Last images of Roman Empire, April 5
Last images of Roman Empire, April 5 ARTH 1305
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grecia Sanchez on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 1305 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Max Grossman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see History of Art I in Art at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
APR 5 TH PORTRAIT OF CARACALLA The ability of brute force and rough power can the big thing at this era, this portrait is an example of this feature of the Severan Emperors He looks like he is threatening the viewer (his scars and gestures makes the form of an “X” on his face He is up to everything to conquer you PLAN OF BATHS This dynasty in particular didn’t have as much resources for planning nor buildings (art in general) because of the instability of empire and the constant wars Despite this fact, Caracalla was able to construct this huge buildings just for baths, probably his greatest achievement during his reign This wasn’t the first complex of baths, there were 11 complexes like this one (but Caracalla made one of the biggest if not the biggest of them all) Provided water at three temperatures Perimeter was provided with libraries, rooms for massages, rooms to vomit, dining rooms Made of concrete and brick and reberted in colored marbles (tufa, travertine, among others) Natatio was the pool near the entrance that was open to the sky Frigidarium was the room that provided cold water, largest room Caldarium was the room with hot water, was like a gigantic sauna Tepidarium was the room that provided tepid water Palaestra was the gym, room where you could lift weight and it also had the statue of Weary Herakles for inspiration Symmetrical complex at its totality It had baths for men and women separately Walls were almost the same height like the ones of the Colloseum PORTRAIT OF MAXIMINUS He is the man who killed Severan Emperors (the last one) He was a barbarian With him, SOLDIERS EMPERORS empire began Time when military man where at the command of Rome, they hold the power as long as they could to finaly be assassinated by another man of the army to replace him at the Empire Rome even had 6 emperors in 1 year Related to the economic collapse of Rome due to instability of its rulers Architecture, art, all of the culture in general declines PORTRAIT OF PHILIP THE ARAB Reigns for 4 years In here, you can see how they value brute force among all qualities PORTRAIT OF TRAJAN DECIUS He even looks nervous at this portrait because he knows he is going to be killed He was actually killed in battle BATTLE OF ROMANS V. BARBARIANS It is the frieze of a sarcophagus Visited by relatives Majority of romans were cremated at the time, ashes were put on these types of sarcophagus This one in particular probably contained cremated remains This was also the time when people started to bury the intact body into the tomb (minority did this one) Theme of this sarcophagus is after life depiction (constant wars, battles) Romans are depicted with helmets and cuirass Barbarians are the ones with long hair, beards, bare chested In here, mercy is not a concept seen You see total wipe out towards the barbarians Barbarians are seen as unworthy humans Later, we begin with Tetrarchy, in 293-ca. 313. This is the system in which 4 rulers are going to rule entire Rome, each ruler has a specific territory of Rome to rule and they are bringing the message of harmony and protection towards Rome citizens. Composed of 2 “Augustus” and 2”Caesars”, Augustuses were the higher rank meanwhile Caesar was the lower rank, two initial Augustuses and 2 initial Caesars were needed; when Augustuses could no longer deal with the system, they would retire and now Caesars would be the new Augustuses and they would appoint another citizens as their Caesars (system which depends on cooperation of the 4 rulers). I was a 20 year experiment that pretended to bring order to Rome. Constantine became the one who destroyed this system because he wanted more. PORTRAIT OF 4 TETRARCHS Depicted in 305 No proportion nor special features seen, as sculpture was declining because of instability of Empire You see quite similar figures 4 men depicted as similar giving the message of harmony between the rulers Message to the public is protection Hand on sword means they were ready to defend its people Porphyry is a purple stone from Egypt, it projects notion of solid, eternal, continuity. There was even a law that this stone would be used only for emperor’s purposes on sculptures. Doesn’t exist today (we even relate this stone to the ruling classes today) PORTRAIT OF CONSTANTINE first Christian emperor (he converted to the religion months before dying) statue is made of marble and other expensive materials he became tetrarch but killed the other rulers in battle (one by one) the famous battle is Milbien Bridge which was in 312, he killed his first tetrarch at this battle one he killed all tetrarchs, he founded Constantinopla (modern Turkey), he made this city the capital of Rome He was able to shift Rome from East to West with his capital Years of Christ are from 4 BC- 29 AD At the moment of crisis and decline of Rome, Christianity was spreading (important because it was the unique religion without requirements at the time; all people could have salvation without being Jewish, knowing how to read, without being a member of the government, etc.). This idea brought many people into Christianity because in the middle of misery, there was this promise of eternal wealth at heaven There are few documents which talk about the early spread of Christianity Constantine was seen as the emperor sent by God to rule He wasn’t much a Christian, he murdered members of his family while having dinner and killed a lot of people (not a great example of good Christian) Christianity at his reign became the only legal religion Huge eyes at this portrait mean that this person could actually communicate with God He built the world’s first churches He is depicted as if he is God’s son He represents power, confidence, intelligence All of this is depicted as abstraction (we are moving slowly towards abstraction, distortion of certain parts of the body; in Constantine’s case this distortion is seen as if you could express the inner power soul each of us have through this abstraction in his portrait) ARCH OF CONSTANTINE Symbol of victory over military battles It is next to the colloseum Initial structure is 3 archs with large inscription It commemorates the Milbien bridge Contains sculptures of Forum of Trajan, Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius (at the most part) Reasons for this is nobody was technical enough to reproduce good quality statues and also to project the message of Constantine reign being as good as the ones of this emperors at the Pax Romana Spolia is the recycled architecture fragments MARCUS RECEIVES PRISONERS Part of one of the reliefs of this arch Marcus’ head was changed to Constantine’s head Everything is high quality and proportioned LARGITIO Depicts emperor giving bread and water to citizens surrounded by administrative offices who would account the ones receiving food and the ones who are left All figures look alike, aren’t proportioned You can really see the lack of high quality techniques AULA PALATINA It is at Germany Looks like a church (antecedent and actually was later converted into a church, reason why it survived) It was the throne room of Constantine Room where he could look at people and receive them with their demands Antecedents of churches= basilica and aula palatina
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