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Date Created: 02/04/15
A binds to a membrane bound receptor ligand maintains TSH from the anterior synthes1s and secretlon of ituita TH P 13937 releases glucose liver into the blood stimulates AMP metformin kinase releases fatty acids and glycerol into the blood adipose tissue cells of the mature ovarian follicle make estrogen granulosa cells nervous system stimulates the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla into the blood Sympathetic in beta cells detect high blood glucose levels chemoreceptors quotlowquot blood glucose levels below 100 mgdl 1 hormone molecule leading to a generation of a million product is known as ampli cation 4 functions of cortisol 1 Immune supression 2 glucose sparing gluconeogenesis 3increases free aa into the blood by inhibiting collagen synthesis 4 decrease in bone formation muscle breakdown 4 things that use glucose without the need for insulin RBCs liver kidney and the brain The 5 actions of GH and IGF on the body And 5 things which uctuate GH throughout 24 hours or in other conditions Protein synthesis lipid metabolism carbohydrate metabolism electrolyte balance and mitosis Age time of day early sleep stress emotional and physical exercise increases physical stress nutrition hypoglycemia Enhances reabsorption of ca2 at kidneys enhances ca2 and P04 3 5 ff CtS Of phosphate ion absorption by digestive tract stimulates formation and secretion of calcitriol at the kidneys and decreases urine output and enhances PTH Neutrophils Eosinophils 5 types of WBC39s Basophils Monocytes Lymphocytes 7 Calorgenic effect of TH raises body39s oxygen consumption protein synthesis breakdown of glycogen and triglycerides alertness and quicker re exes respiratory rate HR body temperature 7 Steroid Hormones Testosterone androgen estrogen progesterone cortisol aldosterone calcitriol Action of GH and IGF causes mitosis especially in what three places cartilage bones and muscles ADH targets this organ k1dneys uterus mammary whlle Oxytocln targets th1s glands organ Adipose tissue releases glycerol fatty acids and into the blood Adrenal cortex makes steroid hormones 25 adrenal gland subdivision adrenal cortex 85 adrenal medulla 15 Adrenal medulla produces catecholamines Epinerphrine and norepinephrine Adrenal medulla raises 9 9 9 HRheart rate BPblood pressure RR respiratory rate Metabolic rate The adrenal medulla releases hormones that increase alertness and preps the body for physical activity T or F Adrenocorticotropic hormone has target cells on the adrenal cortex After calcium ions are in the cytoplasm what happens A lot The calcium ions trigger PROTEINS after eating leptin levels are high low ghrelin levels are high low peptide YY levels are high low high low high After hypothalamus receives signals from Neuropeptide Y peptide Y what does the hypothalamus secrete after iodinated thyroglubulin The iOdi ated enters back into the follicular thyroglobulin is cells the thyroglobulin produces T3 and T4 how hydrolyzed by lysosomal enzymes after leptin reaches the receptors on the hypothalamus the hypothalamus inhibits the release of neuropeptide Y after ovulation the ruptured follicle reorganizes into the corpus leuteum after the creation of cyclic AMP what does it bind to and do Cyclic AMP cAMP binds to and activates a target protein alphakinase which ADDS phosphate to specific PROTEINS in the cell After the Gprotein attaches to the adenylate cyclase on the plasma membrane after activation by the first messenger adenylate cyclase produces mass amounts of Cyclic AMP Aldosterone in the adrenal cortex has target cell on this organ gt Kidney alpha cells detect high low low glucose levels alpha cells in the pancreas h have these types of C emorecePtorS receptors alpha cells in the pancreas glucagon produce Amino acids are joined by polypept1des pept1de bonds creatlng ollgopeptldes these three d1fferent types glycoprotems of chains The amount of time to remove 50 of the hormone from the blood is also known as MCR Metabolic Clearance Rate blood does not carry anemla enough oxygen to the rest of your body anemia hematocrit 20 angiotensinogen is the liver released by another name for a platelet thrombocyte another name for agglutinins antibodies Another name for interstitial uid tissue uid Another name for modified monoamines amino acids are Another name for T3 Triiodothyronine another name fOI39 the adenohypophysis anterior pituitary gland Another name for the epiphysis pineal gland Another name for the hypophysis pituitary gland Another name for the Neurohypophysis posterior pituitary AN P functions to increase Na excretion and urine output and decrease stretch on the heart Antibodies would be present in secondary hypothyroidism hypothalamus and pituitary affected T or F F no antibodies Basophil picture before eating leptin levels are high low ghrelin levels are high low peptide YY levels are high low low high low beta cells in the pancreas produce insulin The bilobed Thyroid Gland is connected by a narrow isthmus Biogenic Amines are modified amino acids blood temperature vital sign 38 degrees C 1004 degrees F blood volume in adult Male and Female Female 4 5 L Male 5 6 L The body39s two major communication systems Nervous system and Endocrine System Calcitonin Regulates calcium in the blood calcitonin is the antagonist to parathyroid hormone Calcitonin lowers serum Ca2 levels by inhibiting osteblasts T or F F Calcitonin inhibits osteoclasts calcitonin reduces increases blood rEduces Ca2 in the blood calcitriol most active hormone form of Vitamin D in the kidneys Calcitriol is a steroid hormone derived from cholesterol that regulates calcium in the blood Calorgenic effect of TH Skin hair nails promotes growth of Can hormone receptors be found in the cell as well as yEP on the plasma membrane capillaries and cells are located between the follicular cells in the loose connective tissue of the thyroid gland parafollicular cells Carbohydrate metabolism is protein lipid sparing lipid Carbohydrate metabolsim stimulates two things glycogenolysis and gluconeogenosis thus increasing the amount of glucose in the blood carrier molecules are proteins usually carrier molecules are The llver usually synthesized by what organ Catecholamines biogenic amines are water soluble T T or F The cells that a hormone Target c311 acts on is called the Cells that produce PTH Chief cells chemoreceptors in beta when detected beta cells cells detect high blood release insulin into the glucose levels blood cholecalciferol form Of Vitamin D in the skin Cholecystokinen stimulates appetite T or F F appetite suppressant Chonic hyperglycemia side effects atherosclerosis damage organs neuropathy chromaffin cells are stimulated by the nervous system preganglionic sympathetic cold and clammy give them candy Colloid A Viscous proteinrich substance on the inside of follicular cells surrounding the follicle of the thyroid gland color of adrenal glands Reddish brown due to excessive vascularity conservation of sodium 0 ions by the kidney leads to mtentlon water retention loss the corpus leuteum progesterone releases which hormone corticosteroids are cholesteral synthesized from Cortisol prevents in ammation T or F T in ammation is needed when we get hurt Cortisol up regulates insulin receptors T or F and Why F down regulates insulin receptors because it counteracts insulin and is glucose sparing CT Calcitonin decreased leptin leads to these 3 things decrease secretion of seX hormones decreases secretion of thyroid hormone increase secretion of glucocorticoids increase in cortisol and gluconeogenosis DHEA is converted to in other tissues testosterone DHEA provides of androgen requirements in adult women 50 Different biogenic amines include Catecholamines epinephrine or nor epinerphrine dopamine A disease associated with primary hypothyroidism where T81 is present Graves Disease Down Regulation decrease in the number of receptors Down regulation decreas es increas es cell39s sensitivity to the hormone decreases Down regulation is a response to high extracellular concentration of the hormone Drugs to mimic cortisol Hydrocortison and synthetic glucocorticoids The effect of adding phosphates to specific proteins in a cell is known as phosphorylation Effects of one hormone opposing the effects of another hormone Antagonistic interaction eicosanoids are derived from local hormones omega 3 omega 6 fatty acids Electrolyte balance promotes retention by this organ gt Na K Cl kidneys The endocrine function of the pancreas is regulation glycemla of Endocrine glands are T ductless glands T or F Endocrine glands secrete Hormones The Endocrine system Blood secretes hormones into the The Endocrine system39s communication method Hormones into the blood The Endocrine system39s duration of response continues after stimulation The Endocrine system39s Metabolic EFFECT of stimulation The Endocrine system39s widespread range of effect The Endocrine system39s Slow response time The Endocrine system39s target of stimulation any cell with that receptor eosinophil picture Epinephrine and nor epinephrine are the ends of synaptic nerve f b PRODUCED by 1 ers Epinephrine and nor The adrenal Medulla ep1nephr1ne are SECRETED by Epinephrine and nor Catecholamlnes ep1nephr1ne are subclasses of Erythropoietin EPO RBC production stimulates An example of a hormone molecule hint peptide hormone that results in amplification is Glucagon An example of a permissive effect of fatty acid release Epinephrine and Thyroid relies on these two hormone hormones An example Of a prostaglandin is the first messenger is known as The actual chemical messenger in the blood The follicle cavity of the thyroid gland contains Colloid Follicular cells surround follicle cavity formed element Basophil in ammatory response cause for increase immune response fOFmEd Element EOSiHOPhil allergen parasitic infection cause for increase Formed element Erythrocyte cause for increase blood loss formed element Lymphocyte cause for increase immune response Formed element Neutrophil cause for increase bacterial infection Four autonomic functions the hypothalamus regulates Body temp hunger thirst emotional behavior Four main vital signs body temperature blood pressure heart rate and respiratory rate FSH and LH have target cells on what organs Testes and ovaries function of calcitrol in the kidneys increases blood calcium levels The function of chief cells to synthesize PTH The function of gastrin stimulates stomach cells to release HCl because of arrival of contents into the stomach function of insulin in adipose tissue causes lipogenesis function of insulin in the liver causes glycogenesis The function of oxyphil cells unknown fn function of platelets contribute to clot formation The functions of renin converts angiotensinogen to angeotensin I and ultimately increases blood pressure by constriction A G protein consists of gamma beta and alpha three parts subunits th llbl dd 6 ga a er ls the mgestlon of llpldS 1n st1mulated to release b11e by the small 1ntest1ne Gastrin is secreted by the stomach Ghrelin is secreted by hormones Globular protein synthesized by Thyroid follicle cells Thyroglobulin Glucagon and insulin are secreted by the pancreas Glucocorticoid steroid in the zona fasciculata Cortisol glucosuria excretion of glucose into the urine GLUT4 is the only protein regulated by insulin T or F GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane happens after what two things INSIDE the cell IRS transmits signals to PIg Kinase which activates GLUT4 Glycogenesis glucose in the blood is removed GnRH causes what two hormones FSH LH Goiter gigantic thyroid gland not stimulating TH female reproductive development and mentrual cycle regulation Granulosa cells are responsible for two things Half life of GH is 15 minutes Half life of IGF is 20 hours An autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the thyroid gland directly Hashimoto39s thyroiditis Hashimoto39s thyroiditis is hypo hyper hypo thyroidism hematocrit calculation length of total blood volume packed RBC Hematocrit Female Male 3748 4552 Hemoglobin Female Male 12 16gdl 13 18gd1 Histology slide of Adrenal cortex zona g omeru osa zona fasciculata zona reticularis Meuullla cells hormones in the zone reticularis andreogens DHEA and estradiol the hormones of the testes are secreted by interstitial cells hot and dry sugar39s high th h h 1 How cort1sol release 1s by e ypOt a amlls CRH and the anterlor regulated p1tu1tary AcRH how do the kidneys by releasing calcitriol increase blood calcium which increases intestinal levels absorption of calcium How does AN P function to decrease the stretch on the heart lowering bp how glycogen raises blood glucose breakdown of glycogen into glucose and triglycerides to fatty acids and glucose How is iodinated thyroglubulin produced the tyrosine amino acids in the thyroglubulin in the lumen of the follicle react with the iodine How is the adenohypophysis connected to the hypothalamus by a blood vessel network How many hormones control the activity of the posterior pituitary What are they 2 Oxytocin and ADH how many regulatory hormones control the activity of the anterior pituitary What are they 6 TRH GnRH CRH GHRH GHIH PIH How PTH raises blood Ca2 levels Retention in the kidneys reabsorption from the tissues and from the intestines from calcitriol How RBC liver kidneys and the brain get glucose glucose transporters how the adrenal medulla boosts glucose levels Glycogenolysis gluconeogenesis glucose sparing inhibits release of insulin forces other organs to use fatty acids introduction of a hydroxyl hydrOXylatlon group to an organic compound Gigantism childhood Hypersecretion of GH Acromegaly adulthood results in two things even after growth plate fuses Hyperthyroidism BMR increased Hyperthyroidism CV Fn Increased HR Tachycardia dysrythmias Hyperthyroidism General behavior Restless insomnia short attention span Hyperthyroidism GI Fn High appetite frequent bowels Hyperthyroidism Integumentary palmer sweat Hyperthyroidism Temperature tolerance Hot Intolerance Hyperthyroidism weight decreased Hypertrophy of mm is generally due to increase in mitosis of cartilage bone and muscles from GH or IGF and retention of electrolytes for new tissues from electrolyte balance from GH and IGF hypoglycemia mgdl less than 60 mgdl pituitary dwarfism Hyposecretlon of GH although proportlonal results 1n very small Hypothalamus controls the NS Autonomic The hypothalamus maintains our hint relates to the pineal gland Sleep and wake cycle Hypothalamus secretes mainly these two types of hormones Releasing and Inhibiting ie GHRH and GHIH Hypothyroidism BMR low Hypothyroidism Cardio Vascular low HR low SV Hypothyroidism General behavior Tired clumsy lethargic hypothyroidism GI Fn Low appetite constipation Hypothyroidism dry akey Skin Integumentary Hypothymidismi cold intolerance temperature tolerance Hypothyroidism weight gain If there is no insulin what else can stimulate GLUT4 translocation Exercise In secondary hypothyroidism hypothalamus and pituitary affected T3 or T4 is high low low In secondary hypothyroidism hypothalamus and pituitary affected TSH is high low low In the rst phase of TH production Follicular cells release into the lumen of the cell Thyroglobulin The indirect effect of GHRH on the liver to release IGF to stimulate other tissues Insulin released by beta cells following food intake Insulin resistance Diabetes Type II 90 95 population and cells to absorb glucose from the blood by insulin signals fat muscle binding to the insulin receptor on the surface of the plasma membrane Insulin stimulates cellular uptake of amino acids and glucose especially in which two systems skeletal muscle and adipose tissue Insulin stimulates cellular uptake of these 2 things amino acids for protein anabolism glucose for metabolism iodinede cross over into the follicular cell from the iodideiodine blood and turn into iodinede Iodide ions are absorbed in Digestive Tract the IRS Insulin Receptor Substrate ketoacidosis diabetic coma a result of the body burning fat ketones for energy or fuel when glucose builds up in the blood and doesn39t enter the cells Indication that the body is ketones present us1ng an alternat1ve source quotindication ofquot of energy Ketonuria excretion of ketones into the urine ketonuria increases lowers lowers body pH leptin controls normal levels of synthesis GnRH hint hormone from the hypothalamus Leptin is known as what satiety hormone kind of hormone The life span of RBC 120 days Lipid metabolism is protein lipid sparing protein lipid soluble hormones have receptors while water soluble hormones have receptors cytoplasm or nucleus on the plasma membrane Lipid soluble hormones need carrier molecules to travel in the blood because they are not water soluble T or F Lipogenesis fatty acids in the blood are lowered Local cells bind to the same cell that produced them Local hormone molecules not released into the blood diffuse into Extra cellular uid location of adrenal glands superior surface Of the kidneys embedded in fat location of parathyroid posterior surface of the glands thyroid gland Location of the pineal posterior portion of the gland roof of the third ventricle Low leptin signals low body fat Lymphocyte picture Lypolysis The breakdown of to and The breakdown of triglycerides to fatty acid and glucose Main function of the adrenal medulla to boost glucose levels The main function of the zona Fasciculata to increase nutrients in the blood The master control center Hypothalamus for the endocrine system Megakaryocyte picture Melatonin generally increases decreases at night increasesdecreases and increases decreases during the day the membrane bound receptor is linked to a G protein on the intracellular side Metabolic changes persist metabolic minutes for several Mineralocorticoid in the zona glomerulosa aldosterone Mitosis of cartilage bones and muscles results in bone growth both lengthening and appositional growth modified neurons in the adrenal medulla chromaffin cells Monoamines are water solubule T or F monocyte picture The more calories consumed the more peptlde YY is released The most common plasma albumin protein Neutrophils Lymphocytes Most common to least Monocytes Eos1noph11s common WBC basophils name for caused elevated diabetogenic glucose levels in the blood name for the parallel cords fasc1cles of cells in the zona fasciculata name of axis cortisol travels hypothalmic pituitary adrenal axis the name of the steroid hormones in the adrenal cortICOStemldS cortex neighboring stimulating Paracrine cells are known as Neither synthesis nor T secretion occurs with the absence of TSH T or F The Nervous system39s neurons communication method neurotransmitters The Nervous system39s duration of response short it ends after stimulated The Nervous system39s effect of stimulation The Nervous system39s range of effect localized at the synapse The Nervous system39s response time is Rapid The Nervous system39s target of stimulation another neuron mm glands Neuropeptide Y hunger stimulating neurotransmitter Neutrophil picture Normal blood glucose value 7o11o mgdl normal blood glucose values 70110mgdl normal body pH 73539745 Normal RR for adults 16 20 breaths per minute Number of parathyroid 4 26 glands number of parathyroid 4 glands one of the most important calorigenic effects of TH development of fetal NERVOUS SYSTEM Only free bound hormones can diffuse through capillary walls and into target cells free Only the anterior pituitary has target cells T or F The opposite of steroid local hormones hormones The opposite of the Somatic autonomic NS The order of the subdivisions from super cial to deep of the Zona glomerulose zona fasciculate zona reticularis adrenal adrenal corteX medulla Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus detect ADH dehydration signals the release of OT is released after birth and orgasm Ovaries produce these two hormones estrogen and progesterone ovary picture The pancreas is primarily an gland exocrine Pancreas location between the inferior border of the stomach and the proximal part of the small intestine Pancreas Picture Pancreatic cells pancreatic islet or islet of langerhans Parafollicular cells C Calcitonin cells secrete Parafollicular cells are also C cells known as Parathyroid Gland location posterior portion of the thyroid gland inability to absorb glucose cells rely on fat and protein for fuel Pathogenesis Peptide Hormones are composed of small chains of amino acids Peptide Hormones are F hydrophobic T or F Peptide YY is secreted by the intestines percent of the blood volume consists of formed elements 45 RBC WBC not plasma percursor to angiotensin I angiotensinogen A person with acromegaly diabetogenic may also be A person with Hashimoto39s thyroiditis has high low LOW T3 and T4 A person with Hashimoto39s t ngh thyroiditis has high low TSH picture of interstitial cells The pineal gland regulates circadian rhythm The pineal gland synthesizes from melatonin seratonin Platelet count 15oooo 35oooo uL polar molecules are water fat soluble water Polycythemia bone marrow disease that leads to abnormally high hematocrit polydipsia excessive thirst Polypeptlde contam 10 Insulin GH ammo ac1ds Examples Glucagon 1nclude polyphagia excessive hunger polyuria excess urine output The posterior pituitary is mostly composed of nervous tissue Posterior Pituitary is under hypothalmic and cerebral neuroendocrine control Via re exes where is came from ie melatonin is a precursor of seratonin The precursor to something is The growth and The primary effect of TH deVEIOPment 0f many tissues especially in children affecting the thyroid gland directly ie surgery Primary hypothyroidism produced in high amounts by the male fetus to DHEA develop the reproductive tract produced in the liver from hydroxylation of vitamin D3 in the calcidiol Prostacyclin inhibits blood clotting while thromboxanes T are involved with blood clotting T or F local hormones eicosanoid that PrOSta glandlns are and are unsaturated fatty acids that are involved with what three involved with the regulation of body things temp in ammation and contraction of smooth muscle protein synthesis from TH the synthesis of NA K specifically stimulates 2 pumps the uptake of things protein INTO cells PTH parathyroid hormone PTH inhibits osteoblasts osteoblastsclasts PTH raises lowers level of Raises blood calcium PTH stimulates osteoclasts osteoblastsclasts The rate of removal of hormone from the blood MCR Metabolic Clearance in uencing concentration Rate in blood plasma is known as 42 54 million uL 46 62 million uL uL microliter RBC count for Female Male The reason for retention of electrolytes by the kidneys is important so electrolytes can be available to new tissues receptors for leptin are the hypothalamus found on Renin an enzyme in the kidneys Research has shown melatonin to affect the synthesis of this hormone gt GnRH The role of aldosterone in the adrenal corteX zona glomerulosa stimulates conservation of sodium ions and eliminates potassium ions by the kidney saratonin is derived from the neurotransmitter Tryptophan second messengers change the metabolic reactions in the cell A second plasma membrane protein that the adenylate cyclase G protein attaches to after activation Where something along the line of Secondary communication to the Thyroid Hypothyroidism gland has been affected ie by surgery tumor cancer etc self stimulating cells are Autocrine known as Since iodide and TH are lack of TH roduction perm1ss1ve lack of lod1de G01ter can result 1n the small intestine secretes cholecystokinen this hormone Sodium conservation and dehydration water retention prevents Solely protein synthesis F can 1ncrease strength T or F The somatic and Somatic is voluntary autonomic NS differ in control while Autonomic is that involuntary control The steroid hormone derived from cholesterol Calcitriol The steroid hormone MADE in the adrenal corteX is are cortisol aldosterone The steroid hormone MADE in the ovaries is are Estrogen progesterone The steroid hormone MADE in the testes is are Testosterone androgen Steroid Hormones are hydrophobic T or F Steroid Hormones are lipid T soluble T or F Steroid hormones are cholesterol synthesized from Steroid hormones are LDL39s synthesized from cholesterol primarily from Steroid Peptide and Biogenic Amines are all hormones that are grouped by their chemical structures Stretch in atrial heart wall releases this hormome Atrial Natriuretic Peptide AN P Stretch receptors in the heart detect high blood pressure inhibits release of ADH subdivisions of the adrenal zona glomerulosa zona cortex fasciculate zona reticularis substances that enter or are generated in the cytoplasm second messengers as a result of activation by first messenger suckling of an infant on a nipple sends nerve signals OT to hypothalamus to release T4 and T3 are high low in low primary hypothyroidism Target cells of TH most cells in the body The testes produce which two hormones testosterone and androgens Testis picture TG Thyroglobulin TGab are present not present in primary hypothyroidism not present TG ab are aren39t present present in Hashimoto39s thyroiditis TH is secreted in response TSH to this hormone gt There are also delta cells in somatostat1n the pancreas They produce Thin innermost layer of the adrenal corteX zona reticularis this hormone is responsible for the maintenance of pregnancy progesterone Steroid Hormones Peptide Three classes of Hormones Blogemc Stimulating Hormones are Amines rosta landin Three types of e1cosan01ds p g prostacyclm are thromboxanes Three types of hormone Synergistic permissive and 1nteractlons are antagon1st1c m1neralcort1c01ds three types of sterolds 1n glucocort1c01ds and seX the adrenal cortex sterolds Thymosins blend of thymic hormones The Thymus continues to 6 years of age grow until the Thymus in adults brous fatty t1ssue becomes and The thymus is a single lobed organ T or F F Bilobed Thyroglobulin a protein made up of many tyrosine amino acids Thyroglobulin contains this amino acid gt Tyrosine Thyroid follicles hollow spheres lined with simple cuboidal epithelium Thyroid follicles are surrounded by a network of capillaries that deliver and hint an ion and a hormone iodide and TSH Thyroid Gland picture Thyroid hormone regulates the receptors for lt this hormone up for epinephrine Thyroid hormone is a monoamine and is water soluble T or F Thyroid hormone is lipid soluble and can therefore pass through the plasma membrane T or F Thyroid hormone is what type of hormone Biogenic Amine Modified amino acid monoamine Thyroxine contains iodide while Triiodothyronine contains iodide 4 iodide ions 3 iodide ions To release T3 and T4 into the blood synthesis of TH must take place T or F TPO ab are present not present in primary hypothyroidism not present TPO ab are aren39t present Present in hashimoto39s thyroiditis TSH is PRODUCED by the T TRH is produced by the anterior pituitary T or F hypothalamus TSH levels are high low in high primary hypothyroidism T81 is not present in secondary hypothyroidism T hypothalamus and pituitary affected T or F T81 is present not present not present in primary hypothyroidism T81 is is not present in Hashimoto39s thyroiditis is not present A tumor on the hypothalamus or pituitary gland would lead to hypothyroidism secondary Two examples of carrier proteins synthesized by the liver Albumin globulin The two factors that in uence hormone concentration in blood plasma rate of secretion from endocrine gland rate of removel from the blood Two functions of the Thyroid Gland increases metabolism has a calorigenic effect Two long term regulators of appetite insulin and leptin Two other names for T4 Thyroxine and Tetraiodothyronine Two Parathyroid gland Chief cells principle cells cells oxyphil cells Two synergistic hormones Testosterone and FSH to 1ncrease sperm production TWO things that happen increase of amino acid during protein synthesis transport into cells boost after GH and IGF are transcription and translation released of DNA and mRNA Two things that happen in the Thymus site of maturation of WBC39s produces thymosins These two types of hormone that require steroid hormones and carrier proteins to travel in thyroid hormone the blood two types of pancreatic alpha and beta cells Two types of TH T3 and T4 Type of Diabetes where 80 90 beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed Type I 5 1o population A type of eicosanoid that inhibits clotting Prostacyclin Up Regulation Increase in the number of receptors Up regulation is a response to low extracellular concentration of the hormone Up Regulation decreases increases cell39s Increases sensitivity to the hormone vassopressin leads to higher blood pressure Vitamin D is important for the absorption of Calcium WBC count 5ooo 1oooo uL What are the axons moving from the hypothalamus to the hypothalmo the posterior pituitary hypophyseal TRACT known as What are the WBCs that T cells are matured 1n the Thymus called What causes the release of PTH Low Ca2 levels in the blood What color is the Thyroid Gland and why Reddish brown increased blood ow What differentiates primary hypothyroidism between Graves Disease Primary Hypothyroidism besides TSI TSH is low in Graves Disease not high and T4 T3 is high not low What does FSH and LH each individually do for males FSH causes sperm production and LH causes the release of testosterone What does melatonin do to the human body makes us sleepy What happens to GLUT4 protein when blood insulin levels decrease GLUT4 is returned to the vesicles inside the cell what happens to insulin after it is released into the circulates through the body and randomly eXits through capillaries into bod y 1nterst1t1al u1d What happens when it induces the GLUT4 protein 1 t to move from reserve vesicles msu m F6061 or ls inside the cell to the plasma act1vated membrane What is activated inside the cell when exercise is AMP kinase taking place to facilitate GLUT4 translocation What is the blood vessel network that connects the the hypothalamo adenohypophysis to the hypophysial portal system hypothalamus called What is the name of transport from the axoplasmic transport hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary what leptin is made by adipose tissue What Thymosins do develop and regulate T cells When calcium binds to a membrane bound receptor the binding of the Gprotein to the other membrane This results in the bound receptor results in the Catalyzation Of 1P3 of When dehydrated blood drop pressure will when Glucagon is released when blood sugar levels are low When hunger is inhibited when the amount of fat stored reaches a certain level When leptin is secreted when food is being consumed and there is an increase in adipose tissue secretion of leptin into the blood when low glucose levels are detected is released into the blood glucagon When melatonin peaks 2 4am When the calcium ion channels on the ER are opened and calcium ows into the cytoplasm what may happen to the muscle in the body A smooth muscle contraction may take place Plasma membrane voltage may also change When the GLUT4 protein is at the cell surface glucose down is transported up down its concentration gradient When TSH gets to the TSH binds to the plasma thyroid follicle what membrane receptors to happens activate key enzymes Where are hormones stored in the posterior pituitary nerve endings Where dOES 1P3 travel after The Ip3 travels through the cytoplasm to free in the Cytoplast Where the endoplasmic reticullum and opens the ca gated ion channels allowing ca does It g0 and What does It ions to ow out of the endoplasmic do reticulum into the cytoplasm Where is the Thyroid anterior to the trachea and Gland inferior to the larynx Where the GLUT4 protein goes if there is no insulin it is stored in vesicles within the cell Where the thymus gland is located in the mediastinum superior to the heart which is the most common Erythrocyte blood cell While working together X more Epinephrine is 4 released into the blood opposed to norepinephrine Why DHEA is important for male and females for the development of secondary sex characteristics Why is it important to measure both total hormone concentration and free concentration in the blood because free hormones are able to travel into target cells because the thyroid is getting TSI Why is TSH high in Graves which mimics TSH by stimulating Thyroid Cells so actual TSH DlseaSE production is low since the Thyroid is already being stimulated Why T cells are important immune function Why the adrenal medulla for the brain boosts glucose levels F usually leptin is fine their receptors just aren39t there Not a hormone problem Those with obesity usually have leptin that is out of whack T or F Without TSH thyroid follicles will become Enlarged You just ate Peptide YY is being released from where is it released and to where does it travel small intestine hypothalamus Zona Fasciculata cells and steroids parallel cords of cells glococorticoids Zona fasciculata picture Zona glomerulosa cells and steroids round clusters of cells mineralocorticoids
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