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Final Exam Review

by: Nuyev

Final Exam Review CAD114

GPA 3.1
Principles of Advertising

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The file includes all the chapters needed for the final exam review of the course.
Principles of Advertising
Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...)
advertisement, CAD114
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This 27 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Nuyev on Tuesday February 3, 2015. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to CAD114 at University of Miami taught by J.Fernandes in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 275 views. For similar materials see Principles of Advertising in Communication at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 02/03/15
Chapter 8 0 Media and message need to work together to create effective communicatoi Planning the message usually happens simultaneously with planning the media The two processes happen in parallel Hamming Communication Plan and Strategies TIE Er iiif Eli i f E m fi ti g DEEi gn and Production ip r 39l39 r E E i rirtematil urriail 39lr Ilu39l Ei l Pllaniniln l Target and ll39ul e lia Research Media Dbr emlma lr Media Mix SEIEGEEEEIFII lr Scheduling and Budge tin Ewing f Mama Tactics oampai gna E La 3lrlrall if 1 EU ibjaoiim and Emma Sop Feeling Mariamring permanence HEELJIIZ39E Effective marketing commuinication is not only focused on media and messages its also a product of both logic and creativity A message plan is rational analysis of a problem and whats needed to solve that problem Creativity is not an open enedded process it is directed at achieving its objectives Creative strategy is a problem solving process which demands creative thinking the mental tool used in guring things out The message must connect with audience in an relevant and unexpected way Starts with a problem from the client and ends with a solution for consumer Advertising is both sciencethe way message is designed to be persuasive and an art in presenting an origin and unexpected idea Big ideas and big plans both call for creative thinking Sometimes the new way to present a message demonstrates creativity in the use of media as much as it does in the design of the message The creative director manages the creative concept and plays an important role in focusing the strategy of ads and making sure the creative concept is strategically on target the account planner has helped put the strategy together in the form of a creative brief so that person may also be involved in pro viding both background and direction to the creative team 3ps of innovation 0 Place environement research focused on areas of agency that impact on creativity such as structure culture integration and communication Creative boutiqes have playful offices to simulate their creative ideas The departaments are colorful and artistic Person Individual research provides insight into what makes individuals creative Everyone has some level of internal creativity Process output research focuses on the creative product the actual campaighn Most people have their own de nition of creativity What is the role of creativity 0 Creativity is a form of problem solving and everyone is born with some talent in that area 0 quotthe creativity begins with the way the product looks works and feelsquot And everything else is a creative challenge packaging distri bution PR the events the business model it39s all creative quotCreativity was baked into the iPod way before the agency got involvedquot The creative Brief The art and science of advertising come together in the phrase creative strategy The strategy must both be creative and strategicright for the product and the target and meet the objectives Creative strategy or message strategy is WHAT the advertisement says Creative execution is HOW it is said The creative strategy and the key execution are spelled out in a document called creative briefor creative platform worksheet blueprint It is prepeared by the account planner to summarize the basic marketing and advertising strategy It gives directions to the creative team Typical brief includes 0 Problem that can be solved by communication 0 Target audience and key insights into their attitudes and behaviors 0 Brand position and other branding decisions such as personality and image 0 Communication objectives that specify the desired response to the message by the target audience 0 Proposition or selling idea that will motivate the target to respond 0 Media consideration where and when the message should be delvered 0 Creative direction that provides suggestions on how to stimulate the desired consumer response 0 The briefs are usually in outline form lled by account plannners and given to creative team 0 Example of creative brief 0 Why are we advertising at all To create awarenessa for an alternative ride 0 What is the message trying to do Make the new ride service appealing to men 0 What are their current attitudes and perceptions My car is here why wait 0 What is the main promise we need to communicate It is more fun when you don39t need to drive 0 What is the key moment to which we tie this message Barn The fun stops when I need to think about getting back home 0 What voice should we use Cool and genuine Straight shooter we should use the language that is good for the audience 0 Message objectives some experts say role is to create awareness or announce others sa its to inform or persuade Hard nosed business people say its only to increase sales Facets of effectiveness 0 Seehear create attention Feel touch emotions Think understand deliver information Connect establish brand identity Believe change attitudes stimulate trust 0 Actdo stimulate trial purchase repurchase o Targeting the target decision is important in planning a message strategy It s the target audience of an advertisement 0 Branding and positioning the demands of the brand are also imoportant considerations 0 Brand positions and brand images are created through message strategies and brought to life through advertising executions Finding a position is dif cult but guring out how to communicate that position in an attention getting message that is consistent across multiple executions and various media is dif cult 0 Brand communication crates symbols and cues that makes brands distinctive such as characters slogans colors and personality cues 0 Brand salience the brand is visible and has a presence in the market place consumers are aware of it and the brand is important to its target market 0 Along brand salienece which is when brand has a presence in the market place and consumers are ware of it and brand is important to the target marker there is topofmind awareness which is objective OOOO to create trust We used them we trust them and they deliver the promise 0 For example medicine or cars 0 Rather than using tangable features companies use emotional features to advertise hotel advertising people greeting each other from diverse backgrounds to make people feel home 0 Planners look for the most creative strategy the approach that makes the most sense given the brands marketing situation and target audience needs Head and heart is one type of strategy cognitive generally speak to the head and affective objectives speak to the heart And hard and soft sell hard is an informational message to touch the mind and generate reposne based on logic thinking that the consumers will make a rational decision A soft sell emotional appeals or images to create a response based on attitudes moods and feelings A soft sell strategy can be used for hard products Sometimes soft sell can be absurd because can create disgust Strategy Description Uses Preemtive Uses common attribute or bene t but brand gets tthere rst and forces me too positiosn Used for products with little differentiation Unique selling propositions Uses a distinct difference in attributes that creates a meaningful consumer bene t Used for products with high level of technological improvement and innovations Brand image Uses a claim of superiority based on extrinsic factors such as pshycoliglcal differences in the minds of consuemrs Low tech homogenous little differentiation Positioning Establishes a place in the mind of consumer relative to the competition New entries or small brands that want to chaHengeleader Resonance Lifestyles situations emotions with which Used in highly competitive the target audience undifferentiated can identify products Affectiveanamlous or Uses an emotional Competitors are ambigoius ambigious message to playing stragith and break trhoguh informative ind fference Transmission view rational head straetiges And ritual view similar to the heart based strategies Rational acute need and routine on the transmission sidehead side Ego social and sensory on the ritual site heart side Most advertisements use lectureseries of instructions given verbally its cheap and easy to reach sales talking head is announcer who delivers a lecture about a product they are compact and ef cent drama relies on the viewer to make inferences about the brand Sometimes the drama is the story that a reader has to construct The characters speak to each other not to the audience fairy tales animals movies novels and myths pshcoligcal appeals primary appeal to the heart Security esteem fear sex and sensory pleasure If the price is emphasized in the ad then the ad appeal is value economy or savings If ad appeals time and effort then appeal is convenience Sellign strategies A selling premise states the logic behind the sales offer A premise is proposition on which an argument is based or conclusion is drawn Usually appeal to the head To have practical effect on customers managers identify products features also called the attributesthe ones most important to the audience Another type of selling premise is claim based on predicition no how the product will perform Retional customer selling premises Type Description Bene t Emphasizes what the product can do transofrms products features into bene ts of the consumers Promise Looks to the future and predicts that something good will happen if you use the product A reason why Emphasizes the logic behind why you should buy something eventhough the reason can be implied or assumed A word because is the key to a reasonwhy statement Unique Selling proposition USP Unique to the product and importatnt to the user Promise that consumers will get this unique bene t only if they use this product Factual or invormatinoal conveys info A straightforward message without any gimmicks emotions or special effects A demonstration How to use the product or what It can do for you Comparison Contrast two or more roducts to show the superiority seeing is believing so the objective is to build conviction Problem solution message Also known as productashero product helps to avoid or solve the problem a vartioanon is the problem avoidance message format Humor Creative stragtegy using comedian to create warm feelings The slice of life Elaborate version of a problem solution staged in the form of the drama Spokespersonbrand icon endorser Speaks about the product to build creadibilyt must be very careful on what they say Teasers Mystery ads don39t identify or make sense arouse curiosity Substantion the proof statements that give the rationale reasoning The substantion needed to make a claim is called support escore measures appeal of celebrities A q score is measure of the familirtayt of a celebrity as well as the company and the brand The Davie brown index DBI measures celebirtys awareness appeal and relevance Evalutes the in uence of celebrity of buying behavior Message that Description Get attention To be effective an ad needs to grab attention through the message Requires stopping power Breaks trhough clutter and given unexpected oud bod effects to attract the audience Stopping ads are the ones which Create interest Getting attention re ects ads pulling power keeps readers attentions and pulls it through to the end of the message Through curiouskty using teaser where info unfolds eventually Resonate Amplify the emotional impact of a message by engaging a consumer in a personal connection with a brand are said to resonate with the target audience Create believeability Advertising sometimes uses a creadibility strategy to intensify the believability of a message Using data to support or prove a claim is critical Are remembered Not only messages have to stopget attention and pullget interest they also have to stick memory another part of the perceptual process Touch emotions Appetite appeal create feeling of hunger and craving Info rm Sometimes ads announces info about new old froemulated produts Focus on features and attributes and seek to create understanding about products advantage Comparison ads are heavy on information Tangible and intangible Teach Ads that demonstrate how something works or how to solve a problem Educational messages teach something important Persuade Designed to affect attitudes and craeate belief Good strategies testimonials and messages that generate word of mouth about the product Create brand associations Transofmrative power of branding where the brand takes on a distinctive character and meaning is one of the IMC important functions Image advertsigin in particular is used to create a representation of a brand in consumers mind with symboismthe link is created trough visuals consumer gets a feeling about a product who uses it and how Drive action Sometimes ads acan make people do something by offering discounts or something for free Sales for example works in tandem with ads to stimulate immediate action using sampling coupons and free gifts Most ads end with signature such as tollfree phone website url email address is called call to action Reminder advertising is used to make costumers to purchase their products again and again as a habit Taglines are used at the end of an ad to summarize the point of ads message in highly memorable way quotamon advertising professionals creativity requires sinqularity uniqueness adaptability and the AHA momenteveation of truth Creative is also generative leads to new ways of thinking Creativity can be de ned as generating novelty and uniqueness that makes something ring ture ldea though or a concept in the mind Formed by combining pieces and fragments of thoughts into something that conveys a piece of meaning Mental creation construction Concepting process of coming up with a new idea Cliches are opposite of creativity generic nonoriginal nonnovel ideas Big idea or creative concept a focus for communicating the message strategy Rislq and untested The Marlboro man for example The ability to make new combinations is heightened by an ability to see relationhsips An idea is putting two unrelated concepts together The ida can be creative to you if you have never though of it in this way however to be truly creative no one should have though about it that way Big idea is a functional dimension ROI of creativity Relevant original and has an impact Business person can think about it in a way quotreturn on investmentquot Relevant mean something to the target audience Original means one of a kind fresh unexpected unusual lmpact impression on the audience Breaks through the clutter gets attention sticks in memory Breakthrough ad has stopping power and that comes from intriguing idea big idea which is interesting important and relevant to consumers Copycat advertising using an idea that soimeone else has originated it39s a concern 50 of ads fall in this category Duvergent thinking is used to describe a style of thinking that explores multiple possibilities rather thaan using rational thinking to arrive at a reational conclusion Right brain thinking intuitive creative and artistic whereas left brain thinking is logical linear and orderly Thinking outside of the box thining about a problem not in the common manner but with a different angle To get a creative idea you must leap beyond the mundane language of strategy statement and see the problem in a novel and unexpected way Creative leap a process ofjumping from the rather boring business language in a strategy statement to an original idea The creative leap is also a creative risk because it jumps from safely predicted strategy statement into unusual idea Coming up with an idea is emotional high Emotional rollercoaster Key charachtersitics of creative people Type Description Problem solving Creative people solve problems through intuition rather than logic Playful Creative people have fun with ideas The ability to visualize They can see the ad and the reactions before even doing the ad Open to new experiences Creative people like adventures experiences that can be a motto Conceptual thinking Innovative advertisement and commercials because they are more imaginative The principle for creative people is to emphasize conepts and worry about executions later Steps for creative process Immersion research nd everything about the problem ldeation develop as many solutions from different angles as possible Brainfaig don39t give up if and when you hit a blank wall Incubation let subconscious mind to take over Illumination embrace when the idea comes often when youre relaxed Evaluation does it work Brainstorming group of people work together to come up with ideas One persons idea simulates another far more ideas are created Secret of brainstorming remain positive deferjudgement no negative thinking To create unexpected idea o What if ask the crazy cquestion to twist the commonplace An unexpected association in free association think about a word and nd everything that comes up to your mind when you imagine that word Follow chain of associations and come up with an unexpected juxtaposition Dramatize the obvious sometimes the most creative is the most obvious Catchy phrasing use catchy frazaes to grab attention An unexpected twist use the words in an unexpected way Play on words Analogy and metaphor use to see new patterns or renationships those are juxtapositions Familiar and strange put the familiar in an unexpcetd situation 0 Twisted clich use the clich phrases in a new meaning Twist the obvious avoid the predocitable Work around the following to prevent unoriginal ideas the look alike avoid copycat advertising with someones idea the tasteless in atteptm to be cute Subaru changed a clich Management issues that affect the formulation of creative strategies and campaigns Extension an idea with legs Legs to a campaign That the idea is strong enough to serve as an umbrella concept for a variety of executions in different media talking to different audeinces Adaptation taking an idea Global The advertisement must be good enough for different market types sometimes can be used standarditzd sometimes little tweak sometimes general change Sometimes an ad can be inappropriate in another country Evaluation the gonogo decision To make sure the idea is creative enough Structural analysis keeping the message strategy and creative concept working together along with head and heart appeals Relies on 3 steps evaluate the power of story linePower of the narrativeheart evaluate the trensgh of the product claimhead consider how well the two are integrated storyline brings the claim to life Copyitesting formal method to evaluate the effectiveness of an ad either in draft form or after it was executed Used to predict and measure the impact of the ad Vampire creativity when the ad is remembered more than the product International advertising Why are internatonal markets becoming important Stagnation of domestic markets too many products and high competition Growth and opportunity due to untapped regions and counries consumers with needs and wants Economically marketers must be able to compete globally Things that affect the international marketing and promotional decisions are Economc environment 0 Economic conditions determine present and future for potential consuming lnfastructure Standard of living Currency stability Exchange rates Cultural environment O 0000 0 Language Lifestyles Values Norms and customs Ethics and moral standarts Taboos Demographic environment 0 Size of population 0 Number of households 0 Age distribution Distribution of wealth 0 Occupation distribution 0 Education levels 0 Emlpyment rate 0 Income levels Politicallegalenvironment o Goverenment policies 0 Laws and regulations 0 Poltical stability 0 Nationalism o Attitudes towards MNCe Global marketers dilemma offer the same product advertising and marketing everywhere or adapt the product to each society Advantages of global merkting and advertising Lower production of ad cost Ability to explore good ideas worldwide Ability to introduce products quickly Consistent international brand company image Global products local messages Adoptation of an inbetween approach Standardizing products Localizing ad messages Think globally act locally Adapt messages to respond to 0 Differences in culture language market conditions 0 Use of pattern advertising ads follow the basic approach but themes copy and visual elements are adopted in local markets Political advertisement can be de ned as any message primarly used to promote a political group or a leader or issues through masss channels First political ad was seen in 1952 Stevenson vs Eisenhower Types of political advertisements Candidate when ad is ssponsodred by the candidate where he promotes his position and issues talks about background Ad could also attack an opponent on issue or image Party when political parties sponsor the message on behalf of candidates Issue ad focuses on conveying position on policy issue sponsoers are usually interest group or political action committee who want to support or defeat a candidate Referenda of Proposition ads that ask voters to support a proposition which will be in the next election Role of politlical advertismenet Dominant form of communication between voters and candiates in usa Candidates can buy unlmimited amounts of time on private broadcasting and cable stations No content restrictions of any kind except requires sponsorship idenU cann 2014 midterm election most expensive midterm election to date 4 billion dollars Research on political advertising content lssues vs images lssue focuses on policy issue lmage focuses on candidate background personality TV politlca ads focus more on issues than on image However this doesn39t mean that the candidates are providing substantial info about a policy issue 1952196 66 issue 34 image 2000 78 issue 22 image 2004 85 issue 15 image More issue oriented Negative politlcal ads focuses on attacking the opponent Positive ads not attacking anyone focuses on the candidate sponsoring the ad Negative ads tend to be more issue oriented 19521996 62 of ads focused on candidate 2000 45 ads focused on candidate 2004 50 focused on candidate Other content considerations Vldeostyle o How candidates present themselves to voters o A Verbal content issue or image candidate or opponent focused o B NonVerbal content voice intonation candidate role dress style setting of the ad facial or bodt charachteristics o C Production techniques length format production style camera shots music 0 Non verbal content 0 Ads analyzed for Voice intonation high pitched worried happy Presenceabsence of candidate is he main speaker Who is the speaker Eye contact Dress style formal informal Settinng of the ad indoors outdoors montagecollage Facial or body charachetristics smiling serious etc Chapter 17 c When a marketer increases value of its product or brand by offering extra incentive to purchase it markteter is creating a sales promotion 0 The aim of sales promotion is to encourage action and drive behavior but can also create brand identity and awareness o The promotion marketing associoation 2 trillion industry founded in 1911 focuses on promotion marketing and showcases 0 De ne key elements of promotion marketing the media and non media marketing pressure applied for a limited period of time in order to stimulate trial increase consumer demand or improve product avaHab y 0 Consumers are important for promotion target but also wholesalers and retailers o Prompts the members of three target audeiences consumers sales representatives and the trade to take immediate action 0 Sales promotion affects demand by offering an incentive to act usually in the form of price reduction or additional amounts of products cash prizes gifts so on 0 Reasons for sales promotion Reason Description Accountability Most companies focus on immediate pro ts which sales promotion can drive Advertisement long term quicker results achieved by sales promotion Another aspect of accountability is that its easy to evaluate sales promotion because they have a timeframe Its also easier to calculate RETURN ON lNVESTMENt for promotions rather than advertising Payout planning the process when costs are projected and compared with the pro ts Media shifts Advertising costs have increased over the past few years Networks raised their advertsiging prises therefore primetime television adverts are fallen Marketing communication forms are explored sales promotion can deliver less cost high productive tabngible results Marketplace changes 0 Consumer behavior consumers are better educated selective less loyal to brands which means they are most likely to swtich brands Pricing conusmers expect short term price reductions Market share the battle mostly is for market share rather than product growth 0 Parity products when products are indifferentiated sales promotion act strongly when de ning chonsumer decision making 0 The power of the retailer the retailers demand promotional incentives before allowing products In their stores Sales promotion reduces the risk of trying a new product by giving something of added value to motivate action Promotional big ideas big idea is as important for SP as for adv SP big idea should support the creative idea of the IMC Advertisement are long term investemnts to build brand equity while SP are triggers for short term actions 0 SP aims consumer trade and sales force rst two have direct implications for advertising and marketing communication 0 The third one has two set of activity programs they include preparing the salesperson better to sell more and give manuals and the second is creating instore promotions and contests to motivate sales people to work harder Consumer Promotions Directed at the user of the good or service Consumer promotions provide an incentive so consumers will look for a particular brand 0 Primary strength are exibility variety and their accountability Tools for consumer promotions Tool Description Price Deals Temporary price reduction or even freebies Giveaways too Freebies can be a killer if the company doesn39t adequately predict what will happen The four main price deals o A cents off deal reduction in the normal price Prizepack deals provide with something extra through the package 0 Bonus packs contains additional amount of product for free Banded pack buy more pay less Refunds and rebates A refund or rebate is marketers offer to treturn a certain amount of money to the counsumer who purchases the product Sampling Allowing the consumer to try the product or service is called sampling Premiums Preimeumi is a tangible reward for a particular act usually purchasing a product Premiums are usually cheap or free Two general premiums 0 Direct Store premiums given at retail site ln pack premiums inserted into packages On pack premiums placed on the outside of the package Container packages package is the premium 0 Mail Self liquidator usually requires the cheque and the payment to be ailed before receiving the premium Coupons collect amount of coupons to receive the premium Coupouns Retailer and manufacturer coupons 40 of US consumers used coupons in 2014 Save 3bilion with coupons Retailer coupons can be redeemd only at speci ced retail outlet Manufacturer sponsored coupons can be redeemed at any outlet distributing the product The advantage of mcoupons allows the advertisre to lower prices without relying on cooperation from the retailer to distrubite them Contests and sweepstakes Contests require customers to compete for a prize based on some skill or an ability Sweepstateks require only that participatnts sumbit their names to be included in a drawing or other chance selection Game is a type of sweepstateks lts differs the time frame is longer it establishes continuity by requiring consumers to return Specialities Speciality advertising presents the brands name on something that is given away to remind the consumers Such as pens t shirts bags Proomotional media Awareness one challenge rst step in consumer decision makin Awareness can be increased when ad is combined with appropriate promotion Trial Trial is one of the most imporantt objectives of promotion to show the people the bene ts of the goods sampling is a tool of trial Price deal try this procuct and we will give it to you cheaper than the usual price offered through cupons refunds rebates or premiums Another purpose of price deals is to convince prospective users to swtich from established brand Brand reminder anpther purpose of promotions Using special items to remind consumers about how good the brand is For example king corn snack bowl Consumer promotion is of little use if the product isn39t available where the consumer can nd it In such programs trade refers to all the people involved in the distribution channel including buyers brokers distributors wholesaleasrs and dealers and retailers and farnchisesTrade promotions are directed at distribution channel members as this is called channel marketing Types of trade promotions Type Description Retailer dealer Kits Materials that support retailers selling effotts or that helprepresantaives make sales calls on prospective retailing customers are often designed as sales kits Sales kits contain supporting information such as detailed product speci cation howto display and ad slicks Trade incentives and deals Manufacturer may reward a reseller nancially for purchase of a certain level of product or support of a promotion In response retailers can do discounts free gods and gifts from the manufacturer Most common type are buying alloweances for increasing purchases and advertising allowances which include deals on cooperative advertising display allowances or deals for agreeing to use promotional displays Contests Advertisers can create contests to motivate resellers A sales quota is set and the reatielrs who exceeds the quota by the largest wins the contest This motivates resellers Point of purchase promotions Point of purchase advertising internatinlal POPAI marketatretail industry includes Manufacturerdesigned displays distributed to retailers create a personality for their stores and to cure their brand image and differentiate These are known as point of purchase materials POP materials Trade shows and exhibits Trade show is a place where companies within the same industries gather to present and sell their merchandise and demonstrate their product Exhbists are the spaces that are dsigned to showscase the product Trade promotions are designed to get the cooperation of people in the distribution channel and to encourage their promotion of the product to consumers Trade support to stimulate instore merchandising or oterh trade supportfeature pricing superior store location shelf space Excitement to create a high level of excitement amon those responsible for the sale Consumer and trade promotions interact through complementing push and pull strategies When the consumer will see an advertisement of some good and will ask for it from its retailer its called a pull strategy they will pull the product through the distribution channel Push strategy is made between the company and the grocery stores for example to push the product through the channel by convincingmotivating or rewarding Most common types of trade deals as part of push strategy Strategy Description Bonuses Also called push money or spiffs is paid to salesperson based on units the salesperson sells over a period of time Dealer Leader These are premiums that a manufacturer gives to retailer for buying a certain amount of a product Its like presents the company gives to the retailers to sell Buying allowances A manufacturer pays the wholesaler or retailer a certain amount of money or does discounts on buying a given amount of product Advertising allowances The manufacturer pays the wholesales money to advertise This can be amount of money or percentage from sales CoOP Advertising Agreement when manufacturer agrees to pay some amount of retailers advertisement costs Display Allowance Direct amount of cash or goods given to retailer if retailer agrees to set up the point of sale display Multiplatform promotions Sponsorships and event marketing Sponsorships when companies support an event either nancially or by donating supplies and services Event marketing means building a products marketing program around a sponsored event lts linking of a brand to an event Sampling event letting the consumers try out the product Ambush marketing promotional stunts used at events by companies that are NOT sponsoring the event in any way Sponsorhsip types Sportseventsathletes teams Entertainment tours and attractions Festivals fairs annual events Cause marketing ascosiating with an even that supports a social cause Support for the arts Cause marketing sponsorships is the fastest growing Loyality programs Also known as frequency or continuity another place where promotion and advertising cross Loyality programs are to increase customer uderjanie Basically the more you buy the more bene ts you have Partnership programs Another promotion tool that crosses the lines Comarketing involves manufacturer developing marketing communication programs with their main retail accounts instead of them Comarketing strategies is based on the lifestytels of people living around the retailer This means advertising creates equity for both retailer and manufacturer CoBranding When two companies come together to offer a product for example monster beats by dre Licensings Company with the brand rents that brand to other companies allowing use their logo 0 ntheir products and in their advertising events Tieins and cross promotions Tiein or cross promotion one plus one equal three Create complementary goods leverage similar strength to achieve a bigger impact in the marketplace Promotions alone CANT create image for brand cant change negatve attitutdes towards a brand or a product or reposition brand Brand building however can be The issue of brand building Advertising critics say that sales promotions negate the brand image and negate everything to the price Brand insensitive consumer Critics say that brand building is nto built by cutting prices but is build by offering superior goods at a reasonable price ADvertsiign Sales Promotion Creates brand image over time Creates immediate action Relies on emotional appeals Added value strategies rely on reational appeals impulse appeals use emotion Adds intangible value to product or Addstangible value to product or srevcie thorugh image service Contributes moderately to shortterm Contributes greatly to short term profitabin pro trablitliy Chapter 19 evaluation of effectiveness of an advertisement When advertising is effective it drives likes and sales There are multiple goals of an marcom strategy 41 of adverts generate sales Long term brand building vs Short term sales increasing Sales is not the main reason companies advertise it is to create brand awareness If you cant measure it you cant manage it Evaluation is done through testing monitoring and measurement Testing predicts the results monitoring tracks performance nad measurement evaluates the results Types of researches Developtmental research Pretesting estimetes that likelohod that an idea will work Concurrent research Using tracking studies and montiroing to see how the message and media are working Posttesting research Evaluates the impact after the campaign is over Diagnostic research Deconstructs an ad to see what aeemts are not working Framebyfreme analysis It is hard to evaluate the effectiveness of an ad only using saes because there are many other factors that can affect pricing distribution product perfermence and competition Usually ads are evaluated of its communication effects the mental responses to a message which become replacement for effect of sales Good evaluation plans as well as effective professional work are guided by a model of how people respond to advertising Norms are used to compare score of an ad with another similar ad Companies that provide different tests Ameritest Brand linkage attention motivation communication ow of attention Comscore ARS group Persuasion brand ad reca communication psos ASI Recall attention brand linkage persuasion communication Mapes and Ross Brand preferenacce change ad brand reca idea communication key message delivery ike beivabity comprehension dsire to take action Millward brown Branding enkoyment envolvemtn understaning ad ow brand itegration Roper ASW Overall reaction SWOT Message development research Concept testing compares the various messae strategies and their creative idea Key concept cart process is used when the artists draws the idea with a sentence undertneath and researcher evaluates them Pretesting evaluative research which helps marketers to make nal gonogo decisions about nished or nearly nished ads Advertising effects are too complicated to be reduced to a single score Momentbymoment tests privde an analysis of the impact of the internal logic of the commercial Concurrent testing takes place while advertising is running conincidential surveys attitude tests and tracking studies The coincidental survey technique is most often used with broadcast media Random people are called and asked about the ad What they heard remembered liked disliked Tracking studies studies that periodically measure topofmind brand awareness are called tracking studies Show how a marketers brand is performing over time especially after changes are made in the marketing communication Due to various tests it can tell if theres recall problemsaw but cant remember attention getting problem trial problemremembered tha ad but not moved to try the brand or a repeat problem tried but not repurchased Brand tracking tracks the performance of the brand rather than the advertising because it re ects the quality of customers brand relationship Net promoter response to a simple question would you recoomend us to yourf end Another single measure is brand penetration number of costumers who purchase the brand relative to the total number of people in the market There are various methods to collect tracking data Way Description Wave Analysis Looks at seris of interview during a campaign Ask various questions if the person have seen the ad asks follow up questions Adjusts the marcom and then second wave of people are asked until manager is satis ed Consumer Diaries Advertisers ask group of people to write down diary about consumption Which brands changed what bought why Advertisers then read them and determine the factors that caused the changes Pantry checks Provides much of the same info as diary but more from the consumer is required Researcher may ask for empty boxes to check what was bough or go house to house and ask Test market might serve to evaluate tproduct variations as well as elelmtns of a campaign or media mix Advertisers take 2 cities in one no ads or running an old ad in another new ads Comapre sales and results in test cities Isolating variables is almost limltess Advertiser can change the frequnecey or different schedule PostTesting afterExecution Research Post testing occurs after the marketing communication has been used those include memory tests persusasion tests direct response counts frame by frame tests in market tests such as test markets and brand tracking Heuristics is a post testing method Performance is measured in terms of brand attraibutes and information provided by the consumers against a set of rule Engagement Tests interst is determined by excitement and concentration Eye tracking research is a mechanical technique that traces saccadic eye movement and the path the eye takes when looking at an ad Also testing vibration in the retina high vibration means excitement and interest Understanding and comprehension tests are used as part of diagnostics and check if the consumer understood the message Eventhough puzzle messages can be effecitive sometimes the audeicne can not understand it Memory tests fall into recognition and recall Recognition show the ad to the people and ask if they have seen it before In a recall test people who have read the magazine are asked to report what they remember from the ad Unaided recall is a question about the ad WITHOUT mentioning the brand When the brand name is mentioned this is called an aided recall Brand linkage tests the same as memory tests hhowever testing not if the ad was remembered but if the brand associated with the memory Emotion tests some researchesrs divide the ad into pieces to separate the negative from the positive messages Some researches use FMRI machine which monitors brain activity to see anger anxiety insecurity and other positive feelings Likability Tests tests if the consumers liked the advertisement researches say likability score is needed relative to other consumer response Persuasion tests also known as attitude change test They ask if the consumer is willing to buy smth Then they expose them to ad and as kagain to determine where intentnion to buy has increased as a results This is also called intendtobuy or motivation test Inquiry tests measure the number of responses to an advertisement The response can be a response call email coupon lnquiry tests mainly measure directreponse communication Sometimes a magazine is printed with two different ads and the one gaining more response is the superior one Scanner research the goods you buy are all saved in the database Scanner research karta macro naprimer each time you buuy something your purchases is written up If the shop runs a two page newspaper ad it can track vhich worked better Singlesource research arrange to have test commercials devliered to a group of households comparing it to a control group of households The purchasing activity of each HS is collected this gives a understanding of the effect of the ad Data is called singlesource research beceahse it ome from the same household sourcesame market lets say Media evaluation Analyzing the effect of media plan is another important part of evaluation Did the plan actually reach the frequency Evaluating audience exposure verifying the audience measurement estimates is a challenge Media planners cant afford miseinterperting the adata due to millions of BUCKs Two places where media performance is hard to estimate OutOf Home media traf c doesn39t equal exposure For example billboards not guaranteed that the person actually sees it New media internet the same as with outdoor its not guaranteed that the person actually sees the ad Alternative media as word of motuh social or guerilla is also hard to mesure WOM tracks and analyzes the sentiments expressed on social networks blogs and chat rooms TREMOR analyses measureable business results for WOM campaigns ROI is hard to calculate because of PR ROI is easier to calculate for direct marketingfewer variables between message and the sales and for sales promotionbecause there is immediate response whichi is easier to link to the message Wearout when the ad doesn39t create response due to high amount of exposures This is when irritation levels increase Less interesting higher irritation faster wearout Media optimization media ef ciency is hard getting the most out of money invested Evaluating IMC toosl Campaigns and programs Advertising is counted is effective in accomplishing such objectives as creating exposure awarenss brand image and delivering brand reminders PR and sales promotion do some things better than other areas Direct reponse the aim of direct response communication is to drive a transcation or generate immediate behavior response The response is easy to measure The formula to measure DR is Total responses total mailed 1000 Sales promotion sales promotion need to evaluate both the impact of consumer and promotions targetetd at retailers or others channel members Proof of performance various types of responses to promotionaltactics and payout planning provide built in evaluation C05ts 0f promotion payout analysis is compared to forecasted sales generated by promotion A breakeven analysis seeks to determine the point where costsgt revenue Public relations Measures the success in terms of outputmaterias distributed and produced and outcomesacceptance and impact of the materials Output objectives achieved Production number of PR messages Distribution number of media vehicles Coverage numer and size of clips Impressions media placements multiplied by circulation Advertising value equivalent ad costs for time or space Content analysy positive or valence Outcome objectives achieved Awareness aided and unaided recall Attitudes perecptions perefernces and intent to buy Behaviouir did target do what you wanted them to do Website evaluation Some performances indicate page views or number of visitors to a site Banner advertising are evaluated using clickthrough rates However this is not good measure because people can accidently click or because of curiousity this ad is sold by peyperclick therefore can be unpro table Some advertisers use cotperlead metric that records how well the clicktrough generates prospectecs The most important metric for internet measure is conversion rate which is percentage of visitors to a site who completed an action Special advertising situations Primary objective of retail advertising is to generate store traffic In b2b marketing a common form of evlaution is a cou nt of sales leads based on response devices such as calls emails and cards terturned Another is conversion number of leads that turn into cunstomers who want to make a purchase lts harder to measure nonpro t markets however achievement of objectives can still be measured International marcom is difficul to evaluate because of market differences language culture laws and the acceptability of various research tools Pretesting could be intial process for international market due to unfamiliarty of cultures language and consumer behaviors The problem with evaluating IMC campaigns is estimating the impact of synergy We intutitevly know that more sources and more messages has more impact however its hard to prove There is no single sconsistent set of metrics that transcends disciplinecentric measuremsnts Synergistic effect mean that the overall results are greater than the sum of each advertising moment Objectives of campaign Breaking through awareness Breaking the inertia trance Breaking the relevance trance


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