas Grant 545793793 1779 First A Blbglapliy 01 Margaret Cavendish Duchess of Newcastle 39l6231573 London 1957 39 8 See for example Smith Reasons Disciples pp 7595 9 Preface to the Readerquot The Worlds Ollo London 1655 np 10 life of the Duke pp 1011 11 Worldb Ollo p 46 12 quotTo All Noble and Worthy Ladiesquot The Description ofa New World Called the Blazing World Lon don 1668 np 13 Sociable Letters London 1664 p 27 4 Ufa of the Duke p 165 15 bid p 16 16 Blazing World pp 9697 1 Sociable Letters pp 5759 18 ibid p 62 J9 Reproduced in Grant Margaret the First opposite p 166 20 Soc able Letters d 21 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz quotThe Monadologyquot sec 67 in Gottfried Wllllarn Leibniz Philosophical Papers and Letters trans ed and with an introduction by Leroy E Loemker 2nd ed Dordrecht Holland 1959 p sso 22 Henry Horowitz quotThe Structure of Parliamentary Politicsquot in Britain after the Glorious RevorU39on 16891714 ed Geoffrey Holmes pp 96114 23 Perry Celebrated p 7 Kinnaird Mary Astellquot pp 5658 24 A Serious Proposal to the Ladies for the Advancement of their True and Greatest lnterest by a LOVE of he 399 UOlidonl 1595 1 4 All further quotations are from this edition and page numbers are given in the text of the essay 25 Smith Reasons Disciples pp 6466 Kinnaird quotMary Astellquot pp 6062 26 Moderation Truly Stated or a Review of a Late Pamphlet Entr39tul39d Moderation a Venue London 1704 p 2 39 27 lbid p16 26 Reflections upon Marriage London 1706 p83 29 The Christian Religion as Profess39d by a Daughter of the Church of England London 1705 p 353 39 30 The Christian Religion pp 3537 31 An impartial Encrulry into the Causes or Rebellion and Civil War in this Kingdom in an Examination of Dr Kennel t s Sermon Jan 31 1704 and Vindication of the Royal Martyr London 1704 passim 32 The Christian Religion pp 14243 39 Tmmlzztim by H A Hargmaves Introduction by Nina Rattncr Gelbart r Preface l rn in somewhat the same situation in which Cicero found himself when he undertook to put philosophical matters into his own tongue which until then had only been treated in Greek39 He in forms us that some said his labors Wouldbe ruitless because those Who loved Philosophy having already taken the trouble to seek it out in Greek books Wouldn t bother to look for it in Latin books that Wererft original While those who had no taste for Philosophy would relish it neither in Latin nor in Greek To this he replied that the very opposite would happen that those who Weren t philosophers would be drawn to it by the ease of reading Latin books and that those Who Were already philosophers through the insuuction of Greek books would be eager to see how these things had been handled in Latin s e c Cicero was right to speak in this Way His superb genius and the great reputation he had quotalready acquired guaranteed the success of this new sort of Work which he gave to the public But though my enterprise is nearly the same as his I have far less reason for con dence I ve tried to treat Philosophy in a very unphilosophical manner I ve l attempted to bring it to the point Wl1CI6 ifs neither too dry for men and Women of the World nor too playful for scholars If I am told like Cicero that such a Work is t neither for scholars Who can learn nothing from it nor for men and Women of the World Who will have 3 4 CONVERSATIONS ON THE PLURAIiI39I39Y OF WORLDS no desire to learn anything from it Pd be far from answering as he did It may well be that in seeking a middle ground Where Philosophy suits everybody I ve found one suitable for nobody the happy medium is hard to sustain and I don t think I could bring myself to take the same pains a second time If it turns out that this book is read I warn those who have some knowledge of Physicsl that I don t pretend at all to instruct them but only to divert them by presenting to them in a little more agreeable and engaging manner that which they already know solidly I inform those to whom these matters are new that I believe I can instruct and divert them all at the same time The first group will thwart my inten tion if they seek pro t here and the second if they seek only pleasure I do not delude myselP when I say that I ve chosen from all of Philosophy the subject most apt to pique curiosity It seems to me that nothing could be of greater interest to us than to know how this world we inhabit is made if there are other worlds which are similar to it and like it are inhabited too but after all let those who wish trouble themselves about all that I m certain no one would trouble himself just to please me by reading my book Those who have thoughts to waste can waste them on such things not everyone can afford such unpro t able expense I ve placed a woman in these Conversations who is being insnucted one who has never heard a syllable about such things I thought this ction would serve to make the work more enticing and to encourage women through the example of a woman who having nothing of an extraordinary character without ever exceeding the limitations of a per son who has no knowledge of science never fails to understand what s said to her and arranges in her mind without confusion vortices and worlds Why would any woman accept inferiority to this imaginary Marquise who only conceives of those things of which she can t help but conceive To be honest this Marquise applies herselfa bit but what does ap plying oneself mean in this context It s not necessary to penetrate by means of concentrated thought something either obscure in itself or obscurely explained it s merely required that one read and at the same time form a clear idea of what one is reading I only ask of the ladies for this whole system of Philosophy the same amount of concentration that must be given to T743 Primes qf Cleve5 in order to follow the plot PREFACE 5 closely and understand all its beau tY 1138 true that the ideas ofthi b are less fanullar to most womcn than those S 00k f Tia P they re no more obscure one cannot read tlciem I Oft tl1gI1yfEfeb58 lfcittllt very most without grasping them very accurately ce at e Since I had no intention of crea 39 ting a mak beli 39 39 any foundation Pve employed veri able phsiCa1ec2tean Inthout were neces B f HY 33 Sgary ut ortunately it happens that on this subject the ideas lovemaking For myself even though I had more need than he of di BK 35iVC devices I have nevertheless d 111 39 permitted them through the natural 39e1lcom ofI1ov1ahlra1nti I ve only placed them where I thought readers would be ha n an PW Most of them are at the beginning of thew b PPY to q them not yet have becomeaccustomed to the idea eguie thfqrnai id Wlll taketh I 0313131I1YI ve Indide t nIh 1Jal I Itself 0rat least fromclose to it hi a C P anydmlg 3b011t Inhabitants of worlds aSf9puld be to ally fantastic pee tried to say everything one might thi Y think a outthern and even thein1agin ngs fve added to s have some foundation in reality The true and th fab here but th al 39 C e are mixed fy b ey are 39 ways easy to distinguish I make no attempt to jus Worlio aniclaiirriisapreciselcitii 13 thefsmgle most i P ant Point of the Y eone orwhichl The public will apprise me of what I really belieicrzmlofilties 1 0n It onl 39 39 i co 1 yhremains in this preface for me to speak to one group of P P C W 0 Wlll perhaps be the most di cult to 39 havcnnt given them Very good ar Cuts but th Siisfyu 1101 that I m 3n 89111 ra e th y Wish refuse any good arguments These are the Iscrlilfiutllrlatiirs 151 if wowillthinkthereisdangerinres quot 39 PC pectto religion in lacin inh b ants elsewh th P g 3 1395 are an on Earth I 39 5P Ct even the most excessive sen 6 CONVERSATIONS ON THE PLURALIIZY OF WORLDS I sibilities people have on the matter of religion and 1 would have respected religion itself to the point of Wishing not to o end itin a public Work even if it were contrary to my own opinion But what may be surprising to you is that religion simply has nothing toido with this system in which I ll an in nity of Worlds with inhabitants Ifs only necessary to sort out a little error of the imagination When I say to you that the Moon is inhabited you picture to yourself men made like us and then if you re a bit of a theologian you re instantly full of qualms The descendants of Adam have not spread to the Moon not sent colonies there Therefore the men in the Moon arenot sons of Adam We it would be embarrassing to Theology if there were men anywhere not descended from him 163 not necessary to say any more about it all imaginable di culties boil down to that and the terms that must be employed in any longer explication are too serious and dig ni ed to be placed in a book as unserious as this Perhaps I could re spond soundly enough if I undertook it butcertainly I have no need to respond It rests entirely upon the men on the Moon but it s you who are putting those men on the Moon I put no men there at all I put inhabitants there who are not like men in any way What are they then I ve never seen them It s not because I ve seen them that I talk of them and don t think that s a loophole through which I can elude your objection simply saying that there are no men on the Moon You ll see it s impossible that any could be there according to my idea of the in nite diversity that Nature has placed in her Works This idea governs the whole book and cannot be contested by any philosopher Therefore I believe that I ll only hear people object who talk quotof these Conversations Without having read them But is this any reason for me to be reassured No on the contrary it s a very legitimate reason for fearing that the objectionwill be raised in many places To Monsieur L 1 at to tie Y9 an of a n H M passe my time in the country at the home of the will b agquise of G X Ia 2 D0 Y011 realize that this exact account 5 k d 39 C a oo an What IS Worse a book of Philosophy You an XPect1ng parties gambling or hunting and on will h Wo dsvs V0 Cquotquot33 it has been a question iof aim 1 i thinave Planets s 110 things Happily you are a philosopher and you will not tcfliit as much as th 3 3 drawn Mad C1 InaihifhaP1 0u even be pleased that I have hav o mm C l1l 30Ph1Ca1 fold We could not e made a more considerable acquisition for I reckon beau d youth are always things 0 8753quot Value DUDE You believe th 1 Via dom wished c I 39 a 1539 make her conversation equally agre1q 1S II1dCCdat VV2IdOI11 could 39 39 re You at the World would run after her Don t 39 CXPCCE however to hear marvels when 1 recount to you the conversations that I ve had With the lady it Would I hold her a scholar because of the extreme ease with hi i hO1I11 1Y Part W C s e could become 0 W11 39 h nothing ny PEPE 1 aa k1J1ghTo have PO1 Cd over books That s one at all their JIVCS to Whom I would 7 3 CONVERSATIONS ON THE PLURALITY or WORLDS p 1 re ise if 1 dated ghlpl nar1r11c c13fcs1lthJpl1aIF1 pln1 e0rets1t aj3Vt1huCbCI1 339 m debt I know WC 3 quot5 p V veiisations 1 had with the Marquise 1 Ought 20 dcs 391bC 1 r i1 chateau where she had gone to spend thf a11t 1mn Peggue 0316 on that l39 I chateau in far less aPP 39 P ate Clrcumsta ccsa 11311 f 311 sh had no It s enough for you to know that when I arrive Ctaphuil emarkablc company and that I was pleased to nd her alone No g r all i I d durin the first two days they were spent exha1JSt111g HY happegc Parisg but then came these conversations about which I Wish news Om 39 39 fact we to inform you P11 divide them for you 13 Cvenmgsa because 1 had these conversations only at night The F 2391st Evening J quotE39eF ne evening after supper We went to walk in the garden There was a delicious breeze which made up for the extremely hot 51357 we had had to beat The Moon had risen about an hour before and shining through the trees it made a pleasant mixture of bright white against the greenery that appeared black There was no cloud to hide even the smallest star they were all pure and shining gold and stood out clearly against their blue background The spectacle set me to musing and I might have gone on like that for some time if it had not been for the Marquise but in the company of such a lovely woman I could hardly give myself up to the Moon and stars Don t you nd I asked her that the day is less beauti al than a beau il night 39 Yes she answered days beauty is blond and dazzling but the night s beauty is brunette which is more moving You re very generous I replied to defer to the brunettes when you re notone yourself but it s certainly true that the day is the most beautiful thing in nature and that the most beauijful things in the imagination the heroines of Romances are nearly always blonds too Beauty is nothing said she if it doesrft move us Admit it no day has ever thrown you into such a sweet reverie as the one you were about to fall into just now at the sight of this beauu39 1l evening No doubt I answered Nevertheless a blond such as you would 9 u I 10 convsasitnoivs oixi Tits PLURALITY or WORLDS h 39 th make me dream more sweetly than the most beautiful dark mg C 111 393 worl 39 39 an 39 3 d uni Even if that were true she laughed I shouldn t be satis e ess th d which is the counterpart of blondshad the same effect Why d C ayi pose lovers who are the best judges of what stirs our emo 0 you sup 3 tions address all their songsnand poeptis todthe nightiiieir thanks 3 It s the night of course I said that CSCFZCS d Wh is The night hears all their complaints as She P116 39 Y 9 39 th da in 113 sh don tt11it1a1 CCcf E 13 1ocsii t inspire sadness and passion pparen 3 V th like the night when everything seems to be at rest We imagine at rythn ft tax the stars IDOVC H101 393 qmcdy than the 13IfnlCtlfelY on Eh liean1 Sour light we can x our eyes more co 0 39 1 3 th only ones abroad to dream es1 es 111 337 t f and blue sky but the night are use 311 6 P s i 333 thousand di erent random designs sU139139mg 35 mm P 39 fused thoughts in us Q r 3 alm Tve always felt that she said I tlhove Elle Stars and I m Ost angry with the Sun for overpowel g 7 39 all th I can never forgive it I Cried f01 mskmg Hie lose Sight of 036 worlds Ids h k d taming to me c 3 S C 35 C I Vhat 1nii11maiia1vci You ve set me onto IIIY Weakness and XCUS 9 39 39 39 f me3 my 1Inag1I13E10I1 is getting the best 0 x What is this weakness she asked not to be detetd ti n that I m ashamed to admit it I Sad but I has 3 P6 3 11 0 every Star could well be a world I wouldrft swear that 1683116 blit I think so because it Plsssss me U0 think 30 The idea Sucks In my mm in a most delightful vV3Y AS 1 s35 it this Pleasure 15 an integral Part 0 truth itse 39 a th Well said the Marquise if your deals so Plcflsmgv Sh3IC E W1 me I ll believe that the stars are anything you say if I enioy it Ah Madame I answered this isnjt enloyment Such as Youjd nd in a Moliere comedy it s enjoyment that involves our reasoning pow ers It only delights the mind 3 H What she cried Do you think I in ir1caPabl Of cnloymg mtc cc I i 3939c p g quot39 39 h h THE FIRST EVENING I1 tual pleasures I ll show you otherwise right now Tell me about your stars No I answered It will never be said of me that in an arbor at teno clock in the evening I talked of philosophy to the most beautiful woman I know Look elsewhere for the philosophers Although I excused myself in this manner several times I had to give 39 in but at least for the preservation of my honor I made her promise to keep it a secret Then when I nally had no excuses left and decided to speak I didn t know where to begin To someone like the Marquise who lltnew39nothing of Natural Philosophy I would have to go a long way to prove that the Earth might be a planet the other planets Earths and all the stars solar SyStCII1S1 I told her several times that it would be better to talk about tri es as all reasonable people would in our place Finally however to give her a general idea of philosophy here is the proposal into which I threw myself i All philosophy I told her is based on two L only curiosity and poor eyesight if you had better eyesight you could see perfectly well whether or not these stars are solar systems and if you were less curious you wouldn t care about knowing which amounts to the same thing The nouble is we want to know more than we can see itlwe could really see things as they are we would really know some thing but we see things other than as they are So true philosophers spend a lifetime not believing what they do see and theorizing on what they don t see and it s not to my way of thinking a very enviable situ anon On this subject I have always thought that nature is very much like an opera house From where you are at the opera you don t see the stages exactly as they are they re arranged to give the most pleasing e quotect om a distance and the wheels and counterweights that make everything move are hidden out of sight You don t worry either about how they work Only some engineer in the pit perhaps may be struck by some extraordinary effect and be determinedto gure out for himself how it was done That engineer is like the philosophers But what makes it harder for the philosophers is that in the machinery that Natiire shows us the wires are better hidden so well in fact that they ve been guessing for a longtime at what causes the movements of the universe Imagine all the Sages at an opera the Pythagorases Platos Aris 12 CONVERSATIONS ON THE PLURALITY or WORLDS totles and all those whose names nowadays are dinned 1130 Eu 139cs S11PPOse that th Y Watch d Phaeton h ed by the Wm U Y couldn t discover the wires and didfft k low how the backstage area was ed One of them would say Phaeton has a certain hidden prop t1 tlmalzes him lighter Another Pha6t0I1 is C0mP 3ed of attain e a 3 39 numbers that make him rise Another Phaeton a peculiar don to the top of the theater and he 1s uneasy if he s n1tduPth Still another Phaeton wasrft made 017 Ymg but he Wod thra CI Y gt a man we went m p4 Pm e hundred we We he I 1 s 2 reputation of the whole of Antiquity 111 Yauld Phaeton rises other modems would Coins along and they W0 tsfizavier than he is because hens Pulled by Wires and bccallse iihwtelgblod will move if it s dC3CCnd59 Nowadays We no longci behave f Elna ulled b wires we not a caed by ancitheli body and In some as 11 ii has39aPIi11g br 3 C1011 b licvc that 1t W111 S6 or fan exclsf dlv im 1 sees the back counterweight Whoever sees nature 38 111 Y 15 5 P Y r th quot 39 ical 39 3 cc 7 h d f ccso Incchalncala Lrcpheda that I f ar WC ll SOOI1 gf0W 35 3II1C 9 39t The want the world to be merely 09 313 Scalcv What 3 Watch is 1 Yau Cale so that everything gags by regular movements based SII1 S 3 I dii ihe organization of its P3173 Admit it Didnat You have 3 mom gran 3 th diose concept of the universe and didn t you give it more respect 11 it deserved Most men esteem it less since they ve come toccknowtget I an a We 1 hold It In muCh higher regard p ii llsilwairitdj is nth whole know ifs like a watch ifs superbhthata V 39hjgS order of nature is based upon suc simp C 33 b I dorft know who has given you such healthy 1dlt3S j Said Lu Fm sure few people have them besides you Most cherlilrl 3 f31CbIC dmir ture of mystery WmPPcdm Obswngn Thatl1Onll397 ate thee bae 39 to under as mm em and we 3 an stand her they lose all respect for her But Madame contlml 3 are so much more disposed to hear what I want to so that I need only dr back the curtain and show you the world 39 gig the Earth where we are what we see at the greatest distance T0111 3 5 I f d hk is the blue heaven that great vault where the stars are 3533116 3 THE FIRST EVENING 13 nailheads We call them xed because they seem to move only with their heavenly sphere which carries them with it from the east to the west Between the Earth and this last vault of the heavens are sus pended at differing heights the Sun Moon and the ve other astral bodies which are called the planets Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter and Saturn These planets not being attached to the same sphere and hav ing unequal movements assume diverse positions and relationships among themselves whereas the xed stars are always in the same re lationship to one another The Chariots that you see for example which is formed of the seven stars has always been made as it is now and it will be that way for a long time But the Moon is some times close to the Sun and sometimes far away and it s the same with the other planets That s the way things appeared to those Chaldean Shepherds long ago whose great leisure produced the rst observations that were the foundation of astronomy for astronomy was bom in Chaldea just as geometry was born in Egypt where the ooding of the Nile which obliterated the boundaries of all the elds was the reason that everyone wished to invent exact measures in order to distinguish A his eld from that of his neighbor As astronomy is the daughter of idleness geometry is the daughter ofpropertyf and if it were a question of poetry we would likely nd that she is the daughter of love Pm very happy said the Marquise to have learned the genealogy of the sciences and I can see that I must stick to astronomy From what you ve told me geometry demands a soul more mercenary than mine and poetry demands one much more tender but I have all the leisure that astronomy can demand Happily too we re in the country and here we lead a fairly pastoral life quite conducive to astronomy Don t deceive yourself Marquise I replied it s not a true pastoral life merely because one talks of the planets and the xed stars Think how the people in Arman pass their time 5 Oh she responded that sort of shepherd s life is too dangerous I prefer those Chaldeans you were telling me about Please go back to the Chaldeans When someone had recognized this pattern of the heavens what next 39 It was a question I answered of guring out how all the parts of the universe were arranged which is what the learned call making a system But before I explain that rst system you must note if you please that we are all naturally like a certain Athenian madman you ve 14 CONVERSATIONS ON THE 1gtLUaAiriY or WORLDS heard o who deluded himself thatall the ships entering the harbor at Piraeus belonged to him Our folly is to believe that all of nature with out exception is destined for our use and when one inquires of the philosophers what is the use of the prodigious number of xed stars when a fraction would accomplish the same thing they answer coldly that they serve to please our sight On this 39 principle one could easily imagine rst of all that the Earth had to be resting at the center of the universe while all the heavenly bodies which were made for her took the trouble to turn around her and light her Then above the Earth was placed the Moon over the Moon Mercury then Venus the Sun Mars Iupiter Saturn Over all these was the heavenly sphere of xed stars The Earth was placed exactly in the middle of these circles which the planets described and these circles were greater the farther they were from the Earth consequently the farthest planets took more time to make their round which actually is Hue But I don t know interrupted the Marquise why you doift ap prove of this order in the universe it seems clear and intelligible enough to me and I must say it satis es me Tm proud I replied that I so softened this system for you If I gave it to you as it was conceived by Ptolemy its author or by those who have labored after him it would throw you into a horrible ight Since the motions of the planets are not so regular sometimes going faster sometimes slower sometimes in one direcnon sometimes another and being often farther om the Earth often closer the An cients imagined I don t know how many circles di ierently interlaced with one another by which they reconciled all these bizarre observa tions The confusion of all these circles was so great that in a time when no one knew better a certain King of Aragonf a great matliemancian but apparently not overly devout said that if God had called him to His council when He made the world he could have given Him good advice The thought is too libertine but it s amusing to think that the system itself provoked his sin because it was too complicated The good advice that the King was led to give no doubt concerned the suppres sion of all those circles which confused the celestial movements Ap parently it also concerned the suppression of two or three super uous spheres that had been placed beyond that of the xed stars To explain one kind of movement among the celestialbodies these philosophers fashioned beyond the last sphere which we see a sphere of crystal which THE FIRST EVENING 15 imparted motion to the lesser spheres Had they news of another mo gt prion There was immediately another crystal sphere After all these spheres of crystal cost them nothing mw And yvhy make the spheres only of crystal asked the Marquise couldn t some other material have been as good aS1V3ilt13 Ithansmered it was necessary that the light pass through them to e h f at d tidfpheres be SOl1d It was absolutely necessary for A1is he hada at solidity was an aspect of their nobility and since Comets ifal It PC0P139E00k care not even to want to doubt it But then were seen W ch being higher than previously believed shat tef d 311 the Crystal spheres and broke up the whole universe and it t was 113565531 130 1 5011 3960 making the spheres of a39 uid material Finally it was b iY0nd d011bt through the observations of the last centuries that Venus and39Mercury turn about the Sun not around the Earth and the old system is absolutely untenable by now Pm now going to Pro pose a different one to you which satis es all and which will put the King of Aragon out of the running for giving advice for it39s one of a Chaifnng 11mPicitya Whidl 310116 Would make it preferable is a liI i1 100ff1a1Sl c2uiI1 tlllf Marquise interrupted that your philosophy least 011 W 31 those who offer to do these things at the ccisxpenss triumph over the others th 13 tm I Ph da and 158 Only by that means that one can catch e p an on which Nature has made her works She s extraordinaril ngal AI1YthiI1g that she can do in a way which will cost a little leg even the least bit less be sure she ll only do it that way This iigali 3 rm 1 39 39 Y neye e ess is quite in accord an astonishing magm eencc which shiiiesin all she does The magni cence is in the designand the fru gality in the execution There s nothing better than a great des39 which is ex cuted at EH13 CXPe115C WC mortals are often prone to cign d 3 r verse 1 2 p pF m News resign and with ten tim cm t er Wlth 3 htde deslgna which Sh Cxecutes TH b h 33 111lt1C SS 1ry expense That s ridiculous of closel ciniliiiitiiic lflaiiuialdf tiilliit the System you are going t0 tell me ination iizvhich will th ii or 8 good management Wm aid my imag me 3 t en ave less trouble understanding what you tell eel r iic ef many hindrances I repued arm C Pemiculss Who lays violent hands on the different cir k CO RSATIONS 0N THE PLURALITY OF WORLDS 16 N VB d b Antiquity He destroys cles and solcSP391kf3Sre s1 VVht1hC1rVi1r s iclzsglg izecii by a noble astronomical th 393 an I C 0 i th ter of the arth and sends her far from c cen ll he P1 1Ck5 P the E d I 5 the Sun in the center to univers a Where She was Placed an Pu 1 er turn around whom the honor rightgr beloglilges Ci39IT1SPt1h3tc51eIS1 32 51f they ght us iiie Eartho2inlltisnli70lfianIe1s we meet them in their paths Everything 1 s more 39 39 hmcm 39 the Earth and 35 Pums turns around the Sun now l chldmg ch he charges her as mu as for the long rest she was g1ven COPCIIIICUS 1 ts and d attributed to the J an C311 Wlth the Same movemcilts She ha 1 3931 Hain which used heavens At last the only th111gt1lpS Etrisd1ceiSes11e Moon that ms to accompany and surrou aIOultyI1rd39iCrrltil1i1ent said the Marquise You were carried away P C al 3 t d 1 that enthusiasm and XP1a1nltc1d Zxtilgifizg Center of the uni don t think I un erstoo verse what conlaes 8 around the Sm so that the Sun is at MCfC J139Ya 3 39 39 39 V us which turns around the 3 3 33 Way d th Sun 1 cle aroun 6 higher than lIercuryFan1 Ve1 1Smlsitr arait gjmm follow in the than tho Planets H1 Y 3 3 d on can see that Sa lm order in which I ve named them for YOU an Yd takes more time than makes the largest circle of all around the Sim z any other planet to make each complete film cvfouwe forgotten 13911 llcillt o1fa1idI T ai1nd the Earth and T11 nd h r again 5 39 C If she 31rh makes around the Sun never leaves her 111 the C1I ClC the E 3 Earth 3 he won t leave the moves around the Sun 11 only because s f with Us I UI1dCITSt3Eda She Said and I lodic mIk m q German when an the other Planets abandon or p tell that in all his actions could he d make pi ofe I161quot C00 hc had it n for E 3 cc th i Of IIICI13 He did We I answered to luv Plc ediii die 1Ic1 J17aCrIi 3a and Pm W110 had givcndlcmselves bc glfiaifci tiie crowd of Planets pleased to see Eartl P11Shed age ed that the vanity of men extends all cigurcly YOuailt13i1VlcoSYou th1I39 lk Y011 ve humbled I116 bl te mg e way to THE FIRST EVENING 17 me the Earth moves around less sel esteem Good Lord no Madame I said I know full well that people are less jealous of their place in the universe than in a drawingroom and the ranking of two planets will never be as important as that of two ambassadors However the same desire which makes a courtier want to have the most honorable place in a ceremony makes a philosopher wan to place himself in the center of a world system if he can He s sure that everything was made for him and unconsciously accepts that principle which atters him and his hmrt will bend a matter of pure speculation to self interest Honestly said the Marquise this is a calumny yotfve invented against mankind We should never have accepted Copernicus s system then because it s so humiliating 39 i Well I answered Copemicus himself strongly doubted the suc cess of his opinion Fora long time he didtft want to publish it Finally he resolved to do it at the urging of very reputable people but on the same day that the rst proof of his book was brought to him do you know what he did He quotdied He didn t want to rebut all the contradic tions he foresaw and he skillfully withdrew from the affair Listen said the Marquise we must do justice to everyone It s certainly di cult to imagine that we turn when we never change our position and we always nd ourselves in the morning where we lay down at night I can see I think by your attitude you re going to tell me that since the whole Earth moves Certainly I interrupted It s the same thing as if you went to sleep in a boat which was going down a river you d nd yourself on waking the Sun I swearto you I don t have any I inthe same place and in the same relationship to every part of the boat I Yes replied the Marquise but with this di erence I d nd the river bank changed upon waking and this would make me see clearly that my boat had changed position But ifs not the same with the a Earth forthere I nd all things as I had left them Not so Madame I replied not so The shore is also changed You know that beyond the circles of the planets are the xed stars there is our river bank I am on the Earth and the Earth describes a great circle around the Sun I look to the center of the circle and there I see the Sun If it didn t blind me to the stars when I looked on a line di rectly beyondthe Sun I would necessarily see it correspond to other 13 CONVERSATIO1 lS ON THE PLURALITY OF WORLDS I 39 ded to during I 11 at m t the stars it correspon 3 C 33 ding to the same Position on her Circle Pd always Sitiilelfaliin Eri n I must see the xed stars but as soon as thC SY C g P 13 39 st other stars There IS the shore whlch Changes every Y Sufi agtali Earth makes her circle in one W313 I 536 ths 8 successively an as 39 f x d t This circle in thc Course of that year against 21 liltdolc C1r tCde1iiake cans c1tline on the is called the Zodiac Would Y011 3 me sand C A t would N033 Shc answered 391 Call do 39cV1itkI1OciI11 Vnat1ii0 0lel Have I give my garden 1 SChO1adY an Whl hi wrecked and cast on an un not heard of 3 Phllosopher who was 3 Ethematical gures drawn on known island Who on Seeing Cemmd mhim Courage rr1Y comP39k1ions the beach Cried tO those who fo ovlie rints of meri You know full the isle is inhabited here are ripe ootpto make Such gl es here nor well that it wouldnt be Pro or me h 3 7 hmfrtiffliiciiaiiic has 1 answer ds none but ht f i 3 39 1 our initi of lovers were seen here Which 15 10 iguuarSI11iPErsagt Carved on the bark of ies by the an 3 glhe re lied and lefs talk Forget about worshipers I Pray You gilt iiilagille that it makes of the Sun I understand very well hOW We P I takes a whole Year that circle which we ourselves make but this imp h ds how doe ea e and the one which the Sun makes evefY 51337 CV our it do that C us th Omd has two motions It goes toward the t9 ge the the same time turns 3 gm number of mcsthlpcbn Itself S0 m the d th on 6 0110111 COIDC Parts C lI11 trthgdetd1 il10st2iii1 e1 huitig gtsiethe time that it advances on t0P 639 i 39 cums 39 itselfeach the circle it describes 1I1 one year aroudJIth 0i11i1ctCh PartOI1f the Earth twen fYfour houCJ1s so thti11 1ZVWhII11tg7ver We mm toward the Placcwhcrc loses the Sun an recover a awa y it seems to the Sun is it seems to rise when we begin to move fit any arnuges me she replied that the Earth is taking every IC 3 And 11 the Moon thing upon itself while the Sun does nothing w en S t THE FIRST EVENING 19 and the other planets and the xed stars appear to turn over our heads in twentyfour hours is this also imagined Pure imagination I answered Which comes om the same cause Simply that the planets make their circles around the Sun in those un equal times corresponding to their unequal distances and the one which we see today corresponding to a certain point of the Zodiac or the sphere of xed stars we see tomorrow corresponding to a different point partly because it has progressed on its circle and partly because we ve advanced on ours We move and so do the other planets this places us at different viewpoints from them and makes it appear to us that there are irregularities in their courses of which I need not speak It s enough for you to know that what looks irregular among the plan ets comes only from the diverse means by which our movements make us encounter one another and that basically they re all quite regular I consent that they shall be so said the Marquise but I really wish that their regularity demanded less of the Earth it s not good manage ment and for so heavy and solid a mass as it has a lot of agility is required But I asked her would you rather that the Sun and all the other stars which are such huge bodies made an immense turn of an in nite number of leaguesaround the Earth every day in twentyfour hours Because they would have to if the Earth doesrft turn on itself in twenty four hours 3 Oh she replied the Sun and the stars are Z re movement costs them nothing but the Earth scarcely seems portable I And would you believe said I if you hadn t any experience that a great ship loaded with a hundred and fteen mounted cannon and three thousand men plus a very large number of supplies was a very portable thing Yet it takes only a little puff of wind to make it travel on the water because water is liquid yielding easily and oifering little resistance to the movement of the ship And so the Earth as massive as it is is easily carried in the celestial matter which is a thousand times more uid than water and which lls all this great space where the planets swim And where could the Earth be moored to resist the move ment of this celestial matter and not be carried away Ifs as if a little ball of wood were able to resist the current of a river But she asked again how does the Earth with all its weight sup 20 it oonvsksairons ON THE PLURALITY or WORLDS port itself on your celestial matter which must bevery light s1I1CC 153 so uid i 39 Itdoesn t follow I answered that what is uid is necessarily light What have you to say about our great ship which with all its weight is still much lighter than water since it oats on it 3 AS long as you have your great ship she said as if in anger lt51 dont want to say anything more to you But can you reassure me that here s nothing to fear on a spinning top such as you make the Earth Oh well I told her let s have the Earth supported by four elephants as the Indians do So here s another system she cried At least I like those people for having seen to their own security by making g00d f01111dat10 S 11139 stead of which we Copernicans are so imprudent as to want to swim o haphazardly in this celestial matter T11 wager that If 1116 Indians thought the Earth were V the least danger of moving they d double their elephants 39 That s very good said I laughing at her thought CD011 SP3 the elephants when it s a question of sleeping securely Ifyou need some tonight we ll add as many as you please to our system then we ll takf them away little by little as your con dence grows 39 Seriously she answered I don t think they ll be necessary 39011 1 now on and I feel I have enough courage to date the turning You ll go much farther I replied and enjoy mrm ga and Y H develop entertaining ideas about this system For example I S0II1Cf1I11393S imagine that he suspended in the air motionless Willis the Earth ms under me for twentyfour hours and that I see passing under my gaze all the di erent faces white black tawny and olive complexlons At rst there are hats then turbans woolly heads then shavedheads here cities with helltowers there cities with tall spires W1tl1C2r SC I1 LSS her cities with towers of porcelain there great countries t I10 1h1ngpbut huts here vast seas there p d scfts in 31L thC m mm Vanety that exists on the surface of the Earth Truly she said twentyfour hours of one s time Would be We spent to see all that And so through this same place where we are now Pm not speaking of this garden but this same space that we take up in the air other people pass continually who take our place and at the end of twenty four hours we return I Copernicus couldn t have expressed it better I told her First the THE FIRST EVENING 21 English will pass here perhaps discussing some political plan with much less amusement than we nd in philosophy next will come a great ocean and there may be a ship on it far less at ease than we are After that the Iriquois will appear who Will eat ilive some prisoner of war who will pretend not to care then theivomen of Iesso9 who spend their time making meals for their husbands and painting their lips and eyebrows blue to please the nastiest men in the World then the Tartars who our of great devotion will go on pilgrimages to the Great Priest who never comes out of a dark place lit only with lamps by whose light they adore him then the bmuti il Circassians who will grant any favor to the rst comer except what they believe essentially belongs to their husbands then little Tartars who go and steal women for the Turks and Persians and nally oursehres perhaps still discussing fancies Ifs pleasant enough said the Marquise to imagine what you re telling me but if I saw all this om above Pd want to have the freedom tospeed up or slow down the Eartlfs movement according to the ob jects that pleased me less or more and I assure you that Pd make the politicians or those who eat their enemies pass very quickly But there are others about whom I m curious for example these beautiful Circas sian women they have a custom that seems very peculiar to me They re so beautiful I told her that their husbands nd a super uity in their favors which they freely give to strangers Then the women of our country are very ugly compared to them replied the Marquise because our husbands give nothing away For that very reason one takes advantage of them I answered whereas 39 Be still she interrupted I want no more of this foolishness And a serious di culty has occurred to me If the Earth turns we change air every minute andiare always breathing the air of another country By no means Madam I said The air which surrounds the Earth only extends to a certain height perhaps to twenty leagues it follows us and turns with us You ve seen the work of the silkworm the co coons that these little creatures artfully fashion to imprison themselves in These are made of very compact silk but they re covered by a very light and soft down In the same way the Earth which is solid enough is covered to a height of twenty leagues more or lessby a kind of down which is the air and the whole cocoon turns at the same time Beyond 22 CONVERSACEIONS ON rm igtLUiu L1TY OF WORLDS 39 btle and the air 18 the celestial matter incomparably more Pure 111013 5 1 gt more agitated M It IS as llh MEI You present the Earth to me in very tr1V1a1 t 1 II13 331 C quise Yet it s on this sillltworm s cocoon that great works are done 33 great wars are fought and all around us great activity reigns Yes said I and all the while Niiture who takes no notice of these 3 men separate little stirrings Ca139r16 115 311 togcther 1 3 general move t 39 39 33 and Plays Wlth tl 1S llttl ball 39 C thin th t It seems ridiculous to me she 1 p11CCl3 I0 11 0171 Some 3 3 39 t t be turns and to be so upset about it but it seems much worse no 0 sure that one is turning for in the end to be honest with you all thfii aim ymfrc taking to show why we doift sense the Eartlfs motion are 3 bit suspect to me Is it possible that it leaves no little mark at all by which We can recoglize it 3 cc ch se The most natural and ordinary II10VCI11 I139t5a I 3n5 l CrC lv 3f 0 which give the least sensation and that s a nuth even in rn0ral1 Y The working of self love is so natural in us that usually we don t even SCIIS6 it and believe we re acting on other p1 i1CiPlC339 h Eh fs Ah you re moralizing she said Compared to p YSICS 311 called boring Lefs go in enough for the rst time Tomorrow we come back here you with your systems and me with my ignorance I While 3ctumin g to the chateau to exhaust the matter of systems told her that there was a third i11V 3I1t393d bY Tycho 1rah v Who afbsog lutely insisting that the Earth be immobile placed It in the center 0 the universe and made the Sun turn around it while all the other plan ets turned aiound the Sun because since the new discoveries there was no longer any means of making the planets turn around the Earth But the Marquise who has a lively and prompt diSC 139DI1391Cm39 judged that it was too a quotected to exempt the Earth from about the X when one could exempt no other large bodies that it was not so A tung for the Sun to turn about the Earth when all the planet turned abtovag it that this system couldn t be appropriate for anything Iut to main the immobility of the Earth when one had a great deslr t0 malmam it and certainly not to persuade one Finally we ICSOIVCC1 C0 hdd to the system of Copernicus which is more uniform and enticing and free of prejudice In fact its 3lmP1iC1tY 15 Pcrsuaswe and its boldmss pleasing quot P T39fquot9L393939C39aaL r39 39 7 The 3507ml Evening L he following morning as soon as anyone was allowed into the Marquise s rooms I sentquot to ask how39she39was39 and if she d been 7 able to sleep while p J round She answered that she was not completely used to this motion of the Earth and that she d spent the night as tranquilly as Copernicus himself A little later people came to visit her and after the annoying country fashion stayed until even ing Still we felt much obliged to them for they also had the country right of prolonging their visit until the following morning if they7d wished to and they had the decency not to do so Thus the Marquise and I found ourselves free again that evening We returned tothe gar den andlo st39 no time in turning the conversation again to our systems She had grasped them so well that she disdained to review them and instead wanted me to leadher to something new Well then I said to her now that the Sun which is presently Ino nonless has ceased to be a planet and the Earth which rolls around him has begun to be one you won t be surprised to hear that the Moon 39 is a world like the Earthquot and that apparently she s inhabited But I ve never yet heard anyone say that the Moon was inhabited shereplied except as a fantasy and adelusion 39 This may be a fantasy too I answered I don t take sides inthese matters except as one does in civil wars when the uncertainty of what might happen makes one maintain contacts on the opposite side and 23
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