Psych101, Test 1 Prep.
Psych101, Test 1 Prep. Psych101
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This 21 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Tyrro Tundra on Monday February 15, 2016. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to Psych101 at James Madison University taught by Dr. Janna-Taft Young in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 02/15/16
Brief History of Psychology History of Psychology A Brief Introduction GPSYC 101: GenPsych, Dr. JTYoung email@example.com Office: Miller Hall 2173 Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Is the mind connected to the body or distinct? Monism vs. Dualism Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience? Pioneers in Psychology Dr. Janna Taft Young 1 Brief History of Psychology Pioneers in Psychology Charles Darwin: Theory of natural selection (1859) Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig & 1 psychology textbook (~1879) Sigmund Freud (up to 1939) created psychoanalytic theory of mental disorders Pavlov & Skinner (~1930s) popularized behaviorism and conditioning (effect of learning & reinforcement) Psychology’s Root -Isms Empiricism knowledge comes from experience via the senses Structuralism used introspection (looking in) to explore the elemental structure of the human mind Functionalism focused on how behavioral processes function—how they enable organism to adapt, survive, and flourish Behaviorism professed that behaviors (e.g. how we learn) are overt and driven by reward & reinforcement How to define the field Definition of Psychology The science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings) Dr. Janna Taft Young 2 Brief History of Psychology Contemporary Psychology Psychology’s Big Issues Nature-nurture controversy the relative contribution that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviors Natural selection principle that those inherited trait variations contributing to survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Mutationsexist Psychology’s Debates (Some of) Psychology’s Subfields Biological psychologists explore the links between brain and mind Cognitive psychologists study how we perceive, think, and solve problems Developmental psychologists study changing abilities from womb to tomb Social psychologists explore how we view and affect one another Personality psychologists investigate our persistent traits Dr. Janna Taft Young 3 Brief History of Psychology Psychology’s Subfields Applied Research Psychologists Industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologists study and advise on behavior in the workplace Clinical psychologists study, assess, and treat people with psychological disorders Psychiatry: A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders Practiced by physicians who sometimes use medical treatments as well as psychotherapy Areas of Specialization IndusttalOrganiatonal3%3 Biologcaland Socaland Pesonaaly 8%ty Expermeenall 16% Educatonal3%3 Otherr Psychology Deveopmeenal6%6 15% School3%3 Clnicall Counselng 10% 36% Dr. Janna Taft Young 4 Brief History of Psychology Where to find the Psychos ;-) Class Participation / Homework Take the online quiz (see Canvas for this course) regarding the different subfields of Psychology See Fields of Psychology Practice Quiz (under Quizzes) Due by 2:30pm on 9/2/2013 Dr. Janna Taft Young 5 Stats Reasoning & Research Methods Statistical Reasoning & Research Methods in Psychology General Psychology Dr. Janna Taft Young The Need for Psychological Science • Limits to “Common Sense” • Hindsight Bias – The “I knew it all along” syndrome. • Overconfidence – People are often more confident than correct. Scientific attitude & method • The scientific attitude involves: – Curiosity • Seeking explanations and understanding. – Skepticism • Not believing everything you’re told. – Humility • Because you may need to reject your own ideas Dr. Janna Taft Young 1 Stats Reasoning & Research Methods Basic Research Methods Psychologists describe behavior with: Descriptive Research (observe) Correlational Studies (relationship) Experiments (cause & effect) Often using case studies, surveys, (naturalistic) observation, and/or manipulation of variables Methods of Study Research Examples Example of animal case study Example of naturalistic observation Dr. Janna Taft Young 2 Stats Reasoning & Research Methods Variables • These are values or scores that may vary • Two main types of variables: 1. Independent variable (IV) • Something controlled by experimenter (e.g. drug dosage, subject grouping) 2. Dependent variable (DV) • Something that is measured and may be affectedby independent variable (e.g. reaction time, # errors) Key Concepts in Statistics • Central Tendency • Mean, Median and Mode • Variability • Range, Variance, SD • Presentation & Description • Bar Graphs, Scatterplots, Histograms, Time series • Correlations • + or -; cause-effect or not? • Tests of Difference • The bell curve and T tests & ANOVAs & Statistical Significance Average: The Mean • Write down these ten values (heights in ft.) • 5,5,5,5,5,6,6,6,6,6 (i.e. 5 X 5 and 6 x 5) • Find the “mean” value • Add them all up • Divide by the total number of data points (aka sample size, N; here N=10) • Try these five values (weights in lbs); what’s the mean? • 100 , 200, 150, 200, 100 so the mean = ? • Mean = additive scores divided by sample size Dr. Janna Taft Young 3 Stats Reasoning & Research Methods Averages : Mode and Median • The Mode: • Most common value • So if we count number of quarters (2,3,2,1,2) • The modal number of quarters is ? • The Median: • The middle value when data is arranged in ascending order. • So, if we measure number of children per family (0,0,5,1,2) • Here the median number of children in a family is ? Measures of Variation • Range, Variance, SD, Min/Max: Provide estimates of how much data varies • Range: – Difference between the smallest and largest value – What is the range of :1, 100, 50, 99, 80 ,10? – Answer=99; I.e. biggest value – smallest value • Variance/Standard Deviation – Average variation between individual values and the mean – Standard Deviation is the square root of the variance – SD or S x gives you an indication of how far apart the data points are (i.e. variability in the data) • Eg. Greater than or equal to two standard deviations away from the mean generally implies significant differences The Histogram • A frequency diagram that bins the data Histogram for Class Grades 45 40 35 30 25 20 Frequency 15 10 5 0 A B C D F Grade • Think of the data as color-coded balled paper distributed into particular trash bins Dr. Janna Taft Young 4 Stats Reasoning & Research Methods Describing data with a Bar Graph • Shows grouped data: • E.g. (a) Reaction time after drug (made in Excel) Reaction time (s) 2.5 2 1.5 1 Reaction Time 0.5 0 Cocaine Heroin Cannabis Placebo Drug Type The Scatterplot & Correlation • Plots one variable against another Correlations • Relationships between two things • Positive: As one increases, the other increases (e.g. height and 12 weight) r >/ = +1 10 8 6 4 2 01 3 5 7 9 • Negative: As one increases the other decreases (e.g. alcohol dose and reaction time) r </ = –1 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 3 5 7 9 • No relationship: No pattern between changes in one variable and those in another r = 0 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 • BUT, Correlation (r) does not imply causation! Dr. Janna Taft Young 5 Stats Reasoning & Research Methods Statistical Reasoning Statistical Significance A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance Involves conducting tests and comparing the p-value (probability event or mean difference is due to chance) to a preset alpha value NOTE: Use statistical significance with caution; valid SIG differences should be reported when you have done the appropriate statistics! FAQs in Psychology Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life? Does behavior depend on one’s culture or gender? Is psychology potentially dangerous? Why do we study animals and is that ethical? Summary • Various ways to present & summarize data – Graphically (Qualitatively) • Histogram, Bar Graphs, Scatterplots, etc. – Numerically (Quantitatively) • Mean, median, mode, variance etc. • Various ways to compare research data – Visually (observing graphs, plots & the like) – Quantitatively (w/ statistical tests; that’s another class altogether!) Dr. Janna Taft Young 6 Review for Psych Test1 Review of History & BioPsych Preps for GenPsych Test 1 Movie Discussion Day 1 Discuss movie links to psych in groups on 9/20/13 Go to Carrier Library’s Underground if you need to borrow the movie! Psych Test 1 Multiple-choice (50) online—see Canvas Prepare and review in advance (repeated exposure) Reread the summaries Look over your notes and slides Quiz yourself or work in study groups to challenge each other (not to memorize, but LEARN) Use practice quizzes online Create (& answer) your own questions based on key topics Come visit me in Miller 2173 (&/or TAs) PRIOR to the exam! Dr. Janna Taft Young 1 Review for Psych Test1 Key people and fields & topics in psychology Biopsychology, Evolutionary, Gestalt Psych., etc. Nature vs. Nurture & Monism vs. Dualism Research Methodology & Statistics Descriptive; Correlation; Experiment Mean, median & mode; SD & Significance Biopsychology Divisions of the Nervous System Brain cells & lobes and Neurotransmitters (AP) Hemispheric asymmetry & localization of function Neuroplasticity & Sensory Adaptation Sensation & Perception Vision & Hearing & Vestibular Systems Somatosensation Taste & Smell (Gustation & Olfaction) First Psychology Exam Practice Clicker questions in preparation for the first psychology exam Pioneers in Psychology Plato: Brain as Intellect, 360 B.C. Greek philosopher Descartes: Dualist/Pineal Gland, 1600 French philosopher Darwin: Natural Selection, 1860 British biologist Wundt: First (German) Psych Lab, 1879 Freud: Psychotherapy, 1900 Skinner: Learning via Conditioning, Reinforcement & Reward (Behaviorism), 1940 Dr. Janna Taft Young 2 Review for Psych Test1 Key Characters in Psychology cont. Ebbinghaus:Memory, 1888 Chomsky: Language, 1960 Pavlov: First conditioning, 1905 Piaget: Kid’s Intelligence, 1950 Maslow: Humanist approach, 1955 Methodology What are the three types of research methods and what are their goals? 1. Type: Descriptive approach Goals: to describe or document a particular behavior 2. Type: Correlational approach Goals: to predict the occurrence of a particular behavior 3. Type: Experimental approach Goals: to explain a behavior or understand why it occurs Statistical Methods Know differences between mean, median and mode as measures of average Standard Deviation (SD) tells us about consistency or the variability in the data; higher SD or range (max-min) the less consistent (more variable) your data is Statistical Significance is needed to determine if you have true differences in data (i.e. not chance differences) Dr. Janna Taft Young 3 Review for Psych Test1 Statistics Five students received the following test scores: 7, 11, 5, 6, and 11. Calculate the mode, median, mean, and range of this distribution of scores. Which measure of central dispersion would change the most if an additional test score of 2 was included in the distribution? 5, 6, 7, 11, 11; N=5 (sample size); min=5, Max=11; Mode=11 (only one mode with a freq. of 2); Median= 7 (easy pick of middle number once you reorganize the data); Mean= 40/5=8 If a 2 was added to this data set, the standard deviation would be greater because the range between the min and Max would be larger. Brain and Behavior __ Pituitary gland A. Located above the midbrain at the top of the brainstem; routes incoming messages from all the senses (except smell) to the appropriate brain areas for processing __ Medulla the so-called pleasure centers of the brainger, thirst, and body temperature and contains __ Pons C. The master gland of the endocrine system __ Reticular formation D. Located in the brainstem; controls breathing and heartbeat __ Cerebellum E. A nerve network that runs up the center of the brainstem; plays an important role in controlling alertness and attention __ Midbrain F. Located at the back of the brainstem; assists in balance and the coordination of voluntary movement __ Thalamus G. Part of the limbic system; is involved in learning and in forming new memories __ Hippocampus H. Part of the limbic system; is involved in regulation of the emotions of fear and rage __ Amygdala I. Located near the top of the brainstem; integrates specific types of information from the eyes and the ears, and sends this on to other parts of the brain __ Hypothalamus J. Located in the brainstem; controls breathing and heartbeat; connects the medulla to the body; involved in sleep and dreamingcoordinate and integrate movement on each side of the Dr. Janna Taft Young 4 Review for Psych Test1 Brain: Structure & Function Complex brain equated to neural network Right-Left Hemisphere Asymmetry Left generally best with serial tasks, language Right good for spatial abilities, faces, music Pair the Lobes & Functions: __________ A. Somatosensory cortex __________ B. Motor cortex __________ C. Visual cortex __________ D. Auditory cortex Localization of Functions RH: faces, emotions, synthesis :: LH : language/speech, serial tasks, analysis Ventral stream:What :: Dorsal stream:Where Ventral projection is to temporal lobe while dorsal travels to parietal lobe Frontal Lobe: move :: Parietal Lobe: touch Female Lingering Movements, Pursed Lips Touch Key structures and/or systems in the brain Limbic system vs. Thalamus vs. Brainstem, etc. ~90% Humans are LH dominant for language Dr. Janna Taft Young 5 Review for Psych Test1 Multiple Processes Sensory interaction vs. Parallel processing Interaction should have more than one sense involved in the example E.g. Flavor = taste + smell Many activities (sensation, perception, meaning; neurons, glia, AP, NT, etc.) occurring simultaneously reflect the multi-tasking (i.e. parallel processing) of the brain Top-down vs. Bottom-up Big picture (Gestalt) faster, as with faces, than feature-by-feature (or lteter yb lteter) Dating & Mating-Nature vs. Nurture Name the three factors that most influence romantic attraction: Proximity Similarity Physical attractiveness Gender differences in mate selection Men want attractive, healthy women Women want mature, rich men Genetics Plus Experience & Plasticity “Enriched early environments can overcome the negative effects of disadvantaged genes” (Pinel, 2003, p. 43; Cooper & Zubek, 1958; Bennett et al., 1964). Genotype (genetic makeup) vs. Phenotype (observable traits) Monozygotic vs. Dizygotic Twins Mutations! Dr. Janna Taft Young 6 Review for Psych Test1 Role of Nurturing Environment ImpoverishedRat brain Enriched brain environment cell environment cell Got Bad Genes? It’s OK, nurturing can help! Sensory & Chemical Systems Sensory Systems Vision Audition Vestibular Somatosensory (Skin senses, Touch & Pain) Chemical Systems Taste Combined for Flavor Perception Smell Sensation involves the receptor identification while your perception (interpretation) is much more variable & often unique Vision & Hearing How are the rods different than the cone receptors? Number (more rods), locale (rods in periphery, cones mostly in fovea), & function (cones=color and detail, rods=B&W contrast) Problem with cones, may have color blindness The inner ear contains receptors for: Audition (cochlea) and balance & posture (vestibular sense via semicircular canals) Dead hair cells means hearing is not as good; conduction deficits might be corrected via cochlear implant Dr. Janna Taft Young 7 Review for Psych Test1 What Not To Do Prior to the Exam! Dr. Janna Taft Young 8 Review for Psych Test1 Sensory Systems Vision: Light waves, retina, LGN of thalamus, primarily contralateral occipital lobe Gestalt Principle:We tend to organize & integrate stimuli into coherent, meaningful groups (e.g. closure; we fill in the gaps) Big picture (Top-down) faster, as with faces, than feature-by- feature or lteter yb lteter (Bottom-up processing) Audition: Sound waves, cochlea in inner ear, temporal lobe Vestibular: Fluid in canals/sacs of inner ear for balance & posture Somatosensory: Skin receptors for pressure, pain & temperature, free nerve endings, parietal lobe The Body Senses: Touch & Pain Key people and fields & topics in psychology Biopsychology, Evolutionary, Psychoanalytic, Gestalt Psych., etc. Nature vs. Nurture & Monism vs. Dualism, Blank @ birth or not Research Methodology & Statistics Descriptive; Correlation; Experiment Mean, median & mode; graphs; Variability (SD) & Significance (p) Brain & Behavior Divisions of the Nervous System (CNS & PNS) Brain cells & lobes of brain and Neurotransmitters (AP) Hemispheric asymmetry & localization of function Neuroplasticity, Neurogenesis, Intensity & APs, and Sensory Adaptation Sensation & Perception Vision & Hearing & Vestibular Systems Somatosensation (Touch & Pain) Taste & Smell (Gustation & OlfactionFlavor) Dr. Janna Taft Young 1 Review for Psych Test1 Brain and Behavior C__ Pituitary gland A. Located above the midbrain at the top of the brainstem; routes incoming messages from all the senses (except smell) to the appropriate brain areas for processing D __ Medulla the so-called pleasure centers of the brainger, thirst, and body temperature and contains __ Pons C. The master gland of the endocrine system __ Reticular formation D. Located in the brainstem; controls breathing and heartbeat __ Cerebellum E. A nerve network that runs up the center of the brainstem; plays an important role in controlling alertness and attention __ Midbrain F. Located at the back of the brainstem; assists in balance and the coordination of voluntary movement __ Thalamus G. Part of the limbic system; is involved in learning and in forming new memories __ Hippocampus H. Part of the limbic system; is involved in regulation of the emotions of fear and rage __ Amygdala I. Located near the top of the brainstem; integrates specific types of information from the eyes and the ears, and sends this on to other parts of the brain __ Hypothalamus J. Located in the brainstem; controls breathing and heartbeat; connects the medulla to the two sides of the cerebellum to help coordinate and integrate movement on each side of the body; involved in sleep and dreaming Brain: Structure & Function Complex brain equated to neural network Right-Left Hemisphere Asymmetry Left generally best with serial tasks, language Right good for spatial abilities, faces, music Pair the Lobes & Functions: __________ A. Somatosensory cortex B A __________ B. Motor cortex __________ C. Visual cortex D C __________ D. Auditory cortex Dr. Janna Taft Young 2
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