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Dr. Greene Week 10 Notes

by: Rachel Ferrell

Dr. Greene Week 10 Notes NTRI 2000-002

Rachel Ferrell
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

covers the remaining part of Ch9: Minerals
Nutrition and Health
Michael Winand Greene
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Ferrell on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000-002 at Auburn University taught by Michael Winand Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 04/06/16
Rachel  Ferrell   NTRI  2000   4/4-­‐4/8     Chapter  9  Cont.     Major  Minerals:   • Calcium  (Ca)   o Most  abundant  mineral  in  the  body   o 99%  of  it  is  in  bones   § integral  part  of  bone  structure   § storehouse  for  Ca  in  blood   o adults  absorb  25%  of  Ca  in  foods  eaten   o increases  in  infants  and  during  pregnancy  (up  to  60%)   o Serum  Calcium   § Also  means  functions   § 1.)  regulates  transport  of  ions  across  cell  membranes   • important  for  nerve  transmission   § 2.)  Maintains  blood  pressure   § 3.)  Muscle  contractions   § 4.)  Secretion  of  hormones.  Enzymes.  Neurotransmitters,  etc.   § 5.)  Helps  blood  clotting   o Possible  health  benefits   § More  calcium  has  shown  to  decrease  risk  for   • Cancers/kidney  stones   • Hypertension   • High  blood  cholesterol   • Obesity   • Osteoporosis   o Decreased  bone  mass;  bones  become  brittle   o Related  to  age,  genetics,  poor  diet   o Fractures  are  common   o Not  just  women,  even  though  it  is  very  prevalent  in  women   o Loss  in  height,  pain,  kypnosis(hunchback)   o Calcium  and  Bone  Density   § Peaks  in  20s,  levels  off  in  30s,  decreases  after  40s   § Therefore,  need  to  build  up  density  at  a  young  age   § How  to  maintain  it?   • 1.)  Adequate  amount  of  Calcium  and  Vitamin  D   • 2.)  Exercise   • 3.)  Estrogen   o Calcium  in  foods   § AI:  1000-­‐1200  mg/day   § UL:  2500  mg/day   § Dairy   § Breads/rolls   § Leafy  vegetables   § Ca  fortified  products   § Supplements;  also  antacids   • Sodium  (Na)   o Absorb  about  100%  of  consumed  Na   o 30-­‐40%  of  it  is  in  bones   o Major  positive  ion  in  extracellular  fluid   o Functions:   § 1.)  fluid  balance  b/w  compartments   § 2.)  Nerve  impulse  conduction   § 3.)  Absorption  of  glucose     o Sodium  Deficiency:   § Rare   § Symptoms  are  the  same  as  water  toxicity   o Sodium  Sensitivity:   § Body  will  usually  adjust  to  increased  Na  by  increasing  urine  output   § However,  10-­‐15%  of  adults  have  Na  sensitivity   • Leads  to  increased  blood  pressure   § UL:  2300  mg/day   • Chloride  (Cl)   o Ion  of  Cl   o Major  negative  ion  in  extracellular  fluid   o Used  in  producing  stomach  acid  (HCl)  used  in  immune  response  of  WBC   • Potassium  (K)   o Major  positive  ion  in  intracellular  fluid   § This  is  95%  of  body’s  K   o Important  in  fluid  balance,  nerve  impulse   o Increased  K  leads  to  increased  blood  pressure   o People  with  an  increased  risk  of  deficiency   § Diuretics  (medicine  that  treats  high  blood  pressure)   § Alcoholics   § Certain  eating  disorders   § All  of  these  can  lead  to  heart  failure   o Too  much  Potassium?   § Due  to  kidney  failure;  can  stop  heart   o Potassium  in  Foods   § AI:  4700  mg/day   § Found  in  most  unprocessed  foods   § “Rich”  source   • potatoes,  plums,  avocados,  bananas,  cantaloupe,  honeydew,  melon,  raisins,   leafy  greens   Trace  Minerals:   • all  can  be  toxic  in  excess   • <100  mg   • Iron  (Fe):   o In  every  cell  in  the  body   o Absorb  about  18%  consumed  in  foods   o Most  Iron  associated  with  hemoglobin  (RBC)  and  myoglobin  (muscle)=  heme  iron   o Non-­‐heme  iron=  other  types   o When  RBC  die→  iron  is  recycled   § Therefore  we  lose  little  Iron,  except  when  bleeding   o Absorption   § Heme  iron=  more  readily  absorbed   § Vitamin  C  (75mg)  →helps  absorb  non-­‐heme  iron   § Tannins  in  tea/phytates  in  grains  inhibit  iron  absorption   o Iron  in  Foods   § Heme  iron   • Most  meats   § Non-­‐heme  iron   • Nuts,  eggs,  raisans,  whole  grains,  leafy  greens   o Iron  Deficiency   § Anemia=  decreased  oxygen  carrying  capacity  of  blood   • Lower  RBC  count   • Less  oxygen  gets  to  cells   • 30%  of  the  world  population  suffers  from  it   o half  of  these  are  due  to  low  iron   • impaired  physical  and  mental  ability   • fatigue,  loss  of  appetite   • decreased  ability  to  focus/learn   § Pica=  neurological  dysfunction   • makes  you  want  to  eat  weird  things  like  dirt  and  clay  (b/c  high  in  minerals)   o Iron  Toxicity   § Hemochromatosis=  redding  of  skin   • Genetic  disease→cuauses  increased  iron  absorption   • Iron  builds  up  in  the  liver  and  blood   • Can  cause  organ  damage   • treatment→blood  transfusions   o Too  Much  Iron?   § UL=  45  mg/day   § Can  cause  stomach  irritation,  and  toxicity  can  be  life  threatening   • Zinc  (Zn)   o About  40%  is  absorbed   o Cofactor  for  up  to  200  enzymes   o Functions   § Growth,  wound  healing   § Sexual  maturity   § Taste  perception   § Immune  system   § Indirect  antioxidant   o Zinc  in  Foods   § Found  in  high  protein  diets   § Animal  sources  (especially  seafood)   o Zinc  Deficiency   § In  1960s→  noticed  that  boys  in  Middle  East  (low  protein,  low  yeast  diets)  has  Zinc   deficiencies   § Symptoms   • Rash   • Diarrhea   • Lack  of  appetite   • Reduced  sense  of  taste,  loss  of  hair   o Getting  Enough  Zinc   § RDA  for  men=  11mg;  women=  8mg   § Average  American  =10-­‐14  mg/day   § Absorption→depends  on  body  needs   • Phytic  acid→can  limit  absorption/bioavailability   • High  Calcium→  can  also  limit  absorption   • Zn  competes  with  Cu  and  Fe  for  absorption   o Avoiding  Too  Much  Zinc   § UL=  40mg/day   § Excess  can  interfere  with  Copper  metabolism   § toxicity→only  happens  with  supplements,  not  from  food   § If  intake  >100mg→  GI  tract  issues   • Selenium  (Se)   o Indirect  antioxidant   o Works  with  Vitamin  E  to  help  protect  cell  membranes  from  oxidizing  agents   o Binds  to  enzymes→protects  from  oxidation   o May  have  anti-­‐cancer  properties   o Selenium  Deficiency   § China→common  (because  soil)   § Muscle/heart  problems   § Se  in  soil  plays  huge  role  (where  grains  are  grown)   o Foods   § RDA=  55micrograms/day   § UL=  40  micrograms/day   § Fish,  eggs,  shellfish,  grains/seeds  grown  in  high  Se  soil   • Iodide  (I)   o Ion  of  iodine   o Production  of  thyroid  hormone   o Helps  regulate  metabolic  rate;  growth  and  development   o Deficiency   § Cells  of  thyroid  become  enlarged  to  trap  more  iodide  (goiter)   § Sluggish;  gain  weight   § During  pregnancy→  can  cause  development  issues  (cretinism)   • Can  be  reversed  before  6  months  of  pregnancy   o Getting  Enough  Iodide   § RDA/DV=  150  mg/day   • You  can  get  this  from  ½  tsp  of  iodide-­‐fortified  salt     • Sea  salt  and  kosher  salt→are  not  iodide  fortified   § Most  Americans  consume  more  than  the  RDA   o Too  Much  Iodide   § UL=  1.1  mg   § High  amounts  can  inhibit  thyroid  hormone  synthesis   § Seaweed  can  cause  this   • Copper  (Cu)   o 12-­‐75%  of  copper  absorbed   o Involved  in  metabolism  of  Fe  and  transport  of  Fe   o Formation  of  connective  tissue   o Cofactor  for  antioxidant  enzymes   o Getting  Enough  Cu   § Foods:  liver,  legumes,  whole  grains,  cereals,  chocolate   § Form  in  supplements→not  readily  absorbed   § Absorption  is  highly  variable   • The  more  you  take  in,  the  less  you  absorb  (toxicity  unlikely)   • Phytates  can  also  affect  absorption   § Average  Intake:  Men=1.6  mg  Women=  1mg   o Too  Much  Cu   § Single  dose  of  >10mg→toxicity   § Can  irritate  GI  tract   § Toxicity→  only  occurs  from  supplements   § Wilson’s  Disease   • Genetic;  accumulation  of  Cu   • Can  cause  damage  to  kidney,  nervous  system,  and  other  organ      


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