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This 4 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Nick Richmond on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to POSC105 at Towson University taught by Rudolph in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Intro to Comparative Politics in Political Science at Towson University.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Richmond 1 Nick Richmond Rudolph POSC 105 14 January 2015 Midterm Part 1: 1. Empirical: What is, objective, observable evidence… adherence to well defined methods for acquiring information in order to acquire knowledge. An example of an empirical inquiry would be; what is the affect of the longevity of the administration in the parliamentary system? Normative: What ought to be… subjective…knowledge that is valueladen, concerned with prescribing what ought to be. An example of a normative inquiry would be; what would happen if Germany won WWII? 2. – Catch All Elitist Mass Germany is a “catch all” type of party because they have the Social Democratic Party of Germany trying to appeal as many people they can in efforts to gain political support and make a more appealing Germany. Britain is an “elitist” party because they have the top people from the country, who have the best education and the most money ruling the country. These “elitist” have enough money and power to influence the members of parliament. France is the “mass” party. The reason they are the mass party is because of the French Communist Party (PCF). The PCF is the biggest party in France and they have the most support. They are different from other mass parties because they keep a tight control over their membership and they will kick anyone out who they deem unnecessary. 3. A parliament system has an executive and a legislature. The executer is the Prime Minister, while the legislature is the parliament itself. The citizens elect the legislatures in the parliament. The parliament will elect the Prime Minister. The parliament has a judicial system but they can only enforce laws, they do not have the power of judicial review. The government in the United States has three separate branches. It is made up of the legislature, executive and judicial. The executive is made up of the President and the people vote him into his position, not by the legislative branch. Congress makes up the legislature and just like the parliament system, the people vote those electives into their place. Lastly, we have a judicial branch that decides the laws and enforces the laws of the United States and have the power of judicial review. A parliament system does not have this because the final say of the law is up to their ruler. A parliament system has no time limits for its members, whilst the government of the United States has select term limits each person can serve. This could allow for a Prime Minister to stay in power for many years, and could give an advantage to global politics Richmond 2 because he has been in power so long they wont take risky moves like a new President every couple of years. The differences in policy making between the two are that the President can make a policy is he would like to at any point, he does not have to have the support of Congress. While in a parliamentary system, the policy needs to be approved by both the Prime Minister and the Parliament. Congress has the capability to pass laws and policies, but it is the Presidents choice that will make into law. The implications of these differences are that if a law needs to be passed, the President has the ability to do it right away. But it is different in a parliamentary system because it has to pass through the parliament and the Prime Minister. 4. Three functions: 1. Defense against foreign attack. 2. Protection of the rights of the citizens 3. Internal peace and security Two characteristics: 1. Modern states will use a monopolized use of force meaning they have the capability to destroy threats and they want the people to know. 2. Modern states have a proper functioning bureaucracy, which will aid to effectiveness and smoothness in all daytoday operations. 5. The President of France is voted into power via universal suffrage. They will have to compete in a two round election. The first election will narrow it down to two people and the second election will ensure that the President has won via a majority. The President will only be allowed to serve two consecutive full terms. The advantage of the French procedure for electing the President is to make sure that the person has a full majority. In the United States the winner can win just by one percent of the vote. This could lead to an unhappy America because the person barely won the election. The twocycle election allows for the majority of citizens to be happy with the election because they have to win two elections just to be President. Part 2: The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy, meaning that a Royal family is in charge but there are limits to the power they hold and the constitution passes some of the power down to the Parliament. In the United Kingdom, all four countries have there own internal governments that enforce and make some laws but they still have to follow all the laws set by Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Parliament has the final say and none of the countries that make up the United Kingdom are able to challenge the constitutionality of the laws set. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are all devolved governments because they agree to follow the laws set by the United Kingdom Parliament. The other thing about the devolved governments is that they can be reduced or revoked by the central government, which is the United Kingdom Parliament. A devolved government is when you have nearby regimes that all come together to form a national parliament and be controlled by a central government. This is good for political strength and a growing autonomy at the expense of this central government. Devolution occurs in the United Kingdom because the central government is giving little power back to the separate states. Most of the time, devolution will occur at a financial cost, where Richmond 3 the centralized government is making sure that the states use there budget how they want and wont make the use it for what the Parliament seems necessary. The relationship between the legislative and execute branches are that the Prime Minister is chosen from the legislative branch which is the Parliament. The Prime Minister and the cabinet are members of the Legislative. The approval of the Prime Minister’s policies will help keep him in power because the people and the Parliament like what he is doing. Lastly, the Prime Minister is subject to the Parliaments control. It is hard to change the constitutional provisions that affect policy making in the United Kingdom because all the power belongs to a centralized government. The powers of the states are limited because they chose to create a centralized government. If you want to change a policy in the United Kingdom, you have to remember that it will affect three other states and that could be tough when you are trying to make a policy change. Germany is a federal republic type of government and it distributes its power with other levels of government. After Germany lost WWII, it adopted many policies from the United States. One of the policies it adopted was Federalism. Federalism is the separation between the federal government and local governments. It allows for local governments to make policies to affect the situation that is occurring at that moment. This however does sacrifice the national uniformity of some major broad issues. Germany has a central government that is restricted and it has other provinces or local governments that self govern themselves. The people of Germany have the final say in who can become a representative for their country. The citizens of Germany vote for a legislature and in 16 state governments. The winners of the 16 state governments will then be elected to the Bundesrat. While the legislature voted by the citizens are the Bundestag. The Bundestag then elected the Chancellor. The Chancellor appoints the Cabinet and there is a Federal President is has been voted upon. The separation of powers gives greater legislative responsibility to the federal government and it gives greater administrative responsibility to state governments. The federal government will take care of issues that concern national security or anything that has an issue with the national level. While the local governments will decide on everything else. The executive branch of Germany will decided policies based on national issues, they will not get involved with anything else. While the legislative branch of Germany will deal with issues concerning health care, transportation or anything like that. This allows for the executive powers to watch the country, while the local governments run the country. France follows a unitary level of government. A unitary government is one, which the central government sets uniform policies that will affect the whole entire nation, not just certain governments. This is good if you want to make policies that will affect the whole nation, but it is bad when you need to fix issues in certain local governments. There is little power granted to the local governments because the power is all to the central government. They have the say in which policies will be made and which ones will be ignore. There is no distribution of power between the central and local governments in France, because the central government has the entire saying and makes all the rules. In the French government, the authority is distributed pretty fairly between the legislative and executive branches. Because they are unitary, the final say is to the Richmond 4 President who is the executive branch. But both the executive and legislative have similar types of power when it comes to maintaining France. It would not be easy to change policies in France because of there unitary system. The centralized government has the control and they make all the policies. The local governments and their actors have no say when they need a policy made because the centralized government will only pass laws that affect the nation. If it affects the nation, then the policy will be passed quickly. If it only affects a local government, then that policy may never get passed. Those are the differences between the United Kingdom, Germany and France. United Kingdom is a Parliamentary system where they have power granted to different levels that make the decisions on what to act upon. Germany is a Federal type of government where they are a separation between the federal government and local governments. France is a unitary government where the local governments have no say because the policies implemented are only for the nation.
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