Anatomy & Physiology ch 27
Anatomy & Physiology ch 27 Biol 2301
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Human Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Marieb/Hoehn) Chapter 27 The Reproductive System Matching Questions Figure 27.1 Using Figure 27.1, match the following: 1) Stem cell. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1036; Fig. 27.7 2) First cells with n number of chromosomes. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1036; Fig. 27.7 3) Type B spermatogonia. Answer: B 1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1036; Fig. 27.7 4) Early spermatids. Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1036; Fig. 27.7 5) Primary spermatocyte. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1036; Fig. 27.7 Figure 27.2 Using Figure 27.2, match the following: 6) Acrosome. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1037; Fig. 27.8 7) Location of mitochondria. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1037; Fig. 27.8 8) Midpiece. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1037; Fig. 27.8 9) Location of nucleus. Answer: C 2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1037; Fig. 27.8 3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 10) Area of compacted DNA. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1037; Fig. 27.8 11) Flagellum. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1037; Fig. 27.8 Figure 27.3 Using Figure 27.3, match the following: 12) The stage called ovulation. Answer: E Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1041; Fig.27.11a 13) Vesicular (Graafian) follicle. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1041; Fig.27.11a 14) Primary follicles. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1041; Fig.27.11a 15) Primordial follicle. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1041; Fig.27.11a 4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 16) Corpus luteum. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1041; Fig.27.11a 17) Mature follicle. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1041; Fig.27.11a Match the following: A) Uterus B) Scrotum C) Corpora cavernosa D) Ovulation E) Labia majora 18) Where the fetus develops and grows. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10421043 19) The release of oocyte from ovary. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1042 20) External sac enclosing the testes. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1025 21) Erectile tissue in the male. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1028 22) Female homologue of the scrotum. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1046 Answers: 18) A 19) D 20) B 21) C 22) E 5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Match the following: A) Chlamydia B) Genital warts C) Syphilis D) Genital herpes E) Gonorrhea 23) Human papillomavirus. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1059 24) Treponema pallidum. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1058 25) Urethritis in males. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1058 26) Human herpes virus type 2. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1059 27) Organism responsible for up to half of the diagnosed cases of pelvic inflammatory disease. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10581059 Answers: 23) B 24) C 25) E 26) D 27) A True/False Questions 1) It is necessary for the testes to be kept below body temperature. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1025 2) The prostate atrophies as a man ages, and it usually causes no health problems. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1030 3) The hormone oxytocin combines with enzymes in semen to enhance sperm motility. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1031 4) When a couple is having difficulty conceiving a child, it is necessary to investigate the sperm of the male. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1038 6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 5) The amount of testosterone and sperm produced by the testes is dependent on the influence of FSH alone. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10381039 6) Ovarian follicles contain mature eggs. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1042 7) Sexually transmitted infections are the most important cause of reproductive disorders. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1058 8) Reproduction is not possible in males or females until one year after puberty has begun. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1063 9) The smaller cell produced by oogenesis meiosis I, called the first polar body, is essentially a packet of discarded nuclear material. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1049 10) Pain during ovulation is called dysmenorrhea. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1066 11) A human egg or sperm contains 23 pairs of chromosomes. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1032 12) The Pap smear is a test to detect cancerous changes in cells of the cervix. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1044 13) The adenohypophyseal hormone that triggers ovulation is estrogen. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1052 14) The male urethra serves the urinary system only. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1030 15) Both tetrads and crossovers are seen during meiosis. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1033 7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 16) Failure to attain erection is called impotence. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1032 17) Ovulation occurs near the end of the ovarian cycle. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1052 18) The corpus luteum secretes progesterone only. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1052 19) Female orgasm is required for conception. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1058 20) The first sign of puberty in females is budding breasts. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1063 21) The primary function of the testes is to produce testosterone. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1025 22) The stage in meiosis where chromosomal exchange takes place is telophase. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1033; Fig. 27.5 23) The diamondshaped area between the coccyx, pubic arch, and ischial tuberosities in the female is the vulva. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1046 24) The soft mucosal lining of the uterus is the endometrium. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1044 25) A scrotal muscle that contracts in response to cold environmental temperature is the cremaster. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1026 26) The secretions of the bulbourethral glands neutralize traces of acidic urine in the urethra and serve as a lubricant during sexual intercourse. Answer: TRUE 9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1031 10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 27) The zona pellucida is formed as the follicle becomes a secondary follicle. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1052 28) The molecule that enhances the ability of testosterone to promote spermatogenesis is inhibin. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 1039 MultipleChoice Questions 1) The dartos and cremaster muscles are important to the integrity of the male reproductive system. Which of the following is true about the role they play? A) They contract to push sperm along the ductus deferens. B) They regulate the temperature of the testes. C) They are responsible for penile erection. D) They contract to allow ejaculation. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1026 2) The ability of sperm cells to move along the ductus deferens is due to ________. A) gravity B) peristaltic contractions C) enzymatic activity D) hormonal action Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10291030 3) The ability of a male to ejaculate is due to the action of ________. A) parasympathetic nerves B) the dartos muscle C) luteinizing hormone D) the bulbospongiosus muscles Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1032 4) The most important risk for testicular cancer in young males is ________. A) smoking B) a diet high in fat C) nondescent of the testes D) sexually transmitted infections Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1028 11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 5) Which of the following glands are responsible for 60% of the synthesis of semen? A) the seminal vesicles B) the bulbourethral glands C) the prostate D) the pituitary Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1030 6) Which of the following hormones controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins? A) LH B) FSH C) GnRH D) testosterone Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10381039 7) Development of male reproductive structures depends on which of the following events? A) that the female hormones are suppressed during pregnancy B) the suppression of inhibin C) secretion of male hormones prenatally and lasting into the first few months after birth D) that human gonadotropin be synthesized in the first week of the pregnancy Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1060 8) The primary function of the uterus is to ________. A) protect the ovaries B) synthesize female hormones C) regulate the ovarian and menstrual cycles D) receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10421043 9) Why is the bloodtestis barrier important? A) because spermatozoa and developing cells produce surface antigens that are recognized as foreign by the immune system B) because some blood contents are toxic to the spermatozoa C) because immature sperm cells lose their motility when they encounter any blood component D) Actually, the bloodtestis barrier has no function. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1038 12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 10) The structures that receive the ovulated oocyte, providing a site for fertilization, are called the ________. A) Graafian follicles B) fallopian tubes C) infundibula D) fimbriae Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1042 11) If gametes were diploid like somatic cells, how many chromosomes would the zygote contain? A) twice the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to double and normal development could not occur B) triple the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to triple and normal development would not occur C) half the diploid number with no change in development D) There is no relationship between gametes and somatic cells. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1033 12) Human egg and sperm are similar in that ________. A) about the same number of each is produced per month B) they have the same degree of motility C) they have the same number of chromosomes D) they are about the same size Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1032 13) The constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through ________. A) mitosis B) meiosis C) cytokinesis D) DNA synthesis Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1033 14) Fertilization generally occurs in the ________. A) ovary B) uterus C) vagina D) fallopian tubes Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1042 13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 15) Spermiogenesis involves the ________. A) formation of four haploid cells from a spermatogonium B) movement of sperm in the female genital tract C) formation of a functional sperm by the stripping away of superfluous cytoplasm D) sequence of events in the rete testis Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1037 16) All of the following can be considered male secondary sex characteristics except the ________. A) development of body hair B) lowering of the voice C) development of testes as opposed to ovaries D) increasing mass of the skeleton Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1040 17) In humans, separation of the cells at the twocell state following fertilization may lead to the production of twins, which in this case would be ________. A) dizygotic B) identical C) fraternal D) of different sexes Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1052 18) Characteristics of the mature sperm include the ________. A) presence of two X chromosomes in approximately half the sperm B) presence of Y chromosomes in approximately half the sperm C) absence of an acrosome D) absence of coiled mitochondria Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1037 19) How do the testes respond to exposure to excessive body warmth? A) They move close to the pelvic cavity. B) They move away from the pelvic cavity. C) Excessive warmth has no effect on the testicles because of their location in the scrotum. D) Excessive warmth is actually beneficial in that it speeds up the maturation of sperm. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10251026 14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 20) Effects of estrogen include ________. A) increased oiliness of the skin B) deepening of the voice C) growth of the breasts at puberty D) growth of the larynx Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1056; Tbl. 27.1 21) Secretion of progesterone stimulates ________. A) contraction of uterine muscles B) preparation of the mammary glands for lactation C) secretory activity of the uterine myometrium D) development of the female secondary sex characteristics Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1056; Tbl. 27.1 22) Which of the following statements about sperm is not true? A) They contain very little cytoplasm or stored nutrients. B) They are sluggish in an alkaline environment. C) The acrosome is produced by the Golgi apparatus and contains hydrolytic enzymes. D) The sperm midpiece consists of mitochondria spiraled tightly around the contractile filaments of the tail. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1033, 10371038 23) The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called ________. A) spermatocytes B) spermatogonia C) sustentacular cells D) interstitial cells Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1026 24) The testicular cells that construct the bloodtestis barrier are the ________. A) spermatocytes B) spermatogonia C) sustentacular cells D) interstitial cells Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10371038 25) Which of the following occurs as a result of undescended testes? A) Male sex hormones will not be circulated in the body. B) Sperm will have no means of exit from the body. C) Inadequate or nonviable sperm will be produced. 15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. D) Inadequate blood supply will retard the development of the testes. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1062 26) Erection of the penis results from ________. A) a sympathetic reflex B) parasympathetic activation of the bulbourethral glands C) dilation of the veins in the penis D) a parasympathetic reflex Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10311032 27) Which is not a part of the proliferative phase of the female menstrual cycle? A) late in this phase, cervical mucus becomes thin and crystalline B) vesicular follicle growth C) corpus luteum D) development of endometrial cells Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1052, 1054 28) Which of the choices below is not a function of the vagina? A) serves as a passageway for the primary oocyte B) serves as a passageway for menstrual flow C) is the birth canal D) receives semen from the penis during sexual intercourse Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10441045 29) Select the correct statement about male sexual response. A) Sympathetic impulses are responsible for causing penile arteriolar dilation, resulting in erection. B) Erection is the result of vascular spaces in the erectile tissues filling with blood. C) Expansion of the penile tissues results in dilation of the venous outflow. D) Ejaculation is the result of parasympathetic stimulation. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1031 30) Which of the choices below is not a function of testosterone? A) stimulates the male pattern of development B) contributes to male sexual behavior and spermatogenesis C) stimulates protein synthesis D) stimulates mammary gland development Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1039; Tbl. 27.1 16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 31) Which male hormone inhibits the secretion of FSH? A) ACTH B) inhibin C) ICSH D) testosterone Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10381039 32) During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ________. A) LH reaches its highest levels B) progesterone levels are at their highest C) estrogen reaches its highest levels D) the Graafian follicle forms Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1056 33) Select the correct statement about the uterine cycle. A) The menstrual phase of the cycle is from day 1 to day 8. B) During the secretory phase, estrogen levels are at their highest. C) During the proliferative phase, levels of progesterone rise as the follicle begins to produce more hormone. D) If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10541056 34) Which of the choices below is not a part of the braintesticular axis? A) hypothalamus B) anterior pituitary gland C) thalamus D) testes Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1038 35) Which of the following statements is true concerning the mammary glands of both males and females? A) Both sexes are equally prone to breast cancer. B) All lumps identified in breast tissue are malignant. C) The only time hormones target breast tissue is during pregnancy and lactation. D) The mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 10471048 17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 36) Normally menstruation occurs when ________. A) blood levels of FSH fall off B) blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease C) blood levels of estrogen and progesterone increase D) the corpus luteum secretes estrogen Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1056 37) The basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that ________. A) during spermatogenesis two more polar bodies are produced B) the mature ovum is n, while the sperm is 2n C) in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell D) spermatogenesis involves mitosis and meiosis, but oogenesis involves meiosis only Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1049 38) Occasionally three polar bodies are found clinging to the mature ovum. One came from an unequal division of the ovum, but from where did the other two arise? A) There were originally four polar bodies and one disappeared. B) One is an undeveloped primary oocyte that failed to mature. C) The first polar body has also divided to produce two polar bodies. D) What you really see are two polar bodies and the sperm that will fertilize the egg. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1049 39) Which of the following will occur after ovulation? A) The corpus luteum secretes estrogen only. B) The endometrium enters its secretory phase. C) The secretion of anterior pituitary gonadotropins is enhanced. D) The corpus luteum prepares to become a corpus albicans. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1052 40) Why doesn’t semen enter the urinary bladder during ejaculation? A) There is no common duct between the reproductive system and the urinary system. B) There is no urge to urinate during sexual intercourse because of the suppression of LH by testosterone buildup in the blood. C) The smooth muscle sphincter at the base of the urinary bladder closes. D) Ejaculation is a parasympathetic reflex resulting in no response by urinary contraction muscles. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1032 18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 41) Spermatogenesis ________. A) is the process of releasing mature sperm cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule B) involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes C) results in the formation of diploid cells D) uses mitosis to produce gamete cells Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 10321033 42) Which hormone is absolutely necessary for ovulation to occur? A) LH B) FSH C) progesterone D) estrogen Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 10521053 43) The braintesticular axis ________. A) is the tight relationship between the cortex and the control of testicular function B) involves FSH and LH release C) involves posterior pituitary release of regulating hormones D) involves a positive feedback loop control of spermatogenesis Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1038 44) Select the correct statement about testosterone control. A) GnRH from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary. B) FSH stimulates testicular production of testosterone. C) Inhibin and testosterone exert positive feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary. D) The pineal gland is believed to be the gland that exerts the most influence in testosterone control. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1039 45) Which of the following is a correct statement about uterine tubes? A) The ampulla is the narrow constricted region. B) The infundibulum is the funnelshaped region near the ovary. C) The isthmus is the normal site of fertilization. D) The mesometrium supports the uterine tubes along their entire length. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1042 46) Select the correct statement about the hormonal events of the ovarian cycle. A) Rising levels of estrogen start follicle development. B) High estrogen levels result in a surge of LH release. C) The follicle begins to secrete progesterone in response to estrogen stimulation. 19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. D) The LH surge stimulates further development of the secondary oocyte. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 10521054 47) Which of these statements about sexually transmitted infections is false? A) Chlamydia is caused by bacteria that can often be asymptomatic or bring on a wide variety of symptoms. B) Gonorrhea is caused by a bacterium that can bring on painful discharges in males. C) Syphilis is caused by a virus that may lead to death if untreated. D) Genital herpes is caused by a virus that may cause intermittent lesions. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 10581059 48) Which of the following statements about spermatogenesis is not true? A) The spermatogonium forms the primary spermatocyte. B) The primary spermatocyte forms two secondary spermatocytes. C) The secondary spermatocytes each form two spermatids. D) Each spermatid forms two sperm. Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 1033, 1037 49) A boy who has not passed through puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such that FSH is no longer released, but LH is normal. After he grows to maturity, one would expect that he would ________. A) be sterile B) not develop secondary sex characteristics C) be impotent (unable to have an erection) D) have impaired function of interstitial cells Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 10381039 50) Which of the following statements about the female reproductive process is not true? A) Fertilization usually occurs in the fallopian tube. B) Ovulation usually occurs 14 days after the beginning of menses. C) Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin. D) The monthly discharge of the uterus (menses) is initiated by the decrease in secretion of female hormones. Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 10521054 51) A low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause ________. A) decreased testosterone secretion B) excessive beard growth C) increased spermatogenesis 20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. D) shrinkage of the anterior pituitary gland Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 10381039 21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 52) All of the following statements referring to the uterine cycle are true except ________. A) FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium B) estrogen is secreted by the developing follicle in the follicular phase of the cycle C) the corpus luteum is formed from the ruptured follicle after ovulation D) a decrease in the levels of ovarian hormones signals menstruation Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 10521054 53) Which of the following phases or processes in the monthly reproductive cycle of the female occur simultaneously? A) maximal LH secretion and menstruation B) maximal steroid secretion by the corpus luteum and menstruation C) early follicular development and the secretory phase in the uterus D) regression of the corpus luteum and a decrease in ovarian progesterone secretion Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 1054, 1056 54) The duct system of the male reproductive system includes the ________. A) epididymis B) urethra C) ductus deferens D) corpus spongiosum Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1028 55) An ovulating oocyte is actually activated by hormones about ________ days before ovulation. A) 14 B) 28 C) 85 D) 110 Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 1054 56) Prostate cancer is _______. A) the numberone cause of death in men B) sometimes a slowgrowing cancer that may never represent a threat to the patient C) most common in Asians D) often the result of a distortion of the urethra Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10301031 22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. FillintheBlank/Short Answer Questions 1) The ________ plexus of testicular veins assists in cooling the testis. Answer: pampiniform Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1027 2) Surgical cutting of the ductus deferens as a form of birth control is called a(n) ________. Answer: vasectomy Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1030 3) The erectile tissue around the urethra is the corpus ________. Answer: spongiosum Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1028 4) The midpiece of the sperm tail contains mostly ________. Answer: mitochondria Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1037 5) The ________ cells of the testis nourish the newly formed sperm cells. Answer: sustentacular Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10371038 6) The suspensory ligament and mesovarium are part of the ________ ligament. Answer: broad Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1041 7) A follicle with only a small antrum in it would be classified as a(n) ________ follicle. Answer: secondary Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1052 8) The small opening of the uterus that sperm would first enter is called the ________. Answer: external os Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10431044 9) The portion of the uterine endometrium that is not sloughed off every month is called the ________. Answer: stratum basalis Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1044 10) ________ is caused by Treponema pallidum. Answer: Syphilis Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1058 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11) What are some risk factors for developing breast cancer? Answer: Some of the risk factors for developing breast cancer are: (1) early onset of menses and late menopause; (2) first pregnancy late in life or no pregnancies at all; (3) familial history of breast cancer; (4) postmenopausal hormone replacement. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1048 12) What is the name given to the female homologue to the penis? Answer: The female clitoris is homologous to the glans penis of the male. It is homologous in that it contains dorsal erectile columns and can become swollen with blood during tactile stimulation. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1046 13) Describe the composition and functional roles of semen. Answer: Semen is a fluid mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions (prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands). The liquid provides a transport medium for nutrients and contains chemicals that protect the sperm and facilitate their movements. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1031 14) Explain the function of the myometrium and endometrium. Answer: The myometrium plays an active role during childbirth when it contracts rhythmically to force the baby out of the mother's body. The endometrium is the innermost lining of the uterus where the embryo implants and stays for the rest of its development. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1044 15) What is the purpose of the male bulbourethral gland? Answer: Because it releases its contents prior to ejaculation, its function is probably to neutralize the acids in the urethra. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1031 16) What is the physiological importance of the fact that the male testes descend to reside in the scrotal sac? Answer: The male testes descend into the scrotal sac so that a fairly constant intrascrotal temperature is maintained. Failure of the testes to descend results in sterility, because production of viable spermatozoa requires a temperature several degrees lower than normal body temperature. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 10251026 17) Ovulation occurs when the oocyte is released into the peritoneal cavity. By what means does it usually enter the uterine tube? Answer: Fimbriae, which drape over the ovary, become very active close to the time of ovulation and undulate to create currents in the peritoneal fluid. These currents usually carry the oocyte to the uterine tube, where it begins its journey toward the uterus. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1042 24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 18) At what point is the sex of the embryo determined, and what determines it? Answer: Genetic sex is determined at the instant the genes of a sperm combine with those of an ovum. The determining factor is the sex chromosomes each gamete contains. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10591060 Clinical Questions 1) Teresa has been complaining of severe abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, and a lowgrade fever. What might be the doctor's diagnosis, and how should the condition be treated? Answer: The symptoms sound like pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a collective term for any extensive bacterial infection of the pelvic organs, especially the uterus, uterine tubes, or ovaries. PID is most commonly caused by the bacterium that causes gonorrhea, but any bacterium can trigger the infection. Early treatment should include antibiotics (tetracycline or penicillin). Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1042 2) A 38yearold male is upset about his low sperm count and visits a "practitioner" who commonly advertises his miracle cures of sterility. The practitioner is a quack who treats conditions of low sperm count with megadoses of testosterone. Although his patients experience a huge surge in libido, their sperm count is even lower after hormone treatment. Explain why. Answer: Megadoses of testosterone would inhibit hypothalamic release of GnRH and may act directly on the anterior pituitary to inhibit gonadotropin (FSH) release. Spermatogenesis is inhibited in the absence of FSH stimulation. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 10381039 3) Mr. and Mrs. John Takahama, a young couple who had been trying unsuccessfully to have a family for years, underwent a series of tests with a fertility clinic to try to determine the problem. Mr. Takahama was found to have a normal sperm count, and the sperm morphology and motility were normal. (1) If his count had been low, what type of information should be collected to determine the cause of the low count? Mrs. Takahama's history sheet revealed that she had two episodes of PID during her early 20s, and the time span between successive menses ranged from 21 to 30 days. She claimed that her family was "badgering" her about not giving them grandchildren and that she was frequently despondent. A battery of hormonal tests was ordered, and Mrs. Takahama was asked to perform a cervical mucus test and daily basal temperature recordings. Additionally, gas was blown through her uterine tubes to determine their patency. Her tubes proved to be closed and she was determined to be anovulatory. (2) What do you suggest might have caused the closing of her tubes? Which of the tests done or ordered would have revealed her anovulatory condition? Answer: (1) If his count had been low, he should have been checked for anatomical obstructions or hormonal imbalances. (2) Her tubes were probably scarred by PID. Hormonal testing and the daily basal temperature recordings would have indicated her anovulatory condition. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 1038, 1042 25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 4) Debbye has been having pelvic pain, especially during her monthly period, for many months. She has been to several doctors and they all tell her that she is just experiencing extraheavy monthly flows. The tests all turn up negative. She has been trying to conceive but nothing works. What could the problem be? Answer: Debbye has endometriosis. This problem is very difficult to diagnose and every case is different. Generally it requires laparoscopic views to find the problem. Endometriosis can cause sterility by blocking the uterine tubes, which prevents the sperm from getting to the egg or the egg from getting to the uterus. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 1066 5) Based on your knowledge of how the prostate encircles part of the urethra, what are two clinical manifestations of an enlarged prostate? Answer: Awakening at night to void caused by decreasing bladder capacity from an enlarging prostate; a small urinary stream; hesitancy in starting the urinary stream; dribbling at the end of voiding Diff: 3 Page Ref: 1030 6) Because of the resurgence of cervical cancer in young women, what important information should a nurse share with young women at a local health fair? Answer: There is a risk of cervical cancer with an increase in the number of sexual partners and with early incidence of first intercourse. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection also appears to increase the risk of cervical cancer. A thorough yearly gynecological examination, including a Pap test, should be encouraged. The women should be taught to report to their physician any abnormal bleeding or drainage. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 1044, 1059 7) Explain the purpose of tamoxifen in breast cancer treatment. Answer: Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors and inhibits estrogenmediated tumor growth. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 1048 8) What are the possible complications a patient may have after a radical mastectomy? Answer: The entire breast is removed along with underlying muscles, fascia, and associated lymph nodes. Therefore, the patient might experience lymphedema related to edema on the operative side. The patient may also experience problems with arm function due to the removal of muscles. The patient might experience muscle shortening and decreased muscle tone of other muscles on the affected side. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 1048 26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
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