CS8700 Week 2
CS8700 Week 2 CS8700
Popular in Becoming a Culturally Competent Communicator in a Multicultural World
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This 7 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by James Notetaker on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to CS8700 at Nanyang Technological University taught by Dr. Chen Hsueh-hua Vivian in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 859 views. For similar materials see Becoming a Culturally Competent Communicator in a Multicultural World in Communication Studies at Nanyang Technological University.
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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Culture and Communication CS8700 Lecture 2 Dr. Vivian Chen Communication and culture Communication: The process of behaving and interpreting behavior (verbal, nonverbal, mediated) between people Two approaches to communication: ◦Communication as a process of message exchange ◦Communication as meaning-making Defining communication: Message exchange (1) Process: The sending, receipt, and interpretation of messages Message: A set of symbols—words, sounds, or images—placed together to represent some meaning Transmitter: Something that changes a message from a source into a signal that can travel through a channel Defining communication: Message exchange (2) Channel: A medium for transferring a signal from one party to another Receiver: The device that receives the signal and translates it back into an understandable message Sourceand destination: The sender and receiver of the message Defining communication: Message exchange (3) Feedback: The process of giving a verbal or nonverbal response to the sender Transactional nature of communication: The idea that communication involves a give-and-take between individuals, with both sending and receiving messages Defining communication: Meaning-making (1) Symbolic nature of communication: The idea that words or images (including verbal, nonverbal, and mediated representations) represent something else - there is no definite meaning in communication Defining communication: Meaning-making (2) Ogden-Richards Triangle of Meaning: A model to demonstrate how we link symbols with reality in our thoughts: ◦Reality: The actual object in our environment ◦Symbol: A sound or visual representation of the reality ◦Reference: The thought-image in our mind - symbol of no parking - we need experiences to understand certain symbols - if we interpret the symbol correctly, then it is a successful interpretation process The relationship of communication to culture (1) Possible relationships between culture and communication: 1.Culture as variable Culture is something that influences how people communicate The relationship of communication to culture (2) Possible relationships between culture and communication: 2.Constitutive approach Communication creates culture. People create culture (and all social structure) through communication; communication and culture constantly influence each other The relationship of communication to culture (3) Possible relationships between culture and communication: 3.Intergroup striving approach This view argues that the process of culture change is argued for and fought over by groups with specific interests How can we define culture? Culture as moral or intellectual excellence Culture as a group of people who share a set of values, beliefs, etc. Culture as a structure or pattern of living, meanings, etc. Culture as functional for solving some life problems Culture as a process of the constant co-creation of meaning Culture as a struggle over power interests and meanings Culture as fragmented, with any cultural idea framed A definition of culture The way of life of a group of people, including symbols, values, behaviors, artifacts, and other shared aspects, that continually evolves as people share messages, and is often the result of struggle between different groups who share different perspectives, interests, and power relationships Aspects and elements of culture Values Beliefs Rules, norms, mores (We will say more about these in chapter 4) Communication system (face-to-face, media) Social systems (economic, family, legal, political, leisure, etc.) Characteristics of culture (1) Culture is learned and transmitted ◦Enculturation: Learning one’s own culture ◦Acculturation: Learning and adjusting to a new culture ◦Deculturation: Unlearning one’s own culture when living abroad Characteristics of culture (2) Culture is changing… and staying the same ◦Invention/innovation ◦Diffusion ◦Extensive contact between groups Characteristics of culture (3) Culture exists at different, interlocking levels Culture is mostly invisible to its members Culture changes and is changed by its environment Characteristics of culture (4) Culture is not the same as demographic difference ◦Race: Supposed biological differences between groups ◦Ethnicity: A sense of shared history and geographical ancestry, usually along with other markers, such as culture, language, or religion ◦Symbolic ethnicity: When people assimilate to a dominant culture but still use symbols, such as the Jewish star, to represent their identity of ancestry Characteristics of culture (5) Culture consists of elements that are interrelated Culture guides but does not dictate behavior—that is, people may act differently from their culture All cultures are ethnocentric. Ethnocentrismrefers to the belief that our culture or group is better than others