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Exam 1 Review

by: Michelle Porter

Exam 1 Review Bio 203

Marketplace > Purdue University > Bio 203 > Exam 1 Review
Michelle Porter
GPA 3.0
Anatomy & Physiology

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Anatomy & Physiology
Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...)
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This 5 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Michelle Porter on Tuesday February 3, 2015. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to Bio 203 at Purdue University taught by Bridges in Winter2014. Since its upload, it has received 88 views.


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Date Created: 02/03/15
Chapter 1 Objectives 2 Anatomy means form and Physiology means function The two are related because they must be studied together 3 10 Major Characteristics of Higher Life Forms Reproduce Assimilate food products Circulate blood Excrete unwanted or harmful materials Move Absorb products of digestion Digestion Grow Respire React to stimuli 4 Writer of the earliest textbook Andreas Vesalius Discoverer of blood circulation William Harvey Chapter 2 Objectives 1 Four most important needs in humans Oxygen Food Water and Warmth 2 Homeostasis is a system that keeps your body in balance 3 6 Factors under homeostatic control Body temperature Oxygen levels in the blood and tissue Acidity and pH in blood and body uid Glucose levels Salt content Metabolic waste product levels 4 When changes happen that are away from normal the negative feedback system provokes changes in the opposite direction back to normal 5 5 Levels of Organization Atoms Cells Tissues Organs and Organ Systems 6 The Hox gene is important in evolution normal development and seeing what an animal will look like as an adult 7 The major cavities in the body are the Dorsal Cavity Ventral Cavity and Small Head Cavity There are two cavities in the Dorsal Cavity Cranial and Vertebral There are two cavities in the Ventral Cavity Abdominopelvic and Thoracic 8 In the Small Head Cavity there is the oral nasal orbital and middle ear In The abdominal cavity there is the stomach intestines spleen liver and gall bladder In the pelvic there is the reproductive organs bladder and large intestine In the thoracic there is the esophagus trachea lungs heart and thymus 9 The thoracic cavity and lungs are covered by the Pleural membrane The abdominopelvic cavity is covered by the peritoneal membrane 10 lntegumentary System covering the body Skeletal and Muscular System Support protection and movement Nervous and Endocrine Systems Integration and coordination Digestive Urinary Lymphatic Circulatory and Respiratory Systems Processing and Transporting Reproductive system reproducing 13 A sagittal cut is a cut that divides the body into right and left A transverse cut is a cut that divides the body into superior and inferior sections A coronal cut is a cut that divides the body into anterior and posterior sections 14 Invasive techniques are when the body is invaded Noninvasive is outside the body 15 XRay Can be used to see bone fractures and detecting tumors MRI Able to determine between normal and damaged myelin sheaths can detect atherosclerosis and certain brain tumors that are invisible on CAT scans can assess damage to the heart muscle after a heart attack PET Scan Detects certain isotopes and can be used to determine metabolic activity in regions of an organ such as the brain Can also show regions of decreased metabolic activity in parts of the brain of people suffering from mental disorders CAT Scan Also uses Xrays detects blood clots tumors etc Ultrasonography Uses an ultrasound to visualize the heart in echocardiography can see prostate and fetus in uterus fMRl Uses the same technology as an MRI but also measures oxygen levels in the brain It is possible to detect areas of greatest activity which have high oxygen levels 16 Endoscopy Allows surgery often with microinstruments and lasers Chapter 3 Objectives 1 Life on this planet is thought to have originated in a primordial ocean which contained all the ingredients to form long infocarrying polymers able to self replicate mutate and evolve 2 Matter is composed of elements It occupies space and has weight and includes all gases solids and liquids 3 Atoms are composed of a massive central nucleus lled with protons and neutrons 4 The atomic number is the number of protons The atomic weight is the number of protons and neutrons An ion is an atom that gains or loses electrons it is not stable 5 lsotope Has the same number of protons in their nuclei but different numbers of neutrons 6 Covalent Bond A bond that shares electrons Ionic Bond A bond that accepts or donates an electron Hydrogen Bond A bond between two hydrogens or a hydrogen and another element 7 A molecule is atoms bonded together 8 Simple formulas are written out while structural formulas are drawn 9 Synthesis Reaction When amino acids are joined by covalent bonds to form a protein Exchange Reaction Reversible Reaction Dissociation Reaction 10 Acids Release Hydrogen ions when dissolved in water Bases Combine with Hydrogen ions in solution Salts An example is when HCl reacts with NaOH and the result is water and NaCl The NaCl is the salt Electrolytes Substances that are bonded together by electrocovalent bonds dissociate into their constituent ions when dissolved in water 11 pH is the measure of acidity or alkalinity 12 Major Inorganic substances found in cells Water Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide 13 Carbohydrates Always contain Carbon Oxygen and Hydrogen Include sugars which are burned by the cells to produce energy Lipids Not soluble in water but dissolve in organic solvents Proteins Make up half the dry weight of cells in your body They are vitally important in the cell s structure metabolism and in many other functions Nucleic Acids 14 Carbohydrate Monosaccharide glucose Disaccharide lactose and Polysaccharide starch 15 Lipid Phospholipid Triglyceride fat and Steroid testosterone 16 Proteins Albumin Collagen IV laminin actin elastin 17 Denaturation is the breaking down of Hydrogen bonds causing disorganization of the protein structure and loss of its unique properties 18 A nitrogen containing base a 5carbon sugar and one or more phosphate groups Chapter 4 Objectives


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