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Class Notes 2-2-15

by: Allie Newman

Class Notes 2-2-15 KIN 362

Allie Newman
GPA 4.0
Motor Development
Tyler Williams

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About this Document

2-2-15 class notes
Motor Development
Tyler Williams
One Day of Notes
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This 4 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Allie Newman on Monday February 2, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to KIN 362 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Tyler Williams in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Motor Development in Kinesiology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 02/02/15
Allie Newman KIN 362 Class Notes 2 2 15 Muscular System 0 Prenatal growth is by 0 Hyperplasia l increase in number of cells 0 Hypertrophy l39l increase in cell size 0 Postnatal growth is predominantly by hypertrophy 0 Muscle growth follows the sigmoid pattern not linear Muscles increase in diameter and in length by the addition of sarcomeres Muscle Development 0 Gender differences become marked in adolescence largely as a result of upper body musculature 0 Muscle mass increase rapidly in boys up to age 17 Ultimately accounts for 54 of men s body weight 0 Girls primarily add muscle until age 13 Muscle mass accounts for 45 of women s body weight 0 Hormonal differences between males and differences Muscle Fiber Type 0 Adult muscle is composed of type type II a and type II b bers 0 At birth 15 to 20 of bers are undifferentiated o By age 1 type proportion is xed 0 Individual differences 0 Whether type II proportions can be altered is unclear o Contraction time slow type moderately fast type II a very fast type II b 0 Size of motor neuron type is small type II a is medium type II b is very large 0 Resistance to fatigue type is high type II a is fairly high type II b is low 0 Activity used for type is aerobic type II a is longterm anaerobic type II b is shortterm anaerobic Maximum duration of use type hours type II a less than 30 minutes type II b less than 1 minute 0 Power produced type low type II a medium type II b very high 0 see slide for full tabe l know for test 0 Type 3 mile run versus type II short distance meter sprint Motor Units 0 Motor Units bers innervated by a single neuron 0 Can be fast or slow twitch 0 Many muscles have both types 0 At birth these mixedcomposition muscles are predominantly fast twitch o In the rst 2 years some units become slow twitch 0 Whether extrinsic factors can alter this process is unclear Muscular System in Adults 0 Loss of muscle mass is minimal until age 50 o On average lose about 10 between 20 s and 50 By age 80 an average of 30 of muscle mass is lost Age related muscle loss sarcopenia These numbers will differ in resistance trained individuals 000 o The loss in the number of muscle bers and their size 0 Whether type II bers undergo a greater loss is unclear Cardiac Muscle 0 Heart changes with age 0 Ability to adapt to increased workload declines possibly due to Degeneration of muscle contractile ability Heart is responsible for blood ow Decreases in elasticity Changes in the bers of heart valves valves prevent back ow 0 Most frequently the heart loses elasticity and valves becomes more brotic due to lifestyle Inactivity Adipose System 0 Growth is by hyperplasia and hypertrophy but hypertrophy is more dramatic in adolescence 0 Excess fat is stored in lipocytes which expand in size until the fat is used for fuel 0 Some fat is needed for 0 Energy storage 0 Insulation 0 Protection 0 Fat increases rapidly until age 6 months then gradually until age 8 years 0 In adolescence girls increase fat more dramatically 0 Individual variability is tremendous Fat Distribution 0 Distribution of body fat changes with growth 0 In childhood there is relatively more internal than subcutaneous fat 0 Subcutaneous fat increases from age 6 to 7 years until age 12 to 13 years Subcutaneous fat continues to increase in girls Adipose Tissue in Older Adults 0 Both men and women tend to gain fat during adulthood but fat gain is not inevitable 0 Lifestyle factors play a huge role 0 Increases in trunk fat are notable Abdominal fat is linked to cardiovascular disease Endocrine System 0 Hormones play an important role in regulating growth and maturation 0 Either excess or de ciency can alter growth 0 Major hormones involved in growth are 0 Pituitary growth hormone o Thyroid hormones 0 Two gonadal hormones Tightly regulated Growth Hormone Secreted by anterior pituitary gland Necessary for normal growth De ciencies lead to potential stunted growth Enhances mobilization of stored fat while conserving carbohydrates Thyroid Hormones Secreted by the thyroid gland These hormones in uence wholebody growth and increase oxygen consumption in some tissue 0 Play a role in our metabolic rate 0 One of the thyroid hormones has a role in skeletal growth Gonadal Hormones In uence growth and sexual maturation stimulating development of secondary sex characteristics and the sex organs Androgens o Secreted by the testes in boys and the adrenal glands in boys and girls 0 Hasten epiphyseal growth plate closure Promote skeletal maturation fusion at expense of linear growth 0 Promote muscle mass 0 Estrogen o Secreted by ovaries in girls and adrenal cortex in boys and girls 0 Hastens epiphyseal growth plate closure 0 Promotes accumulation of fat particularly in breast and hip area Insulin 0 Indirect role in growth Produced by the pancreas Important for carbohydrate metabolism Impaired insulin could lead to decreased protein synthesis and stunted growth 0 think of insulin as a key opening glucose receptor Endocrine System in Older Adults 0 Three areas related to physical activity 0 Regulation of cardiovascular performance 0 Mobilization of fuel 0 Synthesis of new protein building more muscle tissue Thyroid disorders are more prevalent with aging Gonadal hormone levels increase during exercise to conserve glycogen Gonadal hormone levels decrease with age and are associated with loss of bone and muscle tissue 0 Common around menopausal stages Nervous System 0 Genes direct the development of the nervous system Extrinsic factors have an in uence on neural development 0 Two branches of the nervous system 0 Central Nervous System brain and spinal cord 0 Peripheral Nervous System everything else Neurons nerve cells Prenatal Neural Development 0 Development occurs early in the prenatal period Neurons begin to specialize 0 Migration of neurons to speci c sites in the body 0 Formation of axons and synapses 0 Late prenatal l neurons begin ring electrical impulses Migration of neurons can be effected by environmental factors 0 Potentially causes disorders such as autism epilepsy and dyslexia Postnatal Neural Development 0 Brain growth increases rapidly after birth 0 Growth involves 0 Increase in the size of neurons 0 Further branching to form synapses o Increases in glial cells Cells used to support and nourish neurons 0 Increases in myelin Sheath that provides insulation of the axons Brain Structures 0 The spinal cord and lower brain centers are relatively advanced at birth 0 The cerebral cortex gradually becomes more functional after birth Myelination of axons allows faster conduction of neural impulses 0 Provides increased speed and frequency Nervous System in Older Adults 0 With aging there is a loss of o Neurons o Dendrites o Synapses o Neurotransmitters o Myelin All of these lead to decreases in neurological function 0 Exercise can minimize and even reverse this 0 quotyou don t use it you lose itquot 0 Exercise can Increase brain blood ow Stimulate neurogenesis production of new neurons Promote new synaptic connections


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