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Biology; CHaracteristics of Life

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by: Makenzie Strand

Biology; CHaracteristics of Life BIOL 113

Marketplace > Western Kentucky University > Biology > BIOL 113 > Biology CHaracteristics of Life
Makenzie Strand
GPA 3.2

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These are the notes for the first chapter
Ross, J
Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...)
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"Killer notes! I'm stoked I can finally just pay attention in class!!!"
Kaylah Runolfsdottir V


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This 5 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Makenzie Strand on Monday February 1, 2016. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to BIOL 113 at Western Kentucky University taught by Ross, J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see GENERAL BIOLOGY in Biology at Western Kentucky University.

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-Kaylah Runolfsdottir V


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Date Created: 02/01/16
Chapter 1 I. The Characteristics of Life  Life exists almost everywhere on Earth.  Great variety of life forms II. The Characteristics of Living Organisms  Organized- acquire materials and energy- reproduce- respond to stimuli- homeostatic- grow and develop- adapt to their environment III. Hierarchy of Levels 1. Cell: smallest unit of life 2. Tissue: group of similar cells joined together to perform a particular function 3. Organ: Several tissues joined together 4. Organ System: organs working together IV. Organism need Energy  External material sand energy are needed to maintain their organization  Energy is the capacity to do work V. Organisms Reproduce  “Life arises from Life”  Genes: Units of information contained within the DNA  Reproduction: Process by which an organism make more of itself  Asexual: Unicellular organisms (plants)  Sexually: Multicellular organisms (people) VI. Organisms Respond to Stimuli  By moving toward or away (Fight or Flight) Ex=the smell of food  Variety of mechanisms for movement: Nervous & Muscular= humans and plants Leaves of plants turn towards the sun  Behavior is determined by avoiding injury, acquiring food or mating VII. Organisms are Homeostatic  “The same”  Maintains relatively constant internal environment  Ex= Human body temperature fluctuates slightly throughout the day VIII. Organisms Grow & Develop  Growth: Increase in size or number of cells  Development: Changes that take place from conception to death IX. Organisms Have the Capacity to Adapt  Constantly changing  “Survival of the fittest”  Adaptions: features that make individual organisms better suited to the new environment  Natural Selection: the differential reproductive success of adapted individual  Evolution: Changes in frequency of traits in populations and species X. Classification of Organisms (Most InclusiveLeast Inclusive)  DomainKingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeci es  Systematics: Discipline of identifying & classifying organisms according to specific criteria XI. Domains  Largest Classification  Archea----Bacteria----Eukarya  Archea & BacteriaUnicellular prokaryotic cells (no true nucleus)  Eukarya: eukaryotic cells (true nucleus/genes found in DNA w/in nucleus)  Archea: live in extreme environments  Bacteria: Found everywhere, present w/in humans, cause disease XII. Kingdoms (P.F.P.A)  Eukaryotic --Kingdom Protista --Kingdom Fungi --Kingdom Plantae --Kingdom Animalia XIII. Categories of Classification  Classified according to their presumed evolutionary relationships Classification Category Characteristics Domain Eukarya Cells w/ nucleus Kingdom Animalia Multicellular, motile, ingestion of food Phylum Chordata Dorsal supporting rod & nerve cord Class Mammalia Hair, mammary glands Order Primates Adapted to climb trees Family Hominidae Adapted to walk erect Genus Homo Large brain, tool use Species Homo Sapiens Body characteristics similar to modern man XIV. Scientific Names  Taxonomy: Assignment of a binomial to each species  Binomial (Two Name/ Capitalized & Italics) Ex: Homo sapiens….Pisum sativum….Felis domesticus XV. The Organization of the Biosphere  Biosphere: zone of air, land, & water  Population: All members of a species w/in a particular area  Community: different populations in an area  Ecosystem: community interact among themselves & w/ the physical environment (soil, atmosphere, etc) *Characteristics: -Chemical cycling: chemicals move from one species to another -Energy Flow: energy flows from the sun, through plants, throught the food chain XVI. Ecosystems  Climates gets determined where ecosystems are located on Earth  Two Most Biologically DiverseTropical Rain forests & Coral Reefs(occur where solar energy is most abundant) XVII. The Human Species  Modify existing ecosystems for its own purposes  Tropical Rain forests & coral reefs are greatly harmed as global human population increases  Depend on healthy ecosystems for food, medicine, & raw materials XVIII. Biodiversity  Encompasses: Total # of species, Variability in their gene, ecosystems I which they live  5-30 Million species exist on Earth  Human activities cause the extinction of about 400 species a day XIX. The Process of Science  Biology: The scientific study of life  Biologists use the scientific method ***Observations(new & previous)Hypothesis(Input from various sources)Experiment/Observations(hypothesis is tested)Conclusion(results are analyzed) *Scientific Theory(Many experiments & observations support a theory)  Data: results of an experiment XX. A Controlled Study  Control Group: Receives no treatment  Experimental Group: receives treatment


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