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by: Lauren Folger


Lauren Folger
GPA 3.98
Anatomy ch. 2

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Anatomy ch. 2
One Day of Notes
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This 15 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Lauren Folger on Sunday February 1, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to BSC216 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Pienaar in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 210 views. For similar materials see Anatomy ch. 2 in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/01/15
KIN 199 Exam 02162015 Introduction to Wellness Fitness amp Lifestyle Management 0 Wellness vs Health 0 Wellness Our ability to achieve optimal health and vitality to living life to its fullest Largely determined by the decision you make about how you live a Enhanced wellness therefore involves making conscious decisions to control risk factors that contribute to disease or injuries Process of achieving wellness is constant and dynamic 0 Health The overall condition of a person s body or mind and to the presence or absence of illness or injury Can be determined or in uenced by factors beyond your control 0 Bene ts of physical activity 0 Increased endurance strength and exibility o Healthier muscles bones and joints 0 Increased energy 0 Reduced risk of obesity 0 Reduced anxiety tension and depression 0 Causes and contributors of death 0 o 7 Dimensions of Wellness 0 physical emotional intellectual spiritual interpersonal environmental 0 nancial Behavior change ideas 0 Moving in the direction of wellness means cultivating healthy behaviors and working to overcome unhealthy ones 0 Before you start Examine current health habits Choose a target behavior Learn about your target behavior Locate a mentor 0 Knowledge and motivation needed Examine pros and cons of change a Short and long term bene ts and costs Boost selfef cacy through a Locus of control n lnternal or external n Visualization and selftalk o The stages of behavior change OOOOO Precontemplation n Unaware of the problem Contemplation n Aware of the problem and of the desired behavior change Preparation In Intends to take action Action I Practices the desired behavior Maintenance n Works to sustain the behavior change Principles of Physical Fitness 0 Health related physical tness 0 Helps you withstand physical challenges and protects you from diseases Cardiorespiratory endurance Muscular strength Muscular endurance Flexibility Body composition Skill related physical tness 0 The ability to perform a particular sport or activity o Sportspeci c and is best developed through practice 0 Components Speed ability to perform movement in short period of time Powerability to exert force rapidly based on combination of strength and speed Agility ability to change the position of the body quickly and accurately Balance ability to maintain equilibrium while moving or stationary Coordination ability to perform motor tasks accurately and smoothly using body movements and senses Reaction and movement time ability to respond and react quickly to a stimulus o Fl39lT principle 0 Principle Frequency a 35 dwk cardiorespiratory endurance n 2 dwk for resistance and exibility 24h between high intensity exercise Intensity n Cardiorespiratory endurance an increased heart rate in quotyour zonequot about 6080 of HR max a muscular strength increase weight lifted Flexibility stretch muscles beyond current comfort I 2060 min or several 10 min sessions a muscular strength endurance exibility repetitions and sets a Walking n Running a CycHng n Swimming n Resistance training a Stretching 0 Physical activity minimal guidelines for health 0 Cardio 150 min of moderateintensity aerobic exercise per week a 300 min per week for additional bene ts 75 min of vigorous intensity aerobic exercise per week a 150 min per week for additional bene ts 0 resistance muscle strengthening 2 or more times per week nonconsecutive o exibility 2 days a week 10 to 30 seconds 0 Starting a program 0 Get medical clearance 0 Assess yourself Asses current level of physical activity and tness for each of the 5 health related tness components 0 Set goals Ultimate general goal wellness that lasts a lifetime Speci c goals just must keep you motivated 0 Choose activities for a balanced program Combines a physically active lifestyle with a systematic exercise program to develop and maintain physical tness 0 General training principles 0 Larger principle body s adaptation to stress 0 Basic principles Speci city n Adapting to the type of training 0 To develop particular tness component you must perform exercises designed speci cally for that component 0 Weight training develops muscular strength but is less effective for developing cardiorespiratory endurance or exibility o to improve tennis you must practice tennis Progressive overload n Adapting to the amount of training and the Fl39lT principle 0 When the amount of exercise is increased progressively tness continues to improve Reversibility n Adapting to a reduction in training Individual differences a Limits on adaptability O Cardiorespiratory Endurance Cardiorespiratory system 0 Trace blood through heart and system separate page illustration The cardiorespiratory system circulates blood through the body transporting oxygen nutrients and other key substances to the organs and tissues also carries away waste products so they can be used or expelled THE HEART El Four chambered st sized muscle located beneath sternum Pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs and delivers oxygenated blood to the rest of the body travels through two separate circulatory systems 0 Pulmonary circulation 0 Right side of heart pumps blood to the lungs Systematic circulation 0 Left side pumps blood through the rest of the body Systole hearts contraction o Atria contract rst pumping blood into the ventricles fractions of a second later the ventricles contract pumping blood into the lungs and body Diastole hearts relaxation 0 Blood ows into the heart Heartbeat Splitsecond sequence of contractions of the heart s four chambers o Controlled by nerve impulses o Signals originate in a bundle of specialized cells in the right atrium l pacemaker or sinoatrial SA node 0 Blood Vessels classi ed by size and function Veins El carry blood to the heart a thin walls Arteries a carry it away from the heart a thick elastic walls that enable them to expand and relax with the volume of blood being pumped through them Capillaries n The smallest arteries branch further into capillaries tiny vessels only one cell thick n Deliver oxygen and nutrientsrich blood to the tissues and pick up oxygen poor wasteladen blood a From capillaries blood empties into small veins venules and then into larger veins that return to the heart and repeat the process 0 How does oxygen move The respiratory system supplies oxygen to the body a Air passes in and out of the lungs as a result of pressure change caused by the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and rib muscles a As air is inhaled it passes through the nasal passages throat larynx trachea and bronchi into thelungs Lungs consist of many branching tubes that end in tiny thinwalled air sacs called alveoli 0 Carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged between alveoli and capillaries in the lungs a Oxygen from inhaled air is passed from the alveoli into blood cells b These oxygen rich cells then return to the heart and are pumped throughout the body 0 Heart rate max Estimate MHR by subtracting your age from 220 n Multiply your MHR by 65 and 90 to calculate target heart rate zone Age resting heart rate intensity I Eg 22025 age 195 0 19565 resting HR 130 bpm 130 x 60 intensity 65 resting hr 143 bpm 0 Moderate 50 to 70 of mhr o Vigorous 70 to 85 of mhr 0 Energy systems lmmediatequotexplosivequot El Supplies energy to muscle cells through breakdown of cellular stores of ATP and Creatine Phosphate Provides energy rapidly for only a short period of time Fuel activities that last for about 10 or less seconds 0 Weight lifting Shotputting Picking up a bag of groceries Nonoxidative anaerobic El El Aka anaerobic system or the lactic acid system Supplies energy to muscle cells through breakdown of muscle stores of glucose and glycogen Used at the start of an exercise session and for highintensity activities lasting for about 10 seconds to 2 minutes 0 400 meter run 0 run up several ights of stairs oxidative aerobic El supplies energy to cells through breakdown of glucose glycogen and fats aerobic 0 dependent on the presence of oxygen mitochondria 0 cell structures that convert the energy in food to a form the body can use a used during any physical activity that lasts longer than about 2 minutes 0 distance running 0 standing in line Muscular Strength and Endurance Muscle contraction o Concentric muscle action A type of muscle action in which force is generated while the muscle shortens Concentric muscle actions are performed during the upphase of a lift 0 Eccentric muscle action A type of muscle action in which force is generated while the muscle lengthens Performed during the lowering phase of a lift 0 Types of activations o concentric o eccentric o isometric static muscle actions muscle contraction without a change in the muscle s length 0 isokinetic speed is constant application of force at a constant speed against an equal force o plyometric abrupt explosive movements rapid stretching of muscle group that is undergoing eccentric stress followed by a rapid concentric contraction o isotonic muscle contraction with a change in the length of the muscle dynamic Types of exercise for resistance training 0 Static isometric exercise Require no equipment Build strength rapidly Useful for rehabilitation Methods B Tighten a muscle while remaining still a Spine extension bird dog I Use immoveable object wall for resistance 0 Dynamic isotonic exercise Performed with or without equipment Used to develop strength or endurance Full range of motion More popular with general population Methods n Constant and variable resistance 0 Free weights constant free weights and elastic bands variable a Plyometric Stretching of muscles follow by a forceful contraction a neural adaption n Kettle bells Machines vs free weights 0 Machines Safer Convenient Easy to use 0 Free weights Require more care balance and coordination Strength transfers to daily activities 0 Order of exercises 0 Warm up You should do both a general warm up n Several minutes of easy jogging And a warm up for the weight training exercises you plan to perform a lower weight for example 0 strength training exercises for major muscles groups do 810 exercises 0 cool down relax for 510 minutes after your workout post exercise stretching Flexibility and LowBack Health 0 Types of stretching technique 0 Static Hold an extended position at the end ofjoint s range of motion Each muscle is gradually stretched and the stretch is held for 1030 seconds 0 Dynamic Moving a joint through its range of motion with little resistance Functional movements a Golf swing baseball pitch tennis 0 Passive An outside force or resistance provided by yourself a partner gravity or a weight helps yourjoint move through their range of motion 0 Active Muscle is stretched by a contraction of the opposing muscle a contract top of shin to stretch calf o baistic muscles are stretched suddenly in a forceful bouncing movement a touching toes repeatedly o pnf proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation u use re exes initiated by both muscle and joint nerves to cause greater training effects contractrelax stretching method 0 activated proprioceptors Back pain 0 function Provides structural support for the body Surrounds and protects spinal cord Supports body weight Serves as attachment site for muscles tendons and ligaments Allows movement of neck and back in all directions 0 Structure 7 cervical vertebrae in the neck 12 thoracic vertebrae in the upper back 5 lumbar vertebrae in the lower back 9 vertebrae at the base of the spine fused into the sacrum and the coccyx tailbone o underlying causes of back pain poor muscle endurance and strength poor posture poor body mechanics O managing acute back pain sudden back pain usually involves tissue injurty symptoms a pain a muscle spasms n stiffness n in ammation treatment a ice then heat a OTC medication ibuprofen or naproxen n Moderate exercise 0 Core muscles 0 O Stabilize the spine and help transfer force between the upper and lower body Lack of core muscle tness can create an unstable spine and stress muscles and joints Whole body exercises and exercises using free weights or stability balls all build core muscle tness Core muscles include 29 Abdomen Pelvic oor Sides of the trunk back buttocks hip and pelvis


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