Adolescent Notes 4/4-4/6
Adolescent Notes 4/4-4/6 Psy 120-020
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Ferree on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 120-020 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Raquel Akillas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
Identity Identity Statuses – James Marcia 4 identity statuses --- Combination of 2 things 1. Crisis – dilemma with a need for explanation 2. Commitment – personal investment Identity Moratorium - “A suspension of action” - “A time out” - Crisis - No commitment - To put off making a final decision Ex: undeclared major, dating without commitment - Some teens try different personalities Identity Foreclosure - To prevent or block (from exploring options) - No crisis - Commitment Ex: military, family businesses, want to marry right away, religion Identity Confusion - No crisis - No commitment Ex: - No interest in dating - No interest in politics - No interest in career Identity Achievement - Crisis - Commitment Ex: - Finding someone to marry - Declaring a major MAMA cycle - Moratorium to Achievement to Moratorium to Achievement Ethnic Identity - Feelings about the symbols, values, and history that defines your cultural background Preschoolers - Ethnically unaware Elementary - Ethnically ambivalent (don’t care) - Down – play importance of ethnical background Adolescence - Ethnical awareness - Think about meaning behind group terms - More aware of prejudice and stereotypes Helms – Phinney’s Theory Pre-Encounter Stage - Assimilated identity - Blend in with dominate culture - Minimizing culture of origin - Teens felt “American” Encounter Stage - Aware that not all cultures value dominate culture - Confront ethnic identity Alternating Stage - Bicultural identity - Move back and forth between the two cultural identities - Teen felt more “ethnic” than “American” Immersion - Separation identity - Reject dominate culture - Exclusively focus on culture of origin - Guilt for “selling out” - Anger at dominate culture - Teens felt distant from perceived “white” mainstream Emersion - Uncomfortable with separate identity - Teens rationalize emotional conflict - Engage in discussions Internalized - Accept blended biculturalism - Strange identity with both the dominate culture and culture of origin School Identity - Everyone wants to fit in Top Dog Phenomenon - Go from oldest/ most experience - To youngest/ least experience - Need to encourage clubs, sports, and friend ships Cliques and Crowds Cliques - Small group of 3-12 people - Hang out together - Feel they know each other well - Begins in elementary school - Peaks in 6 grade Crowds - Large impersonal group based on reputation - Not necessarily friends Types of Crowds - Jocks - Nerds – awkward - Brains – get good grades - Druggies - Popular – everyone knows them - Bandaids – in band - Goth – black clothes, lips, and eye shadow; piercings, spiked or matted hair - Emo – black clothes, listen to sad music, and sensitive and dramatic - Boarders – skate or snowboard - Scene kids – hip hop, emo, or preppy; wear neon colors or leopard print - Nobodies – nobody notices them - Normal – average - Independent – don’t care about group membership Research based on crowds and their parents: - Strict parents: jocks, popular, and brains - Indulgent/Indifferent parents: druggies - Highest self-esteem crowd: jocks or independents - Lowest self-esteem crowd: nobodies Sociometric Status Popular - Good social skills - Leaders - Athletic and attractive - Fun Accepted - Not leaders - Smart, outgoing - Majority of students Ambiguous - Average - Have friends - Not super smart Neglected - Not disliked - Quiet, good students - Not very sociable Controversial - Liked and disliked - Class clown Rejected - Disliked by all peers - Suspicious and paranoid - Make up stories to impress - Most serious problems occur 2 types 1. Rejected submissive - Withdrawn - Avoid attention 2. Rejected aggressive - Lose temper - Physical fights - Destroy property Teen Aggression – 5 types 1. Physical a. Hitting, stealing, shoving b. Poking, throwing things, weapon at school c. More common among boys d. Aggression = masculine e. Avoid if victim is strong or high probability will get caught 2. Verbal a. Name calling b. Teasing c. Giggling d. Sexual harassment e. Make fun of the way a person dresses or talks f. Boys and girls 3. Relational a. Sabotage relationships b. Gossip c. Social exclusion d. Mostly girls 4. Passive a. Do “innocent things” to hurt a person b. “forget” to invite to a person c. “did not see” the person to say “hi” d. Silent treatment e. Making faces behind their back f. Mostly girls 5. Cyber a. Cyberbullying b. Email, text messages c. Blogs, Facebook d. Obscene e. Racist f. Sexist g. Threatening Bully Behavior What type of kid bullies? - Bully/victim can be anyone Why do they bully? - Makes them feel empowered Common Reasons 1. Social Status a. Envy attention 2. Poor Academic Skills a. Strongest predictor b. Jealous of teacher attention 3. Retaliation a. They were a victim themselves b. Like the power trip 4. Social Identification a. Identify with a group b. Emotional bond c. Us versus Them d. Prejudice unites group 5. Self-Preservation a. Join bully to avoid being a target b. Bystander effect – witness someone in need and do nothing about it 6. Observational Leaning a. Parents, teachers, coaches b. Not videogames or TV 7. Parental Problems a. Oppositional Deficient Disorder 1. Argue with authority 2. Lose temper 3. Instigate fights b. Conducts Disorder 1. Violates rights of others 2. Vandalize property, steal, arson Interventions - Start in preschool Adults need to teach: - Diversity and tolerance - Self-management - Control of emotions Communication Skills The speaker – prevent listener defensiveness - Using “I” statements - Address specific behaviors - Use “dirt” sandwich (saying something positive then something negative then something positive) – technique to give people bad news - Allow listener to respond The listener – stay quiet - Listen - Good eye contact - Paraphrase – repeat in your own words, validates speakers points Advice for Victims: - Tell someone - Ignore/ avoid the bully - Agree with the bully’s comments - Be assertive and confident - Get involved with different clubs/groups - Be an active bystander
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