New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

study guide for exam

Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
by: Megan Wu

study guide for exam AGECON250

Marketplace > Purdue University > Economcs > AGECON250 > study guide for exam
Megan Wu
Agricultural Economics

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

The exam study guide for the exam and quiz preparations, the answers for the questions are all given by the professor.
Agricultural Economics
Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...)
75 ?




Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
Star Star Star Star Star
"What an unbelievable resource! I probably needed course on how to decipher my own handwriting, but not anymore..."
Jeramie Kassulke

Popular in Agricultural Economics

Popular in Economcs

This 13 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Megan Wu on Thursday February 5, 2015. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to AGECON250 at Purdue University taught by in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Agricultural Economics in Economcs at Purdue University.


Reviews for study guide for exam

Star Star Star Star Star

What an unbelievable resource! I probably needed course on how to decipher my own handwriting, but not anymore...

-Jeramie Kassulke


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/05/15
AGEC 250 Study Guide for Second Test November 20 2014 Prepared by Dr A Fernandez 1 What is Globalization 0 The worldwide movement toward economic financial trade and communications integration 0 Globalization implies the opening of local and nationalistic perspectives to a broader outlook of an interconnected and interdependent world with free transfer of capital goods and services across national frontiers However it does not include unhindered movement of labor and as suggested by someeconomists may hurt smaller or fragile economies if applied indiscriminately Define Population Doubling time 0 The amount of time for a given population to double based on the annual growth rate 3 What are the main causes of child death in the developing world 0 As a result of HIV AIDS episode 4 What are HIVAIDS 0 AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a disease caused by a Virus called HIVHuman Immunodeficiency Virus The illness alters the immune system making people much more vulnerable to infections and diseases This susceptibility worsens as the disease progresses 0 HIV is found in the body fluids of an infected person semen and vaginal fluids blood and breast milk The Virus is passed from one person to another through bloodtoblood and sexual contact In addition infected pregnant women can pass HIV to their babies during pregnancy delivering the baby during childbirth and through breastfeeding 0 HIV can be transmitted in many ways such as vaginal oral sex anal sex blood transfusion and contaminated hypodermic needles Both the Virus and the disease are often referred to together as HIVAIDS 5 In the context of the Poverty Trap define 0 Low productivity agriculture 0 Very slow diffusion of technology from abroad 0 A history of adverse geopolitics High transport costamp small market 0 High disease burden 6 In the context of HIV AIDS Define Case Fatality Rate 0 900000 malaria deaths per yearmostly young children 0 HIV prevalence in 2003 was 75 Why are HIV AIDS prevalence rates so high in subSaharan Africa 0 Too poor to achieve robust and high levels of economics growth 0 Many places simply too poor to grow at all 0 More policy of government reform by itself is not sufficient to break out of this trap 0 Africa s extreme poverty low national saving rate low or negative economic growth rates In the context of Global Food Security define Availability 0 Global national local household 0 Land water inputs technology yields Access 0 National local household indiviual 0 Price income wealth Utilizacion 0 Indiviual 0 Clean water sanitation health Stability 0 Variablility in any of the above What is the region of world with the largest number of the Food Insecure people 0 SubSaharan Africa In the context of Global Food Security what is in 2014 the good news from Brazil What is the percentage of the 0 Brazil has dropped out of world hunger map 0 The largest increase in the annual labor incomes of brazillans since 2006 0 A strong increase in the proportions of workers with formal jobs in the private sector rising from 586 percent to 603 percent with more than half of workers having more than 11 years of schooling 0 The lowest rate of children labor in brazil history 0 A strong increase in the proportion of children aged 4 and 5 attending school from 78 to 81 0 A reduction in illiteracy across all age groups particularly among younger age group 0 Increase number of household with personal computer 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 In the context of Fertility and Population Growth what does it mean for population balance to have continued reductions in fertility Why is that an undesirable outcome 0 Reductions in fertility leads to populations where the proportion of older persons increases while that of younger persons decreases Where is the situation in which the proportion of older persons increases while that of younger persons decreases more prevalent in the most developed countries or in the least developed countries 0 Population growth in many developed countries How many countries are today considered belowreplacement fertility 0 Rich countries have had belowreplacement fertility for two or three decades 0 Between 20052010 26 developed countries including japan and most of the countries in southern and Eastern Europe still has fertility level below 15 children per woman What is the PushPull Model What is Emigration What is immigration 0 Emigration is the act of leaving one39s country or region with the intent to settle permanently in another Immigration is the movement of people into another country or region to which they are not native in order to settle there 1 especially as permanent residents or future citizens In the context of Migrations Displacement of People define Asylum seellter Refugee Internally Displaced Person IDP What is the UN HCR 17 What is the country that has more refugees in 2014 How many How many of 18 19 20 21 22 those are children What are remittances A remittance is a transfer of monev by a foreion worker to an individual in his or her home country Are all Megacities World Cities Why not In the Environmental Vulnerability Index What are the events natural and manmade that contribute to hunger In the context of the PushPull Model of Migration define Push factors Pull factors 0 Four major kinds of push and pull factors can be identified These are economic political cultural and environmental 23 What is ironic about the hostility towards migrants in Europe 24 What are some of the consequences of the massive 19th century European migration to the New World 0 Most of Europeans fear losing their cultural heritage to that of new immigrants 0 Indo Europeans languages are now spoken by half of the world as a result of euro emigrants 0 Christianity world largest of adherents 0 European Art music literature philosophy and ethics have diffused throughout the world 25 What are the main characteristics of long distance migrants 0 Gender 0 Family status 26 In the context of migration what is brain mobility 0 The flow of educated in country of origin skilled professionals out of developing countries into a more developed country 27 What are GHGs A greenhouse gas sometimes abbreviated GHG is a g in an atmosphere that absorbs and m radiation within the thermal infraredrange 28 What is desertification 0 Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relativelydry land region becomes increasingly arid typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife google 0 Desertification is a dynamic process that is observed in dry and fragile ecosystems 29 What are drylands 0 Desserts and dry lands are the largely unfenced unfrosted parts of the planet where low and erratic rainfall makes the unsuitable for cultivation The land is used for grazing domesticated animals set aside for wild animals or simply set aside 30 Why is degradation of dry lands a concern for us in AGEC 250 0 About 13 of the earth s land area is arid and semiarid in total size this is roughly equal to the combined areas of north and south America 0 The occurrence of drought worldwide has doubled from the1970s to the early 2000s in the dry lands due to drought and desertification 12 million hectares are transformed into new manmade deserts This is an area with the potential to produce 20 million tons of grain each year 31 What are the main factors causing land degradation 0 Climate change unsustainable agriculture or poor management of water resources 32 In the context of Globalization what is required for International Trade to take place 0 The United Nations unveiled a decadelong push to raise awareness and mobilize action to ight desertification which threatens the livelihoods of more than 1 billion people in 100 countries in 2010 33 What are some of the key international organizations related to International Trade 0 World trade organization 0 International monetary fund 0 World bank 0 Organization for economic cooperation and development 0 United nations conference on trade and development 34 What is the WTO o The World Trade Organization WTO is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations 35 What are some functions of the WTO o The goal is to help producers of goods and services exporters and importers conduct their business Trade negotiations Implementation and monitoring Dispute settlement Building trade capacity Outreach 36 In terms of International Trade what are comparative advantages 0 A country specializes in the production of a good in which it has a comparative advantage relative to other countries 37 What are trade restrictions 0 Specialization and trade between two countries benefit cousurmers in both countries 38 What are Tariffs 0 Domestic producers will be hurt by unrestricted imports 0 Government imposes a tariff or tax on the imported good 0 Imported good will have to be sold at the same price as the domestically produced good 39 What is the EVI The enhanced vegetation index EVI is an 39optimized39 index designed to enhance the vegetation signal with improved sensitivity in high biomass regions and improved vegetation monitoring through a decoupling of the canopybackground signal and a reduction in atmosphere influences Possible Essays For all essay themes prepare an essay that includes information from both lectures and assigned readings You will be evaluated according to 1 your use of the readings and lectures 2 your demonstration that you have understood and synthesized these materials and are able to apply them in original analysis 3 the logical coherence and smooth flow of the analysis you offer A quotThis index EVI is designed to be used with economic and social vulnerability indices to provide insights into the processes that can negatively influence the sustainable development of countries Taken from The home page of the Environmental Vulnerability Index http wwwVulnerabilityindexnet indexhtml Taking into account what you know from lectures and assigned readings about natural environment vulnerability social and economic vulnerabilities What is the EVI What makes a nation resilient Do basic health care and basic literacy make populations more or less vulnerable Why Does the existence of basic physical infrastructure insure more resilience Why Why not B quotAccording to the experts parts of the world are facing a new quotdemographic time bomb one that threatens skyrocketing health care and pension costs as populations age The threat also could undermine the economies of many nations by robbing them of young homegrown workers entering the labor force quotIt was really a shocking realization that this was happening said Mary Brinton Radcliffe Hardy Fellow and chair of Harvard s sociology department For the past several years Brinton and a team of collaborators that includes several Harvard students have explored declining fertility rates in postindustrial societies in work partly funded by the National Science Foundation Taken from Colleen Walsh Harvard Staff Writer Harvard Gazette July 3 2014 Based on your knowledge from lectures and assigned readings what does Dr Brinton mean with quotdemographic time bomb What does it mean for population balance to have continued reductions in fertility Why is that an undesirable outcome C In a historic climate change deal US President Barack Obama and Chinese President Xi Jinping announced both countries will curb their greenhouse gas emissions over the next two decades Under the agreement the United States would cut its 2005 level of carbon emissions by 2628 before the year 2025 China would peak its carbon emissions by 2030 and will also aim to get 20 of its energy from zerocarbon emission sources by the same year quotAs the world39s two largest economies energy consumers and emitters of greenhouse gases we have a special responsibility to lead the global effort against climate changequot Obama said Wednesday in a joint news conference with Xi The announcement marks the first time China has agreed to peak its carbon emissions according to the White House Xi is calling for quotan energy revolutionquot that would include broad economic reforms addressing air pollution Taken from Matt Hoye and Holly Yan CNN Wed November 12 2014 Considering the quote provided above and using the information you have from lectures and assigned readings please answer the following questions in the form of an essay 1 In terms of International Trade does either of these nations US or China has an advantage in these negotiations Why Why not 2 Based on your understanding on the GHG effect will this agreement curtail the emissions in a significant manner so as to make a difference in our ability to insure food security for the global community Why Why not Review for Final Test 2014AGEC 250 Prepared by Dr A Fernandez December 6 2014 I Short Answers Define the following concepts in one not more than two short paragraphs 1 According to the UN in what part of the world is fertility projected to increase in the 21st Century The population of Burundi Mali Niger Nigeria Somalia Somalia Uganda United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia are projected to increase at least fivefold by 2100 2 What are the key components in the environment that are of particular importance for agriculture and its ability to provide food security for all people on the planet Climate 8 Soils 3 In the context of the Environment and Food Security as reviewed in AGEC 250 what is a Simple Model of Food production What is a more Sophisticated Model Simple model 4 Why is our Agricultural Production System a very fragile System Change in one component will affect changes in all other components Over time we see changes in Climate eg global warming Soil quality and availability Eg soil erosion Agricultural production e g what we grow and how Population eg population growth economic activities behaviors 5 What are the main differences between Weather and Climate Weather describe the atmospheric conditions at a particular point of time at a particular location ex rain showers temperatures in the 50syesterday s weather in Lafayette Climate describe the consistent behavior of weather over time its average and its long term variability 6 What is Global Warming 0 A on average global temperature have ben increasing over the last centuries 0 Environmental changes consistent with global warming have occurred at a rapid pace These include Melting of glaciers Warming of ocean waters Rise of sea levels Unusual frequency of severe weather Early arrival of spring Shifts in plant and animal ranges 7 In terms of Climate Change what is the GHG Effect AIS a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmosphere greenhouse gases and is reradiated in all directions Since part of this re radiation is back towards the surface ad the lower atmosphere it results in an elevation of the average surface temperature above what it would be in the absence of the gases 8 What are Agriculture Adaption Strategies A strategies that anticipate and prepare plans to deal with significant changes to the quantity quality cost of production of food production due climate change 9 Can existing adaption strategies help offset many perhaps all effects of climate change on agriculture over the next 2030 years Why Why not No A effects are very likely to worsen significantly beyond then Existing Adaptation Strategies especially if GHGs emissions remain high improving the resilience of agricultural systems to climate change requires protection of the natural resource base water amp soil and development of new strategies tools and practices for adaptation 10 What are some of the latest 2013 USDA National Climate Assessment of climate effects on agriculture Global Warming A Corn high nighttime temperature High temperature during pollination eater stress Soybean water stress high temperatures Wheat and small grains extreme events frost during flowering water stress Rice temperature extremes during pollination water management Cotton high temperatures during boll fill Pasture and rangeland water stress Fruit trees chilling requirements not met high temperature during fruit development 11 What are Biotic Stresses and what Increased Biotic Stresses are projected to do to Agriculture A Insect pests 0 Greater numbers increased insecticide resistance 0 Geographic range increases 8 decreases 0 Imports from foreign sources Pathogens 0 Hostpathogen response changes plants insects noncrop reservoirs Cultural control measures may be less reliable 0 Extreme events can spread Weeds 0 Increase vigor herbicide resistance 12 What is Agricultural Resilience How do we build Agricultural Resilience A the ability of our agricultural system to adapt to changing climatic conditions and continue to produce enough food We can build agricultural resilience by achieveing 0 Enhanced understanding of the role of natural resource base waster and soil 0 Understand potential exposures 0 Focus on extremes as well as mean changes 0 Improved treatment of uncertainty and risk in climate and adaptation decision making and policy Potential impacts are real but inherently uncertain 0 Understand sensitive Define critical thresholds 8 interactions Enhance Adaptive Capacity resilient system climateready 8 production system 13 What are the key factors to achieve an integrated as opposed to a fractured Global Economic System and an Environmentally Sustainable Global System A describe state requires cooperation on trade finance technology environment security increased aid for poor countries and more sustainable development strategies 14 What are the Key Tasks to achieve an Economically Integrated and Environmentally Sustainable Global System 0 A developing better rules for viability of global 1 Very difficult to do through fully representative global forums 2 Start with agreements among main powers 0 Rebalancing 1 Trade deficit countries 2 Trade surplus countries 0 Reducing C02 1 US 2 China 3 India 4 EU and Japan 0 But these things are difficult to do for political economy reasons 1 Involved painful restructuring 2 Require strong vision and leadership 3 Also require greater awareness among population at large of what its at stake 15 What are the Millennium Development Goals Why are they relevant to us in AGEC 250 A The MDGs are the world s timebound and quantified targets for addressing extreme poverty in its many dimensions income poverty hunger disease lack of adequate shelter and exclusionwhile prompting gender equality education and environmental sustainability They are also basic human rights the rights of each person on the planet Person on the planet to health education shelter and security as pledged in the Universal Declaration of human rights and the UN Millennium Declaration 1 Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty 2 Achieve universal primary education 3 Promote gender equality and empower women 4 Reduce child mortality 5 Improve maternal health 6 Combat HIV AIDS malaria and other diseases 7 Ensure environmental sustainability 8 Develop a global partnership for development 16 What is the Human Development Index Why do we rank nations by levels of development The human development Index HDI is a summary measure of average achievement in key dimensions of human development a long and healthy life being knowledgeable and have a decent standard of living The HDI is geometric mean of normalized indices for each of the three dimensions The HDI was created to emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country not economic growth alone The HDI can also be used to question national policy choices asking how two countries with the same level of GNI per capita can end up with different human development outcomes These contrasts can stimulate debate about government policy priorities II Possible Essays What are the main sources of friction between the community of nations and a rising economic superpower China Are there positive and or negative impacts of a rising China Of a rising India What are they What is the nation that produces the largest RampD outcome Who benefits from these research efforts What is the net position of the US as 00 of the World Biocapacity What is China net position as of the World Biocapacity Is that relevant for the prosperity of the community of nations in the 21st Century Why Why not Sources of frictions trade China have rapidly expanded exports Export expansion is putting strong pressure on manufacturing china and services India jobs around the world Politically charged in context of high unemployment in developed countries Global impact five positive Growing markets Lower prices of goods and services for importers Higher prices for natural resource and commodity Lower interest rate for world Financial flow and investments in the rest of the world Five negative impacts Tremendous competitive pressure on other countries producing manufactured goods and services they export Increase in price on natural resources and commodities Download pressure on wages Rapid technological catchup through copying and imitation plus now large domestic innovation effort and purchasing of high tech companies Negative environmental impact including global warming What is the most effective and ubiquitous cause of death for humans worldwide In the context of catastrophes to societies what is resilience What is the EVI Does the EVI address social cultural and economic vulnerabilities Based on what we know about natural disasters in the 21st Century can a nation achieve resilience on its own


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.