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Updated Version of Chapter 2 Notes

by: Jessica Compton

Updated Version of Chapter 2 Notes CJE4174

Marketplace > Florida International University > CJE4174 > Updated Version of Chapter 2 Notes
Jessica Compton
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Doreen Ruggiero

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Doreen Ruggiero
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Compton on Sunday February 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJE4174 at Florida International University taught by Doreen Ruggiero in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 89 views.


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Date Created: 02/01/15
Chapter 2 Brief Notes by Jessica Compton Text material used Measuring and Comparing Crime in and across Nations Comparative Criminal Justice Systems Compound Crime lesser of crimes such as theft assault robbery and sometimes rape The findings of these translational crimes have only recently been defined as such It is hard to account for the frequency of translational crimes for three reasons 1 Difficult to detect due to their secretive and multijurisdictional nature 2 Which countries problem is it Does it belong to the source country or destination location 3 Crimes often extend going over a period of time and by the time detection occurs evidence is difficult to find What we do know is that even though one country may have more of a problem with crime then another every country has crime Crime is universal Also we know globalization is a cause of more types of crime of international concern than in the past Why measure and compare crime data PG 17 The primary reason according to the text is to determine risk Risk of crime evaluates the probability that certain crimes will occur and their potential harm Comparing and asking questions such as how safe is one country vs another or how does crime rate in the US compare with the rates and other countries provide answers in which in uence our fearbehavior as citizens Crime statistics help us to judge whether we live in a safe place what crimes we should focus on etc Basically the more you know the better we can make rational decisions Measuring and comparing crime data serves at least two purposes 1 Collecting data allows us to determine the kinds and extent of crimes reported in any one country and distinguishes longterm patterns Crime trends are more important to understand both domestically and internationally 2 It provides clues about why some nations are more successful than others in controlling crime rate we can study others policies and see whether they can be adapted to her own situation Historical background of international crime data PG18 The first attempt to collect crime data internationally was in 1853 Brussels But today we no longer look to Interpol a police organization which crime data was limited to Rather we use a survey called United Nations Survey of Crime amp trends amp operation of criminal justice systems But it focuses more on information about criminal justice system than measurement of crime It contains 4 parts police persecution courts and prisons The 3 different kinds of crime data three different perspectives 1 The offender perspective 2 The victim perspective 3 The police perspective 1 Police perspective pg19 Police reports in the US are called the Uniform Crime Reports UCR and are collected by each police agency in the US and compiled by Federal Bureau of investigation annually Pros assesses trends over time Cons aws affecting accuracy crimes that do not come to police attention are missed So a great deal of crime is overlooked and the UCR is voluntary so not all police report data every year Furthermore it gathers information on a limited range of offenses and in doing so ignoring others The program counts arrests for 29 generally less serious offenses while arrests occur less than police report crime Solution NIBRS developed to broaden extent depth of crime data by police 2 Victim perspective In order to know who has been the victim of a crime a representative sample of the population is selected and participants are asked questions about their experience with crime recently PG 20 National Crime Victimization Survey name used annually covers six crimes rape robbery assault larceny burglary and motor vehicle theft NCVS found that the total number of crimes committed in the US is at least double the number of reported to the police in the UCR Uniform crime reports The NCVS improves our knowledge of the true extent of crime by reducing what is called the the amount of crime occurring which is unknown to the police or general public NCVS tries to reduce this figure and enhances our knowledge about criminal behavior and consequences of crime on victims Comparison UCR collects small amounts of information on all crimes known to police while victimization surveys collect a lot of information NCVS finds that overall approximately 50 of violent crimes and 40 of property crimes are reported to the police So more crime occurs then is revealed in the police statistics 3 Offender perspective This perspective is gathered from self report surveys in which participants are asked to report their own delinquent behavior anonymously or in a confidential interview mostly young people that are willing to confess They are helpful because we can compare information about known offenders with those who have not been caught and they provide information about quotvictimless crimesquot in which the victim and offender are the same or engage consensually example prostitution Use mostly young people and has a limited sizeduration With the exception of the ISRD which uses standard instruments to compare juvenile rates of crime and 12 European locations and the US PG 21 International crime data The reporting and publication of crimes reported to the police remains an exercise for individual nations with too many differences to compare nationally The best available sources of international crime data are the international victimization surveys low level of material and social development majority of the world39s nations high level of development Surveys now called ICVS International crime victim surveys which are the most extensive standardized surveys of victims in the world They have the advantage of avoiding govemment controlled data collection or screening and they use standard crime definitions to avoid the differences in definitions among the world s criminal codes It uses telephone interviews to ask about 10 specific offenses experienced But we see that a lot of countries fix the stats because they do not want you to see them in a bad way Table 21 shows the percentage of people victimized one or more times by any of the 10 crimes included in the ICVS 16 of the adult populations in the 30 participating countries were victims of at least one crime over the course of a year we see you crime drop and many of the tables and the author thinks it may have to do with factors that of change universally such as improved antitheft methods PG 27 In sum international victimization surveys provide the best available information about crime rates internationally because include crimes both reported and unreported to the police and they use standardized questionnaires with uniform definitions of offenses But ICVS is still likely to underreport to some extent the true extent of the crimes it measures bc it surveys only residencies and they involve pp close to the victim Also research shows pg27 that although all countries do collect some form of crime data many do not participate in the international crime surveys Reasons discussed in txt One major problem in comparing crime rates across nations Nonstandardized definitions of crime among countries I what is crime vs what is legal bc pg28 when it comes to certain actions we may find that what is criminal in one country is acceptable behavior in another Examples given in txt In other words actions that are perfectly legal in one country are defined as crimes in another Homicide Rates Homicide rates are of interest bc they are both the ultimate offense against an individual social order and stats on homicide rates should be more reliable than those from other crimes bc of the presence of a human body in nearly every case But homicides win and among countries are not always consistent I police agencies public health agencies and various other government agencies count deaths but they do not always reach the same totals hypothesis or conclusions pg28 Table 23 shows homicide rates for 54 nations around the world that were chosen based on the availability of data over several years We see that developing countries often have higher homicide rates than developed countries but there are exceptions Stats in table show 3 regions w highest homicide rates include I Southern Africa Central America and South America 3 regions w the lowest rates of homicide include I Western and Central Europe East Asia and Southeastern Europe 60 of all homicides committed w firearm General decline in homicides over recent years 2008 Compared Crime Rates in the 6 Model Countries Lowest homicide rates in Japan lowest crime rates Saudi Arabia and Germany Highest homicide rates France and the United States highest crime rates China does not have published rates overtime The Exceptions Countries with Low Crime JV The fact that Japan is often included in comparison to the western culture re ects that the degree of wealth accumulation industrialization and modernization has occurred there makes it appear similar to western culture But in fact it is very different I pg30 they practice a modified capitalism in which the gov t is involved in industrial development amp social welfare Also Japan has emphasis on localbased group formation security amp rules win those settings so this leads to a builtincrimecontrol mechanism In comparison US places emphasis on individual freedom and rules are more limited and permissive which results in a weakening of crime prevention in Western nations as they focus more on punishment rather than prevention If we want to compare with models the US has the highest crime rate and Japan has the lowest The one reason Japan has lowest crime rate is because almost everyone has the same ethnicity and values etc But in the US we have such high diversity Also every country doesn39t always use the court system Also in the US we do not believe in communism 393 More on why Japan and Saudi Arabia may have lower crime rates than US on page 31 How does the United States Measure Up pg31 When we compare the US to other countries we see that the American crime problem is really one of violent crime robbery and murder in particular Even though the US may be safer than other places in a of crimes crime is still a major social issue The US has more violent crime because economic disparity bw rich and poor widespread urban areas violent images in the media differences in culture and heterogeneity of the population There have been many theories on why the crime rate is so high and what the increase has been caused by In the 60 s pp thought the increase of crime was due to things like disrespect for authority In the 80 s due to drug use mostly crack and cocaine Some think it s from socioeconomic factors or deterrence Claims seen that US has always been violent place with the Indian wars taking the land slavery etc pg32 Easy access to guns Presence of motivated offenders 4 approaches to explaining criminal behavior 1 rise of social science and scientific method believed internal or external forces such as social economic and psychological factors are to blame for crime If you change these then you can prevent it Example home monitoring children39s behavior can help drop crime rate Solution reform by changing the internal amp external conditions or changing their reactions 2 quotutilitarianismquot free will decision guided by hedonistic tendency to maximize pleasure and minimize pain If something feels good you do it if not then you don39t Solution Deterrence through threat of apprehension amp punishment 3 Political and economic conditions promote culture of competitive individualism in which individual gain becomes more important than the social good I calling things that are not socially acceptable criminal we create organized crime and other serious social problems Solution more fair distribution of power and wealth in society so that all individuals have a greater stake in a better society 4 individual fails to appreciate an act s wrongfulness and lacks empathy for the victim Crime committed by people that don39t seem to care what pain they cause the victim May lack religious education


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