Dr. Greene Week 10 Notes
Dr. Greene Week 10 Notes NTRI 2000-002
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Ferrell on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000-002 at Auburn University taught by Michael Winand Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
Rachel Ferrell NTRI 2000 4/4-‐4/8 Chapter 9 Cont. Major Minerals: • Calcium (Ca) o Most abundant mineral in the body o 99% of it is in bones § integral part of bone structure § storehouse for Ca in blood o adults absorb 25% of Ca in foods eaten o increases in infants and during pregnancy (up to 60%) o Serum Calcium § Also means functions § 1.) regulates transport of ions across cell membranes • important for nerve transmission § 2.) Maintains blood pressure § 3.) Muscle contractions § 4.) Secretion of hormones. Enzymes. Neurotransmitters, etc. § 5.) Helps blood clotting o Possible health benefits § More calcium has shown to decrease risk for • Cancers/kidney stones • Hypertension • High blood cholesterol • Obesity • Osteoporosis o Decreased bone mass; bones become brittle o Related to age, genetics, poor diet o Fractures are common o Not just women, even though it is very prevalent in women o Loss in height, pain, kypnosis(hunchback) o Calcium and Bone Density § Peaks in 20s, levels off in 30s, decreases after 40s § Therefore, need to build up density at a young age § How to maintain it? • 1.) Adequate amount of Calcium and Vitamin D • 2.) Exercise • 3.) Estrogen o Calcium in foods § AI: 1000-‐1200 mg/day § UL: 2500 mg/day § Dairy § Breads/rolls § Leafy vegetables § Ca fortified products § Supplements; also antacids • Sodium (Na) o Absorb about 100% of consumed Na o 30-‐40% of it is in bones o Major positive ion in extracellular fluid o Functions: § 1.) fluid balance b/w compartments § 2.) Nerve impulse conduction § 3.) Absorption of glucose o Sodium Deficiency: § Rare § Symptoms are the same as water toxicity o Sodium Sensitivity: § Body will usually adjust to increased Na by increasing urine output § However, 10-‐15% of adults have Na sensitivity • Leads to increased blood pressure § UL: 2300 mg/day • Chloride (Cl) o Ion of Cl o Major negative ion in extracellular fluid o Used in producing stomach acid (HCl) used in immune response of WBC • Potassium (K) o Major positive ion in intracellular fluid § This is 95% of body’s K o Important in fluid balance, nerve impulse o Increased K leads to increased blood pressure o People with an increased risk of deficiency § Diuretics (medicine that treats high blood pressure) § Alcoholics § Certain eating disorders § All of these can lead to heart failure o Too much Potassium? § Due to kidney failure; can stop heart o Potassium in Foods § AI: 4700 mg/day § Found in most unprocessed foods § “Rich” source • potatoes, plums, avocados, bananas, cantaloupe, honeydew, melon, raisins, leafy greens Trace Minerals: • all can be toxic in excess • <100 mg • Iron (Fe): o In every cell in the body o Absorb about 18% consumed in foods o Most Iron associated with hemoglobin (RBC) and myoglobin (muscle)= heme iron o Non-‐heme iron= other types o When RBC die→ iron is recycled § Therefore we lose little Iron, except when bleeding o Absorption § Heme iron= more readily absorbed § Vitamin C (75mg) →helps absorb non-‐heme iron § Tannins in tea/phytates in grains inhibit iron absorption o Iron in Foods § Heme iron • Most meats § Non-‐heme iron • Nuts, eggs, raisans, whole grains, leafy greens o Iron Deficiency § Anemia= decreased oxygen carrying capacity of blood • Lower RBC count • Less oxygen gets to cells • 30% of the world population suffers from it o half of these are due to low iron • impaired physical and mental ability • fatigue, loss of appetite • decreased ability to focus/learn § Pica= neurological dysfunction • makes you want to eat weird things like dirt and clay (b/c high in minerals) o Iron Toxicity § Hemochromatosis= redding of skin • Genetic disease→cuauses increased iron absorption • Iron builds up in the liver and blood • Can cause organ damage • treatment→blood transfusions o Too Much Iron? § UL= 45 mg/day § Can cause stomach irritation, and toxicity can be life threatening • Zinc (Zn) o About 40% is absorbed o Cofactor for up to 200 enzymes o Functions § Growth, wound healing § Sexual maturity § Taste perception § Immune system § Indirect antioxidant o Zinc in Foods § Found in high protein diets § Animal sources (especially seafood) o Zinc Deficiency § In 1960s→ noticed that boys in Middle East (low protein, low yeast diets) has Zinc deficiencies § Symptoms • Rash • Diarrhea • Lack of appetite • Reduced sense of taste, loss of hair o Getting Enough Zinc § RDA for men= 11mg; women= 8mg § Average American =10-‐14 mg/day § Absorption→depends on body needs • Phytic acid→can limit absorption/bioavailability • High Calcium→ can also limit absorption • Zn competes with Cu and Fe for absorption o Avoiding Too Much Zinc § UL= 40mg/day § Excess can interfere with Copper metabolism § toxicity→only happens with supplements, not from food § If intake >100mg→ GI tract issues • Selenium (Se) o Indirect antioxidant o Works with Vitamin E to help protect cell membranes from oxidizing agents o Binds to enzymes→protects from oxidation o May have anti-‐cancer properties o Selenium Deficiency § China→common (because soil) § Muscle/heart problems § Se in soil plays huge role (where grains are grown) o Foods § RDA= 55micrograms/day § UL= 40 micrograms/day § Fish, eggs, shellfish, grains/seeds grown in high Se soil • Iodide (I) o Ion of iodine o Production of thyroid hormone o Helps regulate metabolic rate; growth and development o Deficiency § Cells of thyroid become enlarged to trap more iodide (goiter) § Sluggish; gain weight § During pregnancy→ can cause development issues (cretinism) • Can be reversed before 6 months of pregnancy o Getting Enough Iodide § RDA/DV= 150 mg/day • You can get this from ½ tsp of iodide-‐fortified salt • Sea salt and kosher salt→are not iodide fortified § Most Americans consume more than the RDA o Too Much Iodide § UL= 1.1 mg § High amounts can inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis § Seaweed can cause this • Copper (Cu) o 12-‐75% of copper absorbed o Involved in metabolism of Fe and transport of Fe o Formation of connective tissue o Cofactor for antioxidant enzymes o Getting Enough Cu § Foods: liver, legumes, whole grains, cereals, chocolate § Form in supplements→not readily absorbed § Absorption is highly variable • The more you take in, the less you absorb (toxicity unlikely) • Phytates can also affect absorption § Average Intake: Men=1.6 mg Women= 1mg o Too Much Cu § Single dose of >10mg→toxicity § Can irritate GI tract § Toxicity→ only occurs from supplements § Wilson’s Disease • Genetic; accumulation of Cu • Can cause damage to kidney, nervous system, and other organ
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