Anthropology Notes 4/5/16-Exam 4
Anthropology Notes 4/5/16-Exam 4 2597
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Metzgar on Wednesday April 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2597 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Professor Ehrensal in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 04/06/16
Stratification and Inequality Status: relative social standing or position Achieved Status -a particular position obtained because you’ve done something to earn it (passively or actively) Ascribed Status -a particular position obtained because of who you are, it’s part of your Identity (kings, queens, etc.) Differential Status -access to things others don’t have ex.) prestige, power, economic resources What Causes Stratification? -Once people start growing their own food we begin to see stratification -the ability to create excess food→ status differences (occupations) Degrees of Inequality Egalitarian Societies -most foraging societies -all adults are more or less equal -where status differences exist is typically from achieved status -differential access to prestige Stratified Societies Rank Societies -agriculturalists and herders -differential access to power and prestige (once obtained it can’t be taken away -achieved rank (need to do certain things) -inherited rank (only certain people have access to do the things to obtain the rank) Class Societies -state level societies -differential access to prestige, power, and economic resources -social class position defines the prestige, power, and economic resources that you can have -open class system (possibility of movement up or down in class) -closed systems (category you’re born into is the one you will be In forever) ex) caste systems in southern asia Politics and Political Systems Political System -the element of social organization which functions to regulate the interrelations among groups and their representation -in traditional societies, the basic unit of political organization is kinship and descent Anthropological Perspective On The Political -variation in: -authority structure -power (formal and informal) -dispute resolution/legal systems Functions of the Political Systems -decision making -conflict resolution -social control Social Control -means by which a society enforces appropriate behavior ex) laws, norms, taboos/religious dictates Norms -implicit understandings about how people should behave -learned through the process of socialization (becomes habitual) -become explicit when broken or violated -”informally corrected” Taboos/Religious -explicit: created by supernatural author -when broken: supernatural consequences Laws -explicit: human author(s) -policing/enforcement function -judicial function
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