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This 13 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Michelle Porter on Tuesday February 3, 2015. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to Bio 203 at Purdue University taught by Bridges in Winter2014. Since its upload, it has received 116 views.
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Date Created: 02/03/15
Lab 1 Objectives 1 Matter is composed of elements 2 Atoms are composed of protons neutrons and electrons 3 Ions are atoms that contain different numbers of electrons The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus The atomic mass is the number of protons and neutrons 4 An isotope has the same number of protons but different number of neutrons 5 Covalent bond When atoms share electrons with other atoms Ionic bonds When atoms donate or receive electrons Hydrogen Bonds These are the weakest type of bond and they bond with Hydrogen or certain other elements 6 A molecule is made up of atoms 7 Simple formulas are written out and structural formulas are drawn 8 Exchange AB CD AD BC Reversible Reactions that can be reversed Synthesis When amino acids are joined by covalent bonds to produce proteins Dissociation when one of the molecules is broken down 9 Acids Release hydrogen ions when dissolved in water Bases Combine with hydrogen ions in solution Salts Electrolytes Substances that are bonded together by electrocovalent bonds dissociate into their constituent ions when dissolved in water 10 pH is the measure of acidity or alkalinity Acidity is below 7 neutral is 7 and alkalinity is above 7 11 Inorganic substances found in cells Water carbon dioxide and oxygen 12 Four major groups of organic substances Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids 13 Carbohydrates always include carbon oxygen and hydrogen They produce sugars which are burned to produce energy Some examples are monosaccharide s fructose glucose galactose disaccharides lactose sucrose and polysaccharides glycogen starch 14 Lipids are not soluble in water The types of lipids are triglycerides steroids testosterone estradiol cortisol cholesterol and phospholipids 15 Proteins make up more than half of the dry weight of the cells in your body They are vitally important in the cells structure its metabolism and in many other functions of the cell They are linear assemblies of amino acids Three examples albumin actin and myosin 16 Denaturation is the breaking down of hydrogen bonds It can be caused by heat 17 Nucleotides are made up of a nitrogencontaining base a 5carbon sugar and one or more phosphate group 18 Genetic diseases often are caused by mutations in one amino acid in an important protein 19 Levels of organization Molecules Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Lab 2 Objectives 6 Cells differ in shape size and function 8 The plasma cell membrane consists of a lipids proteins and carbohydrates The basic framework is a phospholipid bilayer that is made up of hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails The bilayer is permeable to lipid soluble substances such as oxygen and carbon dioxide It is impermeable to water soluble substances such as sugars amino acids and ions Glycolipids contain bound carbohydrates and are found in the outer half of the phospholipid bilayer They are involved in mediating celltocell recognition Cholesterol plays an important part in the stiffening of the membrane Proteins carry out the functions of the cell There are three different kinds of proteins integral which are embedded in the membrane if they span it they are called transmembrane proteins Peripheral membranes are bound to the surface of the membrane and sometimes have carbohydrates bound to them making them glycoproteins Carbohydrates are constituents of glycolipids and glycoproteins 10 The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear envelope which contains nuclear pores that allow passage of large molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm The nucleus has a nucleolus nuclear matrix and chromatin The nucleolus produces ribosomes that travel from the nucleus into the cytoplasm The chromatin is molecules of DNA that contain the information needed for protein synthesis The nuclear matrix consists of a variety of molecules that play a role in gene expression 11 3 Ways in which substances can pass along the plasma membrane without energy Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion and Osmosis 12 3 ways in which substances pass along the plasma membrane only with the aid of energy provided by the cell active transport endocytosis and exocytosis 1 Describe 4 Stages of Mitosis Prophase This is where the chromatin starts to condense and form visible chromosomes and the nucleolus disappears Each half of a chromosome is held together by a centromere and each half is called a chromatid which is a complete chromosome The mitotic spindle is formed and will eventually be stretched between the separated centrosomes Metaphase There is no recognizable nucleus the mitotic spindle is stretched and the chromosomes are clearly discernable The chromosomes line up in the equatorial plate Anaphase This is when the centromeres divide so there is one for each chromatid They are pulled apart and two identical clusters of chromosomes are at opposite ends of the cell Telophase The nucleus nucleolus and nuclear membrane start to reform The chromosomes unwind and disperse and the new cell cycle for the daughter cells start 2 Importance of having cell cycle checkpoints Provide time for DNA repair and editing 3 Cell differentiation When cells start to look different from one another and become located in different places Gene expression Cellspeci c mechanisms that turn genes off and on 4 De ne apoptosis and give an example Webs of skin between the ngers and toes of the fetus Apoptosis is unwanted cell programmed death Lab 3 Objectives 1 How can epithelial tissue be arranged Simple Strati ed Psuedostrati ed 2 What are the different shapes of epithelial tissues Squamous Cuboidal Columnar 3 What is the basement membrane made up of Collagen IV Laminin and Proteoglycans 4 What does epithelial tissue cover All outer surfaces of the body lines the body s cavities and lines hollow organs 5 What glands develop from epithelial tissue Endocrine and exocrine glands Lab 4 Objectives 1 8 Functions of Connective Tissue Stores fat Generates blood cells Supports and protects Binds structures together Serves as framework Fills spaces Protects against infections Helps repair tissue damage 2 5 Cell types found in connective tissue amp describe Mast cells Have granules that contain heparin histamine and proteases This cell also produces substances that are important in signaling other cells and leukotrines and prostaglandins All of these substances are important in the in ammation and allergic reactions Macrophages Phagocytize cellular debris bacteria and are important in the in ammatory response These are derived from monocytes White blood cells Increase dramatically in number during in ammation following infection by pathogens such as bacteria An example is neutrophils that are phagocytic and move out of the bloodstream and into infected areas Specialized cells In bone osteocytes In cartilage chondrocytes Fibroblasts Cells that produce bers 3 Name 2 types of ber found in connective tissue Collagenous and elastic bers 4 Name the special type of protein found in the ground substance of connective tissue Proteogylcans 5 Name 9 types of connective tissue function amp location Loose Areolar Very abundant composed of collagenous and elastic bers and contains numerous broblasts Exhibits both exibility and strength It is located surrounding blood vessels nerves muscle bers and muscle groups It binds skin to underlying muscles Adipose made up of no bers Contains adipocytes which store triglycerides This storage is the body s main source of energy It is found just below the skin around the organs around the eyes and at the joints Some other functions are insulation acting as a shock absorber giving shape to body surfaces lling spaces and holding organs in place Dense Regular Has strength in one direction s predominantly collagen bers but has some elastin Forms ligaments tendons and aponeuroses Has poor blood supply which causes sow healing Dense lrregular Has strength in all directions mostly collagenous bers but some elastin Also has poor blood supply which causes sow healing It is found in the the dermis of the skin in sheaths covering muscles nerves and in the adventitia of the blood vessels It is also found forming capsules covering various organs and joints making up the sclera of the eye and the perichondrium and periosteum Elastic Mainly elastin bers but some collagenous and some brillin May be arranged in parallel or in irregular branching patterns It can be stretched about one and a half times its normal size and retuned by elastic recoil It is found in the walls of the arteries lungs larynx trachea and in between vertebrae Reticular Contains reticular bers and provides a supporting framework for many organs include the liver spleen and lymph nodes Cartilage Hyaline Elastic Fibrocartilage Hyaline is the most abundant and has collagenous bers It is found at the end of bones in the larynx trachea nose ribs and respiratory tubes Elastic cartilage is made of elastic bers and is found in the larynx and ear aps Fibrocartilage has tensile strength and is a shock absorber It is found in between vertebrae and in the joints Other Blood Bone 6 List 5 important physiological functions of the skin Protection Regulation of body temperature Excretion Synthesis of Vitamin D Sensation 7 Describe the structure of the skin including a list of its layers Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous 8 List 3 accessory structures of the skin Hair follicles glands and nails 9 Describe the structure of a hair follicle 10 What is keratinization To which group of chemical substances does keratin belong Keratinization is a process where older cells progressively die and become packed with a tough brous waterproof protein called keratin 11 Describe 3 types of glands associated with the skin Sebaceous Ceruminous Sweat Lab 5 Objectives 1 Classify bones according to their shapes and name an example from each group Long Longer than they are wide and act as levers Some examples are bula humerus tibia ulna and radius Short Equal in length and width and look somewhat like a cube Found in con ned spaces and function to transfer forces An example would be the wrist or ankle Flat Allow for attachment of muscle and protect underlying tissue Some examples are skull bones ribs and scapula lrregular Usually have projections that serve as attachment for muscle An example is vertebrae RoundSesamoid Often occur within tendons at joints that endure a lot of pressure An example is the patella and wrist 2 Describe general structure of a typical long bone and list the functions of the parts The shaft is called the diaphysis and is made up of compact bone It is covered by the periosteum and inside is the medullary cavity that is lined by the endosteum The ends are called epiphyses and they are lined with articular cartilage They are composed of spongy bone 3 Describe how bone is similar to reinforced concrete Bone is made up of Calcium Phosphate and Collagen bers Reinforced concrete has tensile strength in steel rods and compressional strength in concrete The collagen bers are the steel rods and the Calcium Phosphate is the concrete 4 List and describe the four types of cell found in bone Osteoprogenitor Cells Osteoblasts Make bone Osteocytes Once osteoblasts Osteoclasts Dissolve bone 5 Describe osteoporosis When the osteoclasts are doing more than the osteoblasts There is a loss of bone mass and mineral content 6 Distinguish intramembranous and endochondral bones and describe their development It is intramembranous if it is occurs in brous connective tissue It is endochondral if it occurs in hyaline cartilage 7 Describe the 5 important factors that affect bone growth and development Minerals Boron Phosphorus Manganese Calcium Vitamins A C D Hormones Sex hormones growth hormones thyroid hormones parathyroid hormones calcitonin Exercise Aging 8Describe the 4 structures that make up a synovial joint With the synovial joints the ends of bones involved are capped with articular cartilage Surrounding the joint is the joint capsule that has two parts The outer layer of dense connective tissue that attaches itself to the periosteum of the bones and an inner layer of loose connective tissue called the synovial membrane Secreted from this membrane and into the synovial cavity is synovial uid 9 Describe 3 structures associated with synovial joints 10 List the 7 types of synovial joints and give an example of each Ball and socket hip or shoulder Hinge elbow Saddle carpal and metacarpal of the thumb Condyloid radius and carpals Gliding wrist or ankle Pivot between the atlas and axis of the neck Bicondylar knee 11 Distinguish between axial and appendicular skeletons and name the major components of each The axial skeleton consists of the head neck and trunk The appendicular skeleton consists of the limbs pectoral and pelvic girdles Lab 6 Objectives 1Name the components of a skeletal muscle and describe their functions Plasma membrane Sarcolemma ER Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Cytoplasm Sarcoplasm The sarcoplasm contains myo brils with actin myosin troponin and tropomyosin 2 List 5 steps involved in contraction of a muscle ber 1 Resting condition the myosin is primed and ready 2 Attachment of the myosin head to actin 3 Power stroke 4 Detachment and reorientation 5 Preperation and priming for next attachment step 4 Describe the neuromuscularjunction The synapse between neurons and skeletal muscle bers is the neuromuscular junction There is only one per muscle ber although a single neuron may transmit signals via branching collaterals to many other muscle bers 5 Name the neurotransmitter used at the neuromuscular junction Acetylcholine 6 Describe the function of calcium in skeletal muscle contraction Calcium binds to troponin which changes the shape of the molecules in tropomyosin These changes unmask the myosinbinding sites on actin 7 De ne the threshold stimulus and the allornone phenomenon The allornone phenomenon applies to single muscle bers A stimulus is either suf cient to cause a maximum contraction or there is no contraction at all 8De ne what a motor unit is and describe its properties A motor unit is a motor neuron and all of the muscle bers it is connected with 9 Explain by what is meant by motor recruitment Increasing the number of motor neurons and motor units activated at any one time can increase the force of contraction of the muscle 10 Explain what is meant by muscle tone and how it relates to posture and maintaining balance Muscles are responsible for maintaining posture When postural tone is lost the body collapses and becomes limp 11 De ne tetanic contraction and distinguish it from a twitch Tetanic contraction is when a muscle is stimulated at high frequency and doesn t have time to relax between the twitches 13 Name one type of glial cell Astrocytes 14 Name the 2 sensory receptors that convey to the brain the information on the length and tension developed by a skeletal muscle Muscle Spindles and Golgi Tendon Organs Lab 7 Objectives 1 Explain the ways muscles interact to produce smooth coordinated movements Most movements are coordinated by several skeletal muscles acting in groups rather than individually A muscle that is primarily involved in the movement is called the agonist While the agonist is contracting the antagonist in relaxing 2 Describe the neuromuscularjunction The junction of the axon terminal with a muscle ber 3 Explain what is meant by motor recruitment The central nervous system can increase the strength of the muscle contraction by adding and activating more motor units 4 Advantages of having the lever system Large movements of the limbs can be achieved with a small degree of muscle shortening 5 Disadvantages of having the lever system Large muscles are called on to exert very large forces and sometimes they can rupture the tendon 6 First class lever examples Lifting the head or extending the forearm by the triceps brachii 7 Third class lever examples Flexion of the forearm by the biceps brachii
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