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MCAT Biology 2- Biochemistry Part 2

by: ShayD

MCAT Biology 2- Biochemistry Part 2 CHEM 2223

Marketplace > University of Missouri - St. Louis > Chemistry > CHEM 2223 > MCAT Biology 2 Biochemistry Part 2
GPA 3.74

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About this Document

I recently took a Princeton Review MCAT Boot Camp, and took daily notes on each topic they covered. This specific study guide focuses on the most important information they cover on the MCAT for bi...
Quantitative Analysis
John Gutweiler
Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...)
MCAT, Biology, biochemistry, DNA, DNA structure, Chromosomes, Genome, DNA replication, mutations, DNA polymerase
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This 6 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by ShayD on Wednesday January 13, 2016. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to CHEM 2223 at University of Missouri - St. Louis taught by John Gutweiler in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Quantitative Analysis in Chemistry at University of Missouri - St. Louis.


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Date Created: 01/13/16
MCAT Biology 2 Review:  *** This study guide will refresh and enhance your knowledge, however it assumes you have a  basic understanding of biology and chemistry***  DNA Structure  Made up of nucleic acids (since they are  found in the nucleus and possess acidic phosphate  groups)     Nucleic acids (N. A.) o Ribose sugar  Become deoxy, with OH group  o Nitrogenous bases A, G, C, T  A & G= purine  “pure as silver (Ag)”  C, U & T= pyrimidines o  Phosphate group  Bind to ribose sugar of another nucleic acid to form the backbone     Polynucleotides  o Multiple N. A. are covalently linked together via phosphodiester bonds   Connected from the 5’ carbon of the phosphate group to the 3’ carbon of the  sugar     Watson­ Crick Model of DNA o DNA structure is composed of a double stranded very long polynucleotides  They are held together via hydrogen bonds to form antiparallel orientation a  right handed double helix Hydrogen bonding is very specific: Purine+ pyrimidine  o A=T­ 2 hydrogen bonds (weaker) o G=C­3 hydrogen bonds (strongest)  10 bases every full turn  Chromosome Structure and Packing  o Eukaryotes­ large pieces of linear DNA is  Called a chromosome   Genome­ sum total of an organisms  Genetic information  o Prokaryotes­ single circular chromosome  o Viral­ may be either linear or circular   Chromosome Packing  o Prokaryotes­ is maintained by DNA gyrase, it twists the DNA to form supercoils  o Eukaryotes­ DNA is wrapped around globular proteins called histones; fully  packaged DNA is called chromatin  Centromeres  o Region where spindle fiber attaches  Telomeres o The ends of chromosomes, that prevent fusion from with neighboring chromosomes  Guanine rich repeated segment that knots up to stabilize the ends Genomic structure  Nucleotide variation  o Some variation are called single nucleotide polymorphisms, are essential for  mutations, present as both large scale and harmless or small scale and harmful  PTC taste sensitivity   Sickle cell anemia   Transposons o These are short segments that can “jump around the genome,” causing  mutations o Three types of transposons:  IS element­ which is composed of transposase gene flanked by  inverted repeated sequences  Complex transposons­ may also have additional genes  Composite Transposons­ composite transposons have 2 similar IS  elements with a central region in between   They use transposase enzyme that cuts and pastes the segments  The Genetic Code  DNA is not directly exerted its influence on cells  o Instead it contains a sequence of nucleotides (genes), that are templates that  produce another nucleic acid (RNA)  The process of reading DNA and writing RONA is called transcription          Will be  The process of synthesizing proteins using RNA is known as translation        covered in  o Via ribosome   microbiology Central Dogma   DNA RNA protein (fundamental law of microbiology) o This is where inherited information is used to create objects (enzyme/proteins)  Exceptions: o Retroviruses  o Other pathways to transferred in other ways (methylation and post­ translational modifications) Genetic Code  The language used by DNA and mRNA to specify building blocks of proteins (amino  acids) o Uses 4 letters  Genetic code is written by 3 letter words Codons o Codon chart will not be provided on the MCAT and amino acid properties should  be memorized   Some numbers worth knowing  o There are 64 codons o They only code for 61 amino acids, since 3 will code for STOP codons **DNA Replication  During cell division DNA needs to be duplication, it does so through a process known as  replication  o This occurs during the S­Phase   Big Picture o Since the new DNA (daughter DNA) is synthesized using the old DNA (parental  DNA) using the semiconservative model­ Memorize   Molecular level o Due to its structure (DNA), DNA needs to unwound via an enzyme called  helicase   Helicase orients itself by identifying a specific sequence of nucleotides   known as the Origin of replication (ORI) o Helicase causes strand strain, which is relieved by topoisomerase  o The now single strands are stabilized by Single­strand binding proteins (SSBPs) o RNA must be synthesized for each template   Via primase o Replication occurs in the replication bubble  At the replication fork   o Due to their nature antiparallel structure   One strand is replicated continuously (leading strand)   The other strand is replicated discontinuously (lagging strand)  Small chunks called Okazaki fragments   Must memorize o Polymerization (elongation) occurs from the 5’  3’  Always o DNA polymerase requires a template o DNA polymerase requires a primer  o Replication fork grow away from origin in both direction o Eukaryotes have several origins points causing several “replication bubbles”  Prokaryotes have only one point of origin (theta replication) o RNA primers are replaced by DNA and the fragments are later joined by ligase  DNA polymerase  There are several types of enzyme with complicated mechanisms (you DO NOT need to  worry about these) only know DNA polymerase I & DNA polymerase III: o DNA polymerase I­ 5’­3’ polymerase activity   Super­fast, super­accurate elongation of leading strand   Proofreading function   Has repair functions corrects errors o DNA polymerase III­5’­3’ polymerase activity   Poor processivity (slower),   It removes RNA primer as replaces it (exonuclease activity) while leaving  behind new DNA (endonuclease activity)      Telomeres  Are disposable repeats at the end of the chromosome  o Since after each cell division DNA is shortened   Telomeres protect the DNA from degradation o They need a primer and need telomerase (enzyme  that adds repetitive nucleotide  sequences)  Genetic Mutation­ any alteration to DNA sequence of organism’s DNA  Causes of genetic mutations o Environmental, chemical, but most often spontaneously  o Physical mutagens  Ionizing radiation (X­ray)  Photochemical damage (UV light)  Reactive chemicals­ can directly interact with DNA or interact with  processing agents of the cell  Mutagen­ any compound that cause mutagens   Biological agents­ incorrect base pair, viruses, and transposons  Types of mutations   Point mutation­ a single base pair substitution either transition (pyrimidine by another  pyrimidine), transversion (purine by pyrimidine); 3 types: o Missense mutation­ cause of 1 amino acid to be replaced by another amino acid,  may be harmless if they amino acids have similar properties o Nonsense mutation­ a stop codon is formed, causes premature shortening  o Silent mutation­ a single nucleotide change that makes a new codon that codes for the same amino acid, no change to protein sequence  Insertions          the addition or removal of a single nucleotide, which cases a frameshift   Deletions          a serious mutation   Inversions­ a segment of the chromosome undergoes breakage and rearrangement within  itself   Amplifications­ a segment of the chromosome is duplicated  Translocations­ is a result of recombination of non­homologous chromosomes o Transposons may cause recombination­ depends on directionality    Loss of heterozygosity­ is when a diploid organism has one allele that is lost ( may be  due to deletion or recombination), loss of the normal allele  Effects of mutation   This may have loss­of­function (have little to no function)  Haploinsufficiency has only a single functional copy of a gene o Must express enough for gene to maintain good health   Good vs. Bad o Some mutations maybe beneficial (sickle cell vs. malaria) o Others may be disease causing (cancer and metabolism) 


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