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ders notu (02

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ders notu (02

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One Day of Notes
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This 5 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by a on Monday February 2, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to a course at University at Buffalo taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.


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Date Created: 02/02/15
Prudence is a form of prophecy two criticism one against humanism and other against theologians What is prudence for humanist and theologians It is quotrecta ratio egilibiliumquot the right reasoning in action It is the practical wisdom that leads to virtuous political action This kind of practical reason is a combination of reading history and experience Theologians concentrate about how to behave in the future whereas humanists are interested in how humans behave Whole apparatus of prudence is a form of imagination for Hobbes It is a way of acting according to ctions The reason why Hobbes is making this argument which is a major break that people for prudence make a double claim a pragmatism of a sort and positing local reasoning overdetermined by bigger parameters The value judgment for humanist the good is the good of the community For theologians prudence is a kind of virtue it is for the good of divine community the God For Hobbes it is an illegitimate overdeterminate of a local action For Hobbes the key gure is Machiavelli who moves around the notion of prudence M in Prince formulates prudence in relation to force not virtue Chapter 25 in Prince He takes up the idea of prudence as a way of dealing with contingency the problem of prudence for M when you encounter with contingent events repeatedly you develop habits to deal with them In other words contingency is easily captured by habit M is all about the essence of contingency and in order to be successful in politics one has to be entirely exible Cultural representations of fortune a river that runs wild for M M39s fortune as a goddess a woman A form of contingency turns into an icon that cannot be grasped or even worse a God the opposite of contingency The part of problem of contingency is that cultural representations deprive the essence of the term After recognizing that fortune is a representation that mischaracterizes it he instrumentalizes the ction itself in order to break the habituation of prudence Prudential reasoning for M it assumes a function of imagination which misrecognizes and forces us to misrecognize it Hobbes points out the same problem Hobbes39 project is different though He tries to base political knowledge which he calls scienti c on observable action from which he can arrive general norms Hobbes reading yourself along with reading others A normative principle similitude of thoughts If you do that you can have a generalizable and normative understanding how it is that people act Not the object of fear but the passion of fear can be derived by observing the other as well as contemplating you own This assumption of commonality comes from Bacon Look at how people act not what they say Custom has the force of moving and creating action with a lot of thoughts attached to it most of which are unconscious Custom is something that can be shaped Custom as a machine that moves people and that which shapes the political sphere Culture in a similar way to custom is a general form of action where you can make observations of how people act and react Hobbes says this is the knowledge how a governor has to rule Generalized norms become the knowledge of governmental action and intervention Knowledge and action that are on the level of custom and action How generalizable is this idea of custom Custom in a way is similitude of thoughts and passions a key concept that can be understood by this ideas on religion imagination39s power on religion How it is that seditious thinking happens and how undisciplined the reasoning process is Complications of cultural reference and how they intersect with various dimensions of thinking Derrida39s take on Freud39s Moses and Monotheism steeps on the Hobbesian paradigm Hobbes and imagination Hobbes makes two fundamental thesis i we know the world through not despite imagination Every man is an emergence of imagination He gives the materialist explaniation of sensory perception pressures and counter pressures Imagination is the decaying sense Even sensory perception is a counter pressure to the pressure of body the image that remains from this intermission is imagination The generative problem is that there is no way out of this cognitive situation There is no rational way of distinguishing between thoughts dreams ctions The imagination is the source of both relation and understanding Bacons in uence on Hobbes scienti c reasoning that the mind is driven by imagination we always invent quotidols of the mindquot the goal is to break these idols through observation Hobbes takes the rst half of this thesis but not the second half Hobbes radicalizes the point the imagination is the origin of all voluntary motion Vital and voluntary motions the latter is based on imagination quotImagination is the rst internal beginning of all voluntary motionsquot Rational appetite although humans are fundamentally appetitive creatures we are bound by our natures that is reproduction We have this natural drive to reproduce as a normative natural law Scholastics want this idea because we also have this intellectual capacity to step out of our desires in order to make choices between our rational and irrational desires The concept of will which has a desiring aspect but also endowed with reason What Scholastics want is an internal or cognitive faculty that shapes passions and imagination that cannot be shaped by intellectual tools Hobbes hates this idea because he thinks that the idea of rational appetite imports a modern model of sovereignty and naturalizes obedience as a natural state Hobbes takes that claim apart There is nothing rational about deliberation which for him is a calculation of what is possible or not Deliberation is the enactment of will Will is simply the last appetite in the act of deliberation We do not have an elevated will between competing passions Hobbes39 moral knowledge the subject is the subject of appetite and aversion The term endeavor conatus endeavor of the heart is striving to live through the reproductions of representations of the world Aversion and appetite to found moral knowledge no metanorm that can determine good and evil There is no common rule of good and evil And this is why politics is necessary because the sovereign of the commonwealth decides what is good and evil So there is no natural but political good and evil Moral knowledge is based on desire and politics Will is subsumed within the passion therefore no objective common rule Therefore there is no cognitive faculty that would allow the person to achieve a common rule which does not exist But there are particular goods There is a general drive toward contentment But how you achieve the contentedness is highly individual and particular differs for everyone Life is about movement the movement of desires of senses of imagination Cease of movement is death for Hobbes The attaining of one object becomes a means to another object the structure of desire Happiness is associated with possession The fact of living is the fact of desire the desire for power of power Leo Strauss39 right and history Hobbes is a political hedonist which puts him in Epicurean tradition Strauss says that Epicurus is a nonpolitical hedonist where Hobbes is political Hobbes refuses to make the distinction between natural and unnatural desires quotRealist picture of desirequot Strauss thinks that desire itself becomes normative in Hobbes Regulation is necessary when they come into con ict First thesis Hobbes replaces a prudencebased model of cognition with a pleasure based model He begins with imagination in order to propose the political subject as the subject of pleasure It is not collectivized striving towards happiness at the same time The fact that political subject is a subject of pleasure makes this a political problem Second thesis Equality of humans in Chapter 13 Equal capacity to kill one another This is the basis of equality He develops the picture of how it would look like to live in a world of appetite Similitude of thoughts and passion causes the state of war anticipation Freud39s idea of projection of aggression The logic of invasion pervades everything and everyone even those with more moderate passions in order to preserve themselves The way to regulate this environment is to play on the fear of death which we know for certain is common to everyone Hobbes makes the subject of pleasure the rst problem of politics because he wants the shaping of pleasure as the solution He turns the shaping of pleasure and pain into the solution of politics by nding a sovereign who inspires the fear of death We have to think of Hobbes as a theorist of political subject not of sovereignty Because it is a response to his idea of political subjects If we start with the political subjects aesthetics becomes the primary vehicle of politics He becomes a theorist of poetics and aesthetics Friend and enemy in Schmitt amp Good and Evil in Hobbes food for thought Schmitt imports the duality from Hobbes while repressing the aesthetics The anthropological aspect is important In the Hobbesian political community nobody talks with others Prudence is usually based on counsel but for Hobbes there is almost no room for that He is on the one hand considered to be a radical materialist whereas he has no notion of community Distinction between animal and human speech as the beginning of community He becomes worried about the abuses of speech which amount to deception such as sloppy speech literature metaphorical use of language lying and polemics Speech for him as an appendage of the body Selfimagination of heroes leads to revolution He thinks that people gets trapped in language Hence trusting the books is an error Abusive language that turns humans into animals by being lost in imagination lf speech is susceptible to abuse it becomes the basis for community and knowledge He is a nominalist that we know through language Naming is a way to universal that collectivizes individual thinking Names also lead to the false concept of essences The common it generalizes the particulars the example of tree the name tree collectivizes particulars and implies a universal Hobbes39 nominalism is based on a doubleplot multitude of man is represented in one person which creates the unity of representor not of represented Nominalist argument on the level of political representation Hobbes39 theory of nominalization chase the wayward tendency of abuses of language The imposition of the name allows the distinction between the abuse and the proper way to apply language Science for Hobbes reasoning is taking names and reckoning based on agreed de nitions We come up with some understanding of naming a certain set of things then we debate the appropriateness and inappropriateness of the names that we gave The question of polemic for him there is a right way of thinking of thing like in mathematics How do you know For Hobbes correspondence to material reality is crucial Knowledge is not democratic When you cannot nd the answer in nature for certain you come up with a third party that will decide on the certainty of argument His nominalism is one with his stance in politics Science is not absolute but conditional knowledge Because it is always through speech He is speci cally after political science But he also wants to distinguish between scienti c knowledge and opinion which creates political unrest and instability Opinion is the abuse of science Genealogy of opinion Hobbes began a distinction between consciousness and conscience Consciousness is an effect of community it is knowing together It is a group agreeing on a fact as fact Speaking of one39s own conscience is evil because it is speaking against community Individual form of knowledge faculty of mind that leads the individual to claim the right to knowledge that is secret and true what is stake here Liberty to speak even if it is against commonly agreed ideas Once conscience becomes an individual faculty individual opinions become true from individuals The drift of metaphor is the distinction between science and opinion On the one hand H comes up with the idea of nominalist but he is also deeply nervous of how this approach can drift away There is no basis outside the material source so it is hard to talk about a transcendental source of knowledge Hobbes is against mindbody split He pushed to materialist visions of the world He is for the corporeality to think about the material world Conscience is the assertion of moral authority by deciding good and evil outside the norms of community Hobbes wants to take that political right away by bringing along the idea of drift of language What is the status of metaphor in Hobbes he is against metaphor He also makes strong distinctions between literal and metaphorical The critique of metaphor goes hand in hand with his extensive use of it The issue of control he is aware that you cannot have concepts without metaphors so the issue became calibration His use of political metaphors opens the question of Hobbes and the aesthetic


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