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Chem Outline Chap 9-10

by: Anna Perry

Chem Outline Chap 9-10 CHEM0110

Marketplace > Chemistry > CHEM0110 > Chem Outline Chap 9 10
Anna Perry
GPA 3.5
General Chemistry 1
Dr. Maleckar

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About this Document

An outline of what you will need to know for the test on chapters 9-10 as well as important things that Maleckar said in class
General Chemistry 1
Dr. Maleckar
Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...)
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This 5 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Anna Perry on Tuesday February 3, 2015. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to CHEM0110 at a university taught by Dr. Maleckar in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 154 views.


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Date Created: 02/03/15
Maleckar Exam 3 Review Sheet 110Fa112014 Chapter 9 Renresentin2 Molecules Understand the basic differences between an ionic bond and a covalent bond Covalent Sharing of electrons between atoms formed by the overlap of electron density in the orbitals Ionic form between cations and anions electrostatic forces I opposite charges attract Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself I as you move I or I in the periodic table F is the most electronegative atom You can calculate the polarity of a bond by looking at the difference in Electronegativities between the atoms use the values given If the difference is lt05 nonpolar covalent fairly equal sharing 04 S x lt 20 polar covalent unequal sharing 2 20 ionic bond no sharing I transfer of electrons Understand what a dipoledipole moment is A polar bond is said to have a dipole or a dipole moment a difference in electronegativities Be able the calculate the formal charge on an atom Formal charge of electrons in the atom s valence shell of electron groups Be able to draw Lewis structures Place the least electronegative atom or the nonoxygen atom in some cases in the center placing the other atoms around it Connect the atoms with single bonds at first dispersing the remaining electrons in an attempt to give every atom a full octet Evaluate does every atom have a full octet Draw multiple bonds between atoms as necessary to achieve a full octet or better for the atoms Evaluate what are the formal charges on the atoms 0 for all atoms is preferred but cannot always be achieved Remember that the sum of the formal charges must equal the total charge on the molecule 3rd row elements and below will Violate the octet rule to obtain 0 or minimal formal charges for the structure Resonance structures can also be drawn remember that there can be multiple valid Lewis structures a valid Lewis structure has full octets or more for all atoms but that not all valid Lewis structures are good Lewis structures and some are eliminated completely Remember that resonance structures are just multiple Lewis structures for the same molecule in which the single bonds and the arrangements of the atoms are the same but that the electrons and multiple bonds are in different locations Bond length single bonds gt double gt triple Bond strength triple gt double gt single Bond order is the average bond length of a bond it s an average of the bond length among the resonance structures for a molecule For example the AB bond order below is 2 1 1 3 structures 43 X X X BA lt gt B A lt gt B A X X X Bond order of 1 single bond 2 double bond 3 triple bond Bond order of bonds of structures Lattice Energy is the energy required to break apart ions from a solid s crystal lattice and convert the solid to a gas Chapter 10 Molecular Geometrv and Bonding Theories VSEPR VSEPR electronsatoms surrounded by electrons don t like to be near each otherthey repel each otherelectron domains organize themselves to be as far away from each other as possible 0 A compound will be most stale when the electron domains around the central atom are as far apart as possible Electron domains nonbonding electron pairs or bonds single or multiple Know the following shapes of electron domains amp molecules Domains Bond of lone Domain shape Molecular shape Angle s pairs 2 2 0 Linear Linear 1 80 3 0 Trig Planar 120 3 2 1 Trigonal planar Bent 120 3 0 Tetrahedral 1095 4 2 1 Tetrahedral Trig Pyr 1095 1 2 Bent 1095 5 0 Trig Bipyr 90aampe 120e 5 4 1 Trigonal Seesaw 90aamp6 1206 3 2 bipyramidal Tshaped 90aamp6 1206 2 3 Linear 90aamp6 1206 6 6 0 Octahedral 90 5 1 Octahedral Square Pyr 90 4 2 Square Planar 90 Know what occupies the most space 0 lone pair gt triple bond gt double bond gt single bond And know what this means The nonbonding electrons are localized on the central atom so the area of negative charge takes up more space Be able to predict the polarity of a molecule in a general polarnonpolar sense molecular shape linear same linear diff trig planar same trig planar diff bent same or diff tetrahedral same tetrahedral diff trig bipyramidal same trig bipyramidal diff seesaw Tshaped same or diff octahedral same octahedral sq pyram diff square planar same square planar diff Polar compounds will dissolve in other polar molecules miscible groups all same or diff Nonpolar molecules will dissolve in nonpolar miscible Polar and nonpolar won t dissolve in each other immisible Polar water soluble Nonpolar fat soluble Polar or Nonpolar quotUZFUZFUFUZFUZFU UZ UZ Hybridization Atoms promote electrons andor unpair them into different orbitals which are then hybridized or combined to enable the correct number of bonds to form in order to allow the octet rule to be fulfilled to allow for all the bonds to be equal and to allow for the most stable configuration of the molecule Hybrid orbitals are combinations of s p and d orbitals Be able to diagram the original electron configurations for an atom along with the representation of the hybridizationpromotion as described in class Be able the determine the hybridization of an atom of electron domains around an atom hybridization 2 SP 3 sp2 4 sp3 5 sp3d 6 sp3d2 note the sum of the superscripts adds up to the number of domains A single bond is a sigma bond 5 it s formed by orbital overlap in the middle of the internuclear axis A double bond is made up of a sigma bond 5 and a pi bond at 0 sigma bond overlap in the middle of the internuclear axis 0 pi bond overlap above and below the internuclear axis it s the overlap of the p orbitals that don t hybridize A triple bond is made up of a sigma bond and 2 pi bonds the pi bonds are comprised of the overlap of p orbitals that are perpendicular to each other Molecular Orbital Theory explains why some molecules exist why others don t bond strength magnetism and what electronic transitions can take place Be able to draw MO diagrams for bonds between atoms in the first or second row Memorizeknow the templates for the MO diagrams for H He B C N O F Ne If doing a MO diagram for mixed atoms a BCN mixed with OFN e either template will be acceptable Draw the template and fill it in with electrons from bottom to top when there are degenerate orbitals same energy level place one electron in each orbital before pairing The total of orbitals in both atoms must equal the total of orbitals in the molecule The total of electrons in both atoms i any charge on the molecule must equal the number of electrons in the molecular orbitals Be able to classify the bond shown in the MO diagram as paramagnetic or diamagnetic 0 Paramagnetic has at least 1 unpaired electron it will be attracted to a magnetic field Stronger than diamagneticism The more unpaired electrons the greater attraction to magnetic field 0 Diamagnetic has no unpaired electrons in its MO diagram it will be repelled slightly by a magnetic field Be able to determine the bond order of the bond 0 Bond order 12 of electrons in bond orbitals of electrons in antibonding orbitals A bond order of 0 means that the bond doesn t formisn t stable A bond order of 1 means a single bond 2 means a double bond 3 means a triple bond A bond order that s a fraction implies that resonance structures must exist for this bond and that the true bond is a mixture of bonds ex bond order of 32 is a mixture of two structures one having a single bond one having a double bond


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