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Anatomy and Physiology Test Banks

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by: Nikee Reddy

Anatomy and Physiology Test Banks Biol 2301

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Nikee Reddy

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Chapter 1
Anatomy & Physiology 1
Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...)
anatomy, Physiology, A&P, kasparian
75 ?




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"I had to miss class because of a doctors appointment and these notes were a LIFESAVER"
Emelia Homenick III

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This 24 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by Nikee Reddy on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to Biol 2301 at University of North Texas taught by Kasparian in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 309 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology 1 in Biology at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
Human Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Marieb/Hoehn) Chapter 1   The Human Body: An Orientation Matching Questions Figure 1.1 Using Figure 1.1, match the following cavities: 1) Thoracic cavity. Answer:  C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 14­16; Fig. 1.9 2) Cranial cavity. Answer:  A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 14­16; Fig. 1.9 3) Abdominal cavity. Answer:  D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 14­16; Fig. 1.9 1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.   4) Vertebral cavity. Answer:  B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 14­16; Fig. 1.9 Figure 1.2 Using Figure 1.2, match the following regions: 5) Umbilical region. Answer:  C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 20; Fig. 1.12 6) Right hypochondriac. Answer:  B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 20; Fig. 1.12 7) Hypogastric (pubic) region. Answer:  D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 20; Fig. 1.12 2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 8) Epigastric region. Answer:  A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 20; Fig. 1.12 9) Right iliac (inguinal) region. Answer:  E Diff: 1 Page Ref: 20; Fig. 1.12 Match the following systems to their functions: A) Skeletal B) Nervous C) Integumentary D) Muscular 10) Directly causes mechanical motion. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 6; Fig. 1.3c 11) Responds to environmental changes by transmitting electrical impulses. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 6; Fig. 1.3d 12) Provides support and levers for muscles to work on. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 6; Fig. 1.3b 13) Protects underlying organs from mechanical damage and synthesizes vitamin D. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 6; Fig. 1.3a Answers: 10) D 11) B 12) A 13) C Match the following systems to their functions: A) Endocrine B) Cardiovascular C) Lymphatic D) Immune 14) Controls the body with chemical molecules called hormones. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 6; Fig. 1.3e 15) Delivers oxygen and nutrients to the tissues. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 6; Fig. 1.3f 16) Produces antibodies that neutralize foreign substances. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 7; Fig. 1.3g 3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 17) Removes and filters excess fluid from tissues. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 7; Fig. 1.3g Answers: 14) A 15) B 16) D 17) C   4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Match the following examples of feedback mechanisms: A) Positive feedback B) Negative feedback 18) Blood glucose levels Diff: 2 Page Ref: 9­10 19) Blood pressure Diff: 3 Page Ref: 9­10 20) Blood clotting Diff: 2 Page Ref: 10­12 21) Delivering a baby Diff: 2 Page Ref: 10­12 Answers: 18) B 19) B 20) A 21) A Match the following systems and organs: A) Cardiovascular B) Endocrine C) Respiratory D) Urinary E) Digestive 22) Arteries, veins, heart. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 6; Fig. 1.3f 23) Trachea, bronchi, alveoli. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 7; Fig. 1.3h 24) Adrenal glands, pancreas, pituitary. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 6; Fig. 1.3e 25) Esophagus, large intestine, rectum. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 7; Fig. 1.3i 26) Kidneys, bladder, ureters. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 7; Fig. 1.3j Answers: 22) A 23) C 24) B 25) E 26) D 5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Match the following cavities and organs: A) Thoracic B) Cranial C) Abdominopelvic 27) Stomach. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 16; Fig. 1.9 28) Heart. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 16; Fig. 1.9 29) Uterus. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 16; Fig. 1.9 30) Brain. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 16; Fig. 1.9 31) Lungs. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 16; Fig. 1.9 Answers: 27) C 28) A 29) C 30) B 31) A Match the following regional terms and common terms: A) Patellar B) Cephalic C) Brachial D) Gluteal E) Thoracic 32) Arm. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 13; Fig. 1.7 33) Buttock. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 13; Fig. 1.7 34) Head. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 13; Fig. 1.7 35) Knee (anterior aspect). Diff: 1 Page Ref: 13; Fig. 1.7 36) Chest. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 13; Fig. 1.7 6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Answers: 32) C 33) D 34) B 35) A 36) E 7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Match the regional/directional terms and examples: A) Proximal B) Superior C) Medial D) Anterior E) Distal 37) The bridge of the nose is ________ to the left eye. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 12; Tbl. 1.1 38) The upper arm is ________ to the forearm. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 12; Tbl. 1.1 39) The heart is ________ to the stomach. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 12; Tbl. 1.1 40) The fingers are ________ to the wrist. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 12; Tbl. 1.1 41) The stomach is ________ to the spine. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 12; Tbl. 1.1 Answers: 37) C 38) A 39) B 40) E 41) D True/False Questions 1) Positive feedback mechanisms tend to increase the original stimulus. Answer:  TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10­11 2) Imaging is useful in discovering obstructed blood supplies in organs and tissues. Answer:  TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 18­19 3) The anatomical position means the body is standing at attention with the palms facing forward and the thumbs pointing away from the body. Answer:  TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 13; Fig. 1.7 4) The elbow is proximal to the shoulder. Answer:  FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 12; Table 1.1 5) The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity wall is called visceral peritoneum. 8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Answer:  FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 16­17 6) A major function of serous membranes is to decrease friction. Answer:  TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 16­17 7) The right hypochondriac region contains the majority of the stomach. Answer:  FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 20; Fig. 1.12 8) Lungs carry out an excretory function. Answer:  TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 7 9) Embryology concerns the structural changes that occur in an individual from conception  through old age. Answer:  FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 2 10) A tissue consists of groups of similar cells that have a common function. Answer:  TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 3 11) It is important for any organism to maintain its boundaries, so that its internal environment  remains distinct from the external environment surrounding it. Answer:  TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 5 12) Without some sort of negative feedback mechanism, it would be impossible to keep our body chemistry in balance. Answer:  TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 8­10 13) Regardless of the variable being regulated, all homeostatic control mechanisms have at least  three interdependent components. Answer:  TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 9; Fig. 1.4 14) The epigastric region is located superior to the umbilical region. Answer:  TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 20; Fig. 1.12 9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Multiple­Choice Questions 1) Histology would be best defined as a study of ________. A) cells B) tissues C) cell chemistry D) the gross structures of the body Answer:  B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 2 2) The study of the heart may incorporate many aspects of anatomy but as a whole you would  say it is __________ anatomy. A) microscopic B) gross C) developmental D) systemic Answer:  B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 2 3) An increased rate of breathing as a result of an increased buildup of carbon dioxide in the  bloodstream would be best described as an example of ________. A) maintaining boundaries B) excretion of metabolic waste C) responsiveness D) metabolism Answer:  B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 6 4) Average body temperature is ________ degrees centigrade. A) 98 B) 68 C) 47 D) 37 Answer:  D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 8 5) If you consider your home air conditioner in terms of homeostasis, then the wall thermostat  would be the ________. A) control center B) receptor C) effector D) variable Answer:  A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 9­10 10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6) What is the main, general purpose of negative feedback? A) to control all body system tissues B) to maintain homeostasis C) to keep the body's sugar high D) to regulate excretion Answer:  B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 9­10 7) What is the specific name for the hip region? A) manus B) inguinal C) pedal D) coxal Answer:  D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 13; Fig. 1.7 8) An oblique cut is one that is cut ________. A) horizontal right and left B) diagonally between the vertical and horizontal C) vertical right and left D) perpendicular to vertical and horizontal Answer:  B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 14 9) The heart lies in the ________ cavity. A) superior mediastinal B) pleural C) dorsal  D) pericardial Answer:  D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 16; Fig. 1.9 10) The cavities housing the eyes are called __________ cavities. A) frontal B) cranial C) nasal D) orbital Answer:  D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 20 11) A structure that is composed of two or more tissues would be a(n) ________. A) complex tissue B) organ system C) organ D) complex cell 11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Answer:  C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 3 12) ________ cavities are spaces within joints. A) Nasal B) Synovial C) Orbital D) Oral Answer:  B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 20 13) Which of the following would not be a functional characteristic of life? A) movement B) responsiveness to external stimuli C) maintenance of boundaries D) decay Answer:  D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 4­8 14) Which term means toward or at the back of the body, behind? A) anterior B) lateral C) distal D) dorsal Answer:  D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 12; Tbl. 1.1 15) The single most abundant chemical substance of the body, accounting for 60% to 80% of  body weight, is ________. A) oxygen B) protein C) water D) hydrogen Answer:  C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 8 16) What is the posterior side of the patella called? A) sural B) crural C) antecubital D) popliteal Answer:  D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 13; Fig. 1.7 12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 17) Which of the following statements is true concerning feedback mechanisms? A) Positive feedback mechanisms always result in excessive damage to the host. B) Negative feedback mechanisms tend to increase the original stimulus. C) Negative feedback mechanisms work to prevent sudden severe changes within the body. D) Blood glucose levels are regulated by positive feedback mechanisms. Answer:  C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 9­11 18) The anatomical position is characterized by all of the following except ________. A) body erect B) arms at sides C) palms turned posteriorly D) thumbs pointed laterally Answer:  C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 13; Fig. 1.7 19) A good example of a positive feedback mechanism would be ________. A) body temperature regulation B) regulating glucose levels in the blood C) enhancement of labor contractions D) blood calcium level regulation Answer:  C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 11 20) Which of the following describes a parasagittal plane? A) a transverse cut just above the knees B) two cuts dividing the body into left and right halves C) any sagittal plane except the median D) any cut dividing the body into anterior and posterior Answer:  C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 14 21) Which of the following organs or structures would be found in the left iliac region? A) appendix B) stomach C) liver D) intestines Answer:  D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 20; Fig. 1.12 22) The parietal pleural would represent a serous membrane ________. A) covering individual lungs B) lining the thoracic cavity C) covering the heart D) lining the abdominal cavity 13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Answer:  B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 17 23) Which one of the following systems responds to environmental stimuli? A) muscular B) lymphatic C) immune D) nervous Answer:  D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 6; Fig. 1.3 24) Choose the anatomical topic and definition that is not correctly matched. A) Gross anatomy:  study of structures visible to the eye. B) Microscopic anatomy:  study of structures too small to be seen by the naked eye. C) Cytology:  study of the structures in a particular region. D) Embryology:  study of the changes in an individual from conception to birth. Answer:  C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 2 25) Homeostasis is the condition in which the body maintains ________. A) the lowest possible energy usage B) a relatively stable internal environment, within limits C) a static state with no deviation from preset points D) a dynamic state within an unlimited range Answer:  B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 8­9 26) In which cavities are the lungs located? A) pleural, ventral, and thoracic B) mediastinum, thoracic, and ventral C) pleural, dorsal, and abdominal D) pericardial, ventral, and thoracic Answer:  A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 16; Fig. 1.9 27) Choose the following statement that is not completely correct regarding serous membranes. A) Serosa are very thin, double­layered structures. B) Serous membranes are divided into parietal and visceral membranes with a potential space  between the two. C) Visceral pericardium covers the surface of the heart, and parietal pericardium lines the walls  of the heart. D) Serous membranes secrete a watery lubricating fluid. Answer:  C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 16­17 14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.   15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 28) Place the following in correct sequence from simplest to most complex: 1. molecules 2. atoms 3. tissues 4. cells 5. organ A) 1­2­3­4­5 B) 2­1­4­3­5 C) 2­1­3­4­5 D) 1­2­4­3­5 Answer:  B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 3; Fig 1.1 29) Which of the following imaging devices would best localize a tumor in a person's brain? A) X ray B) DSA C) PET D) MRI Answer:  D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 18­19 30) Which of these is not part of the dorsal cavity? A) cranial cavity B) thoracic cavity C) spinal cord D) vertebral cavity Answer:  B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 14, 16; Fig. 1.9 31) In which abdominopelvic cavity is the stomach located? A) right upper B) right lower C) left upper D) left lower Answer:  C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 20; Fig. 1.12 32) Which of the following statements is the most correct regarding homeostatic imbalance? A) It is considered the cause of most diseases. B) The internal environment is becoming more stable. C) Positive feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed. D) Negative feedback mechanisms are functioning normally. Answer:  A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 11 16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 33) Subdivisions of anatomy include which of the following? A) gross, macroscopic, visual, and microscopic B) gross, regional, dissection, and surface C) regional, surface, visual, and microscopic D) gross, regional, systemic, and surface Answer:  D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 2 34) The term pollex refers to the ________. A) great toe B) calf C) fingers D) thumb Answer:  D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 13; Fig. 1.7 35) The dorsal body cavity is the site of which of the following? A) intestines B) brain C) lungs D) liver Answer:  B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 15­16; Fig. 1.9 36) Select the most correct statement. A) The immune system is closely associated with the lymphatic system. B) Organ systems operate independently of each other to maintain life. C) The endocrine system is not a true structural organ system. D) Organ systems can be composed of cells or tissues, but not both. Answer:  A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 7; Fig. 1.3 37) One of the functional characteristics of life is irritability. This refers to ________. A) indigestible food residues stimulating the excretory system B) sensing changes in the environment and then reacting or responding to them C) the nervous system causing all living things to sometimes experience anger D) the necessity for all organisms to reproduce Answer:  B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 5 38) Which of the following are survival needs of the body? A) nutrients, water, movement, and reproduction B) nutrients, water, growth, and reproduction C) water, atmospheric pressure, growth, and movement D) nutrients, water, atmospheric pressure, and oxygen 17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Answer:  D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 8   39) The anatomical position is used ________. A) rarely, because people don't usually assume this position B) as a standard reference point for directional terms regardless of the actual position of the body C) only when a body is lying down D) as the most comfortable way to stand when dissecting a specimen Answer:  B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 13 40) What is a vertical section through the body, dividing it into left and right, called? A) frontal B) regional C) sagittal D) transverse Answer:  C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 14 41) What is a vertical section through the body, dividing it into anterior and posterior regions  called? A) frontal B) median C) sagittal D) transverse Answer:  A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 14­15; Fig 1.8 42) Which body cavity protects the nervous system? A) cranial B) dorsal C) vertebral D) thoracic Answer:  B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 14 43) Which of the following describes the operation of the heart and blood vessels? A) systemic anatomy B) cardiovascular anatomy C) systemic physiology D) cardiovascular physiology Answer:  B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 6; Fig. 1.3f 18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Fill­in­the­Blank/Short Answer Questions 1) Similar cells that have a common function are called ________. Answer:  tissues Diff: 1 Page Ref: 3 2) What does the “principle of complementarity of structures and function” mean? Answer:  What a structure can do depends on its specific form, or "structure determines  function." Diff: 2 Page Ref: 3 3) The term that describes the back of the elbow is ________. Answer:  olecranal Diff: 2 Page Ref: 13; Fig. 1.7 4) The term that describes the heel region is ________. Answer:  calcaneal Diff: 1 Page Ref: 13; Fig. 1.7 5) The elbow is ________ to the wrist. Answer:  proximal Diff: 2 Page Ref: 12; Tbl 1.1 6) The ________ cavity contains tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the organ of  hearing in the inner ear. Answer:  middle ear Diff: 1 Page Ref: 20 7) ________ is explained by chemical and physical principles and is concerned with the function of specific organs or organic systems. Answer:  Physiology Diff: 1 Page Ref: 2 8) What is a dynamic equilibrium of your internal environment termed? Answer:  homeostasis Diff: 2 Page Ref: 8­9 9) Which cavity contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and the rectum? Answer:  pelvic Diff: 1 Page Ref: 16; Fig. 1.9 10) What is the serous membrane that covers the intestines called? Answer:  visceral Diff: 1 Page Ref: 16­17 20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11) ________ physiology concerns urine production and kidney function. Answer:  Renal Diff: 1 Page Ref: 2 12) What broad term covers all chemical reactions that occur within the body cells? Answer:  metabolism Diff: 1 Page Ref: 5 13) What is the function of the serous membranes? Answer:  They act to reduce friction and allow the organs to slide across cavity walls. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 16­17 14) Fully describe the anatomical position for the human body. Answer:  The body is erect, arms hanging at the sides, palms forward, and thumbs pointed away  from the midline. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 13 15) What does gross anatomy study? Answer:  Larger structures of the body that can be seen with the naked eye. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 2 16) Can lungs carry out excretory functions?  Explain your answer. Answer:  Yes, carbon dioxide is a metabolic waste the lungs excrete. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 6­7 17) The higher we go in the mountains, the greater the atmospheric pressure, which causes a loss of oxygen.  Comment on this statement. Answer:  The statement is backwardsthe higher we go, the less atmospheric pressure, therefore  less oxygen. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 8 18) Why is anatomical terminology necessary? Answer:  Anatomical terms are precise words that have limited usage, which prevents confusion  when describing the location of body parts. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 11 19) The five cavities of the head are cranial, oral, nasal, middle ear, and ________. Answer:  orbital Diff: 2 Page Ref: 20 20) The ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them is called ________. Answer:  responsiveness or irritability Diff: 1 Page Ref: 5 21) What is the single most abundant chemical substance in the body? 21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Answer:  water Diff: 1 Page Ref: 8 22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 22) Why must a normal body temperature be maintained in order for chemical reactions to be  continued at life­sustaining rates? Answer:  If body temperature is too low, chemical reactions slow and eventually stop.  If body  temperature is too high, chemical reactions speed up and body proteins lose their normal shape,  resulting in loss of function. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 8 23) What is the pathway between the receptor and the control center in the reflex pathway  called? Answer:  afferent pathway Diff: 1 Page Ref: 9; Fig. 1.4 24) What type of homeostatic feedback reflex is the withdrawal reflex? Answer:  negative Diff: 3 Page Ref: 10 25) Why are the abdominopelvic cavity organs the most vulnerable in an automobile accident? Answer:  The walls of the abdominal cavity are formed only by trunk muscles and are not  reinforced by bone.  The pelvic organs receive a somewhat greater degree of protection from the  bony pelvis. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 16 26) What is the goal of all of the negative feedback mechanisms of the body? Answer:  The goal is to prevent sudden severe changes within the body. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 9­10 27) Which feedback mechanism causes the variable to deviate further and further from its  original value or range? Answer:  positive feedback Diff: 2 Page Ref: 10­11 28) What can happen when the usual negative feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed and  destructive positive feedback mechanisms take over? Answer:  Homeostatic imbalances increase our risk for illness and produce the changes we  associate with aging. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 11 29) Which body system would be most affected by a lower than normal atmospheric pressure? Answer:  respiratory system Diff: 3 Page Ref: 8 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Clinical Questions 1) A small family was traveling in its van and had a minor accident. The children in the back  seats were wearing lap belts, but still sustained numerous bruises about the abdomen, and had  some internal organ injuries. Why is this area more vulnerable to damage than others? Answer:  The abdominal organs are the least protected in the body because they are not  surrounded by a bony covering such as the ribs, pelvis, or cranium. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 16; Fig. 1.9 2) A surgeon removed a section of tissue along a transverse plane for microscopic examination.  What two names would the section be called? Answer:  A cross section or a transverse section. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 14 3) Judy is 16 years old and collapses on the gym floor with severe pain in her chest wall.  She is  rushed by ambulance to the emergency room.  Judy is diagnosed with pleurisy and is given an  anti­inflammatory through the intravenous route.  Explain why an anti­inflammatory would be  prescribed for someone with pleurisy. Answer:  The pleural space contains a small amount of fluid that acts as a lubricant, allowing the  pleurae to slide smoothly over each other as the lungs expand and contract.  Pleurisy is an  inflammation of the parietal pleura of the lungs.  When inflammation occurs in the pleural space, the pleurae do not slide smoothly and this causes severe pain. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 16­17 4) Explain why an 80­year­old woman requires a much longer time to recover from the flu than  does a woman who is age 30. Answer:  As we age, our body's control systems become less efficient.  As a result, our internal  environment becomes less and less stable. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 11 5) The nurse charted: "Patient has an open wound located on lateral aspect of leg."  Describe  where the wound is located. Answer:  The wound is located on the outer side of the leg. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 12; Tbl. 1.1 6) The patient was admitted to the hospital with hypertension.  The development of  arteriosclerosis has increased peripheral resistance to blood flow, worsening his hypertension.   This is an example of what type of feedback loop and why? Answer:  Positive feedback loops are common in pathophysiological perpetuation of disease.   For example, arteriosclerotic hypertension results in positive feedback mechanisms that enhance  and propagate the initial step in the chain of events, which is hypertension. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 10­11 24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.


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