Anatomy & Physiology ch 24
Anatomy & Physiology ch 24 Biol 2301
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Human Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Marieb/Hoehn) Chapter 24 Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation Matching Questions Figure 24.1 Using Figure 24.1, match the following: 1) Tenstep enzymatically driven process that converts glucose into pyruvic acid. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 922; Fig. 24.5 2) Occurs via substratelevel phosphorylation. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 922; Fig. 24.5 3) Produces the CO 2involved during glucose oxidation. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 922; Fig. 24.5 4) Where the hydrogens removed during the oxidation of food fuels are combined with O . 2 Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 922; Fig. 24.5 1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 5) Contains ATP synthases, small rotary motors. Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 922 6) ATP formed by oxidative phosphorylation. Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 922 7) Involves sugar activation, sugar cleavage, and oxidation and ATP formation. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 922; Fig. 24.5 Match the following: A) Glycolysis B) Krebs cycle and electron transport chain C) Krebs cycle and electron transport chain. 8) Glucose serves as the initial reactant. Glycolysis 9) Involves the removal of hydrogen electrons and CO fr2 the substrate molecule. B Krebs cycle 10) Occurs in the cytosol of a cell. Glycolysis 11) Produces the most ATP Krebs Cycle 12) Involves the use of oxygen to pick up excess hydrogen and electrons. B Krebs Answers: 8) A 9) B 10) A 11) C 12) B 2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Match the following: A) glycogenesis B) glycogenolysis C) glycolysis D) gluconeogenesis 13) Breakdown of glycogen to release glucose. Glycogenolysis 14) Formation of glucose from proteins or fats. Gluconeogenesis 15) Storage of glucose in the form of glycogen. Glycogenesis 16) Breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid. Glycolysis Answers: 13) B 14) D 15) A 16) C Match the following: A) lipolysis B) beta oxidation C) lipogenesis D) ketogenesis 17) Synthesis of lipids from glucose or amino acids. Lipogenesis 18) Splitting of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids. Lipolysis 19) Conversion of fatty acids into acetyl groups. Beta oxidation 20) Formation of ketone bodies. Ketogenesis Answers: 17) C 18) A 19) B 20) D 3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. True/False Questions 1) Beta oxidation is the initial phase of fatty acid oxidation, and it occurs in the cytoplasm. Answer: FALSE 2) The increased use of noncarbohydrate molecules for energy to conserve glucose is called glucose sparing. Answer: TRUE 3) Except for lactose and some glycogen, the carbohydrates we ingest are mainly from animals. Answer: FALSE 4) The term essential nutrient refers to the chemicals that can be interconverted in the liver so that the body can maintain life and good health. Answer: FALSE 5) The most abundant dietary lipids in the diets of most Americans are triglycerides. Answer: TRUE 6) There are no complete proteins. All animal products should be eaten with plant material to make a complete protein. Answer: FALSE 7) The body is considered to be in nitrogen balance when the amount of nitrogen ingested in lipids equals the amount excreted in urine. Answer: FALSE 8) The amount of protein needed by each person is determined by the age, size, and metabolic rate of the person. Answer: TRUE 9) Vitamins are inorganic compounds that are essential for growth and good health. Answer: FALSE 10) Cellular respiration is an anabolic process. Answer: FALSE 11) Glycolysis is a series of six chemical steps, most of which take place in the mitochondria. Answer: FALSE 12) Glycogenesis begins when ATP levels are high, and glucose entering cells is phosphorylated to glucose6phosphate and converted to its isomer, glucose1phosphate. Answer: TRUE 13) All athletes require diets high in protein and calories in order to perform and to maintain 4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. their muscle mass. Answer: FALSE 14) In order for amino acids to be oxidized for energy, the amine group (NH ) must be removed. 2 Answer: TRUE 15) Including the ATP from glycolysis, the cell gains 34 ATP molecules from aerobic metabolism of one glucose molecule. Answer: FALSE 16) The body requires adequate supplies of only three minerals (calcium, sodium, chloride) and trace amounts of all others. Answer: FALSE 17) Processes that break down complex molecules into simpler ones are anabolic. Answer: FALSE 18) For use as fuel, all food carbohydrates are eventually transformed to glucose. Answer: TRUE 19) Triglycerides and cholesterol do not circulate freely in the bloodstream. Answer: TRUE 20) Normal body temperature range is 98.6100°F, regardless of external temperature. Answer: FALSE 21) A deficit of potassium can cause rickets. Answer: FALSE 22) It would not be healthy to eliminate all fats from your diet because they serve a useful purpose in maintaining the body. Answer: TRUE 23) The body's thermoregulatory centers are located in the thalamus. Answer: FALSE 24) Carbohydrate and fat pools are oxidized directly to produce cellular energy, but amino acid pools must first be converted to a carbohydrate intermediate before being sent through cellular respiration pathways. Answer: TRUE 25) High levels of HDLs are considered good. Answer: TRUE 26) Diets high in cholesterol and saturated fats tend to produce high HDL concentrations. Answer: FALSE 5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 27) Ghrelin, produced by the stomach, is a powerful appetite stimulant. Answer: TRUE 28) Peptides called NPY and AgRP are powerful appetite enhancers. Answer: TRUE 29) The primary function of carbohydrates is energy production within cells. Answer: TRUE MultipleChoice Questions 1) The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is ________. A) fat B) glucose C) acetyl CoA D) cellulose Answer: B 2) Which of the choices below is not a fate of carbohydrate taken into the body? A) ATP production B) lipogenesis C) amino acid synthesis D) conversion to a nucleic acid E) glycogenesis 3) Dietary fats are important because they ________. A) keep blood pressure normal B) help the body absorb fatsoluble vitamins C) contribute significantly to the health of the skin D) help prevent the common cold Answer: B 4) Cholesterol, though it is not an energy molecule, has importance in the body because it ________. A) is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones B) helps provide essential nutrients to the brain and lungs C) helps mobilize fats during periods of starvation D) enters the glycolytic pathway without being altered Answer: A 5) Which of the following statements best describes complete protein? A) derived from meat and fish only 6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. B) meets all the minimum daily requirements for a healthy diet C) derived only from legumes and other plant material D) must meet all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth Answer: D 6) The term metabolism is best defined as ________. A) the length of time it takes to digest and absorb fats B) a measure of carbohydrate utilization, typically involving measurement of calories C) the number of calories it takes to keep from shivering on a cold day D) biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules for energy Answer: D 7) The term metabolic rate reflects the ________. A) energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities B) loss of organic molecules in urine C) energy needed to make all organic molecules D) loss of energy to perspiration Answer: A 8) When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is mostly________. A) urea B) ammonia C) acetyl CoA D) ketone bodies Answer: A 9) It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________. A) vitamins provide protection against the common cold B) very few foods contain vitamins C) most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients D) all vitamins are water soluble and pass out of the body too quickly to ensure utilization Answer: C 10) Oxidationreduction reactions are catalyzed by which of the following enzymes? A) dehydrogenases and oxidases B) kinases and phosphorylases C) phosphatases and kinases D) synthetases and lipases Answer: A 11) Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)? A) glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation 7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. B) gluconeogenesis, Krebs cycle, lipolysis C) lipolysis, glycogenolysis, beta oxidation D) glycogenesis, lipogenesis, electron transport chain Answer: A 12) Anabolism includes reactions in which ________. A) carbohydrate utilization increases B) larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones C) structural proteins are used as a potential energy source D) ketone bodies are formed Answer: B 13) Catabolism would be best described as a process that ________. A) causes a decline in circulating ketone bodies B) builds up triglycerides during the postabsorptive state C) breaks down complex structures to simpler ones D) elevates glucagon levels Answer: C 14) The primary function of cellular respiration is to ________. A) determine the amount of heat needed by the human body B) provide the body with adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals C) efficiently monitor the energy needs of the body D) break down food molecules and generate ATP Answer: D 15) The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as ________. A) gluconeogenesis B) fat utilization C) lipogenesis D) lipolysis Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 931 8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 16) Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration? A) oxidative phosphorylation B) substratelevel phosphorylation C) oxidationreduction reactions D) oxidation reactions Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 922 17) Lipogenesis occurs when ________. A) there is a shortage of fatty acids B) glucose levels drop slightly C) excess proteins are transported through the cell membrane D) cellular ATP and glucose levels are high Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 931 18) Oxidative deamination takes place in the ________. A) liver B) muscles C) kidneys D) blood Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 933 19) Transamination is the process whereby the amine group of an amino acid is ________. A) transferred to acetyl CoA B) converted to urea C) transferred to a keto acid D) converted to ammonia Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 933 20) Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ________. A) postabsorptive state B) absorptive state C) starvation period D) period when the metabolic rate is lowest Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 936 21) Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation of the heatpromoting center? A) release of epinephrine B) sympathetic sweat gland activation C) increase in ADH production 9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. D) vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 951952 22) Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ________. A) glycogen is broken down to release glucose B) glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors C) glycogen is formed D) glucose is converted into carbon dioxide and water Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 930 23) Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the ________. A) conversion of glucose into carbon dioxide and water B) conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid C) conversion of pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water D) formation of sugar Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 923 24) What is the outcome of ketosis? A) water retention and edema B) metabolic acidosis C) metabolic alkalosis D) glycogen buildup E) glucogenesis Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 932 25) Which of the choices below happens during the absorptive state? A) Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones. B) Catabolic processes exceed anabolic ones. C) No metabolism occurs. D) Only glucose metabolism occurs. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 936 26) In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following except ________. A) production of energy B) production of some hormones C) production of enzymes, clotting factors, and antibodies D) formation of functional molecules like hemoglobin and cytochromes Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 914915 10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 27) The most abundant dietary lipids are ________. A) cholesterol B) phospholipids C) fatty acids D) triglycerides Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 912 28) Loss of heat in the form of infrared waves is termed ________. A) radiation B) convection C) conduction D) evaporation Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 951 29) Which hormone directs essentially all the events of the absorptive state? A) growth hormone B) thyroid hormone C) epinephrine D) insulin Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 938 30) Prostaglandins play a role in ________. A) skeletal muscle contraction B) control of blood volume C) noninflammatory responses D) control of blood pressure Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 914 31) Which of the following is the most important function of the liver? A) carbohydrate and lipid metabolism B) synthesis of bile salts C) processing of drugs and hormones and activation of vitamin D D) protein metabolism Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 937938 32) As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ________ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids. A) liver B) brain C) pancreas 12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. D) spleen Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 912, 938 33) In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ________ are converted to glucose. A) glycerol B) glycogen C) glyceraldehyde D) glucagon Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 930 34) In the liver, the amine group of glutamic acid is removed as ________ in the oxidative state. A) glyceraldehyde B) pyruvic acid C) ammonia D) oxaloacetic acid Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 933 35) Which of the choices below is not a mechanism of heat production? A) vasoconstriction of cutaneous blood vessels B) shivering C) sweating D) enhanced thyroxine release Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 952953 36) Heatloss mechanisms do not include ________. A) reducing activity B) the evaporation of sweat C) behavior measures such as wearing light, loose clothing D) vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 953954 37) The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining BMR. A) norepinephrine B) thyroxine C) prolactin D) ADH Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 948 13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 38) When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of ________. A) amino acids B) fatty acids C) glycogen D) lactic acid Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 932 39) Many factors influence BMR. What is the most critical factor? A) the way an individual metabolizes fat B) the way skeletal muscles break down glycogen C) the ratio of surface area to volume (weight) of the body D) an individual's body weight Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 947948 40) The primary reason elderly people should decrease their caloric intake is that ________. A) muscle mass and metabolism decline with age B) their appetite begins to diminish C) they have a higher metabolic rate and do not need large amounts of food D) they spend most of the day at rest, and their food will quickly turn to fat Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 954955 41) Which of the choices below is not a major route of heat exchange? A) radiation B) conduction/convection C) evaporation D) shivering Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 950951 42) Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement? A) The amino acid pool is the body’s total supply of amino acids in the body’s proteins. B) Fats and carbohydrates are oxidized directly to produce cellular energy. C) Amino acids can be used to supply energy only after being converted to a carbohydrate intermediate. D) Excess carbohydrate and fat can be stored as such, whereas excess amino acids are oxidized for energy or converted to fat or glycogen for storage. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 914 15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 43) Which of the following molecules are considered key molecules at metabolic crossroads? A) glucose6phosphate, pyruvic acid, acetyl CoA B) glucose6phosphate, lactic acid, acetyl CoA C) acetone, betahydroxybutyric acid, ATP D) ATP, pyruvic acid, lactic acid Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 919 44) Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized? A) fats B) vitamins and minerals C) foods and beverages high in caffeine D) proteins Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 930931 45) Which of the following does not occur in the mitochondria? A) electron transport B) glycolysis C) Krebs cycle D) formation of malic acid from fumaric acid Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 923 46) Which of the following is not true of beta oxidation? A) It occurs in the mitochondrion. B) Every second carbon is reduced. C) It involves the anabolism of fats. D) Fatty acids are broken into acetic acid fragments. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 931 47) Select the correct statement about proteins. A) Strict vegetarians need not worry about adequate protein intake, as most vegetables are almost perfect sources of amino acids. B) Proteins can be synthesized in the body if most of the amino acids are present. C) Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested. D) Catabolic steroids (hormones) accelerate the rate of protein synthesis. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 914 16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 48) Oxidation reduction reactions ________. A) utilize hydrogenases B) may involve the loss of hydrogen and electrons C) are rarely coupled together D) occur via the gain of hydrogen or the loss of oxygen Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 920921 49) What process primes a molecule to change in a way that increases its activity, produces motion, or does work? A) phosphorylation B) beta oxidation C) cellular respiration D) glycolysis Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 919 50) Which of the choices below is not a source of glucose during the postabsorptive state? A) glycogenolysis in the liver B) lipolysis in adipose tissues and the liver C) absorption of glucose from the GI tract D) catabolism of cellular protein Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 938940 51) Which of the following is correct? A) Most of the ATP are produced by substratelevel phosphorylation. B) Oxidation of FADH eventually yields four ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. 2 C) Glycolysis relies on substratelevel oxidation for the four ATP produced in this pathway. D) Most ATP from cellular respiration are produced directly in the Krebs cycle. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 925927 52) Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of complete proteins? A) corn, cottonseed oil, soy oil, and wheat germ B) lima beans, kidney beans, nuts, and cereals C) egg yolk, fish roe, and grains D) eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 914 17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 53) Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of amino acids include ________. A) adequate essential amino acids B) adequate fat calories to provide adequate ATP formation C) excessive amounts of protein in the diet D) ammonia combining with oxygen to form urea Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 933 54) When a person's hypothalamic thermostat is set to a higher level and the actual body temperature is below that level, the person may ________. A) pant B) exhibit vasodilation of skin vessels C) perspire heavily D) shiver Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 952; Fig. 24.29 55) Glucose can be obtained from ________. A) glycogenolysis B) triglyceride anabolism C) protein anabolism D) lipogenesis Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 938 56) Which of the following is not a function of LDLs? A) transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver B) regulate cholesterol synthesis in tissue cells C) make cholesterol available to tissue cells for membrane or hormone synthesis D) influence cholesterol synthesis in tissue cells Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 943 57) Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen balance? A) Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis. B) It is a condition usually caused by having a diet low in fish and meat. C) A negative nitrogen balance is normal and is a way of maintaining homeostasis. D) It occurs when amino acids are broken down by liver enzymes and carried to the bloodstream. Answer: A 18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.1 Using Figure 23.1, match the following: 1) Mucosa. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 855; Fig. 23.6 2) Duodenal glands found here. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 880; Fig. 23.6 3) Smooth muscle layer. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 857; Fig. 23.6 4) MALT found here. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 856; Fig. 23.6 5) Serosa. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 857; Fig. 23.6 6) Area of the lamina propria. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 856; Fig. 23.6 7) Continuation of the mesentery. Answer: D 19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 856; Fig. 23.6 Figure 23.2 Using Figure 23.2, match the following: 8) Absorptive cells that line the intestinal tract. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 879; Fig. 23.22 9) Cell type specialized to secrete mucus into the lumen of the intestinal tract. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 878; Fig. 23.22 10) Structures that increase the absorptive area of the small intestine. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 878; Fig. 23.22 11) Wide lymph capillary located in the villus. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 878; Fig. 23.22 20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 12) Paneth cells are found here. Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 879; Fig. 23.22 Match the following: A) Peristalsis B) Absorption C) Digestion D) Hydrolysis 13) Wavelike smooth muscle contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary tube. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 853 14) Chemical or mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs to substances that can be absorbed. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 853 15) Enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 895 16) Process by which the products of digestion pass through the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract into the blood or lymph. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 854 Answers: 13) A 14) C 15) D 16) B 21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.3 Using Figure 23.3, match the following: 17) Produces enzymes that break down all categories of foodstuffs. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 885; Fig. 23.1 18) Increases surface area for absorption via villi and microvilli. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 878; Fig. 23.1 19) Bacteria process undigested chyme from the small intestine. Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 893; Fig. 23.1 20) Only digestive structure with three muscle layers. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 869; Fig. 23.1 21) Receives blood via the hepatic portal system. Answer: A 22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 881; Fig. 23.1 22) Contains the brush border enzymes that complete digestion of carbohydrates and proteins. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 878; Fig. 23.1 23) Main function is to filter and process the nutrientrich blood delivered to it. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 881; Fig. 23.1 24) Produces intrinsic factor. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 870; Fig. 23.1 25) Produces a mucoid barrier. Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 870; Fig. 23.1 True/False Questions 1) Food is contained in the gastrointestinal tract from the time of ingestion until it is completely digested and the waste prepared for elimination. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 853854 2) The circular folds of the small intestine enhance absorption by causing the chyme to spiral, rather than to move in a straight line, as it passes through the small intestine. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 878 3) As food passes through the digestive tract, it becomes less complex and the nutrients are more readily available to the body. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 853 4) Some of the microbes that often invade other organs of the body are rarely found in the stomach. The reason for this is the presence of HCl. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 870 5) Kupffer cells are found in the liver and are responsible for removing bacteria and wornout cells. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 881 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6) The pharyngealesophageal phase of swallowing is involuntary and is controlled by the swallowing center in the thalamus and lower pons. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 853, 864 7) All the chemical and mechanical phases of digestion from the mouth through the small intestine are directed toward changing food into forms that can pass through the epithelial cells lining the mucosa into the underlying blood and lymphatic vessels. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 895 8) Pepsinogen is the precursor to the gastric enzyme for protein digestion and is secreted by the parietal cells. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 897 9) The main chemical activity of the stomach is to begin the digestion of proteins. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 866 10) The major role of absorption in the ileum is to reclaim bile salts to be recycled back to the liver. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 898 11) The peritoneum is the most extensive serous membrane in the body. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 855 12) Peyer's patches are found in the submucosa of the distal end of the small intestine. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 880 13) The myenteric nerve plexus provides the major nerve supply to the GI tract wall and controls GI motility. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 857 14) The first teeth to appear are the deciduous teeth. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 862 15) Dentin anchors the tooth in place. 24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 863 16) The digestive function of the liver is to produce bile. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 881 17) The pancreas has both an endocrine and an exocrine function. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 885886 18) Another term for swallowing is deglutition. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 866 19) The intrinsic ability of visceral smooth muscle to exhibit the stressrelaxation response is termed plasticity. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 874 20) The stomach's contractile rhythm is set by pacemaker cells found in the spinal cord. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 876 21) The major stimulus for production of intestinal fluid is distention or irritation of the intestinal mucosa by hypertonic or acidic chyme. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 880 22) Most nutrients are absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villi by active transport. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 898 23) Ionic iron is actively transported into the mucosal cells, where it binds to the protein ferritin, a phenomenon called the mucosal iron barrier. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 900 24) Mumps is an inflammation of the parotid glands caused by myxovirus. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 860 25) Fats significantly delay the emptying of the stomach. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 876 25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 26) The soft palate rises reflexively to open the nasopharynx when we swallow food. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 866 26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. MultipleChoice Questions 1) The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________. A) in the glandular tissue that lines the organ lumen B) in the walls of the tract organs C) in the pons and medulla D) only in the esophagus because this is the only part of the tract that needs to change to accommodate food passage Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 854 2) The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to ________. A) carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract B) collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage C) distribute hormones D) return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is low Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 881 3) The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ________. A) digestion B) absorption C) ingestion D) secretion Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 852853 4) When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________. A) absorption B) secretion C) chemical digestion D) mechanical digestion Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 854 5) The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________. A) mesenteries B) lamina propria C) serosal lining D) mucosal lining Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 855 27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6) From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen. A) muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa B) serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa C) submucosa, serosa, muscularis externa, and mucosa D) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 856857 7) Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier? A) thick coating of bicarbonaterich mucus B) tight junctions of epithelial mucosa cells C) replacing of damaged epithelial mucosa cells D) rennin Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 870 8) What part of the tooth bears the force of chewing? A) crown B) enamel C) pulp D) cementum Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 863 9) The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________. A) muscularis mucosae B) serosa C) adventitia D) lamina propria Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 856 10) Which hormone causes an increased output of enzymerich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile? A) gastrin B) secretin C) cholecystokinin D) gastric inhibitor peptide Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 886 28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11) Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile. A) Bile is both an excretory product and a digestive secretion. B) Bile functions to emulsify fats. C) Bile functions to carry bilirubin formed from breakdown of wornout RBCs. D) Bile contains enzymes for digestion. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 884 12) The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task? A) plicae circulares and intestinal villi B) the vast array of digestive enzymes C) Brunner's glands D) the rugae Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 878 13) Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth. A) There are 27 primary teeth, and the molars are permanent. B) There are 24 primary teeth, and no new primary teeth appear after 13 months. C) There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20. D) There are 32 primary teeth, and most children lose these teeth due to decay because they are never very strong. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 862 14) Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth? A) There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge. B) There are 27 permanent teeth, and the first molars are usually the last to emerge. C) The number of permanent teeth is always equal to the number of primary teeth. D) The number of upper permanent teeth is not equal to the number of lower permanent teeth. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 862 15) Which of the following is not true of saliva? A) cleanses the mouth B) contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins C) moistens food and aids in compacting of the bolus D) dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 860 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 16) The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells? A) goblet cells and squamous epithelial cells B) parietal cells and glial cells C) serous cells and mucous cells D) cuboidal epithelium and ciliated columnar cells Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 860 17) The solutes contained in saliva include ________. A) only salts and minerals B) only proteases and amylase C) mucin, lysozyme, electrolytes, salts, and minerals D) electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 860861 18) In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________. A) initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins B) is the first site where absorption takes place C) is the only place where fats are completely digested D) is the first site where chemical digestion of starch takes place Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 866, 871 19) Chyme is created in the ________. A) mouth B) stomach C) esophagus D) small intestine Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 866 20) Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach? A) chief cells B) parietal cells C) serous cells D) mucous neck cells Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 870 30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 21) Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products? A) enteroendocrine cells B) parietal cells C) zymogenic cells D) mucous neck cells Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 870 22) There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________. A) before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought B) immediately after food enters the stomach, preparing the small intestine for the influx of a variety of nutrients C) at the end of a large meal, and the juices secreted are powerful and remain in the GI tract for a long period of time D) when the meal is excessively high in acids and neutralization is required Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 872873 23) Peristaltic waves are ________. A) segmental regions of the gastrointestinal tract B) churning movements of the gastrointestinal tract C) pendular movements of the gastrointestinal tract D) waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 853 24) Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of ________. A) starches and complex carbohydrates B) protein and peptide fragments C) simple carbohydrates and alcohols D) fatty acids Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 873 25) Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________. A) chief cells of the stomach B) parietal cells of the duodenum C) Brunner's glands D) goblet cells of the small intestine Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 870 31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 26) You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal? A) gastrin B) amylase C) cholecystokinin D) trypsin Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 895 27) The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the ________. A) portal vein B) pancreatic acini C) bile canaliculus D) hepatopancreatic ampulla Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 886 28) The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called ________. A) diffusion B) active transport C) hydrolysis D) denatured Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 895 29) Shortchain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible? A) rennin B) pepsin C) lipase D) cholecystokinin Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 897 30) Parietal cells of the stomach produce ________. A) mucin B) pepsinogen C) hydrochloric acid D) rennin Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 870 32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 31) Hepatocytes do not ________. A) produce digestive enzymes B) process nutrients C) store fatsoluble vitamins D) detoxify Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 881 32) Which of the following is not a phase of gastric secretion? A) cephalic B) gastric C) intestinal D) enterogastric Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 872873 33) Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed? A) B 12 B) K C) A D) C Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 871 34) Chief cells ________. A) occur in the intestine B) produce HCl C) are found in the basal regions of the gastric glands D) produce mucin Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 870 35) Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________. A) mastication B) catabolism C) anabolism D) fermentation Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 854 33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 36) The ________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure. A) liver B) spleen C) pancreas D) stomach Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 881 37) If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the ________. A) serosa B) mucosa C) muscularis externa D) submucosa Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 857 38) The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the ________. A) duodenum B) ileum C) jejunum D) pyloric sphincter Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 877 39) The dental formula for an adult is 2123. What does the 1 stand for? A) incisor tooth B) molar tooth C) premolar tooth D) canine tooth Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 863 40) Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged? A) lipids B) carbohydrates C) proteins D) starches Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 881 34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 41) ________ is locally regulated in the blood by the active form of vitamin D, which acts as a cofactor. A) Iron B) Sodium C) Phosphorus D) Calcium Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 900 42) Important peritoneal folds do not include the ________. A) omenta B) peritoneum C) mesentery D) round ligament Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 855 43) The lamina propria is composed of ________. A) loose connective tissue B) dense irregular connective tissue C) dense regular connective tissue D) reticular connective tissue Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 856 44) ________ is (are) not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion. A) Distension B) Carbohydrates C) Peptides D) Low acidity Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 873 45) Pancreatic amylase does not get to the small intestine via the ________. A) accessory pancreatic duct B) main pancreatic duct C) cystic duct D) hepatopancreatic ampulla Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 886 35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 46) The function of the goblet cells is to ________. A) absorb nutrients from digested food and store them for future use B) produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion C) secrete buffers in order to keep the pH of the digestive tract close to neutral D) provide protection against invading bacteria and other diseasecausing organisms that enter the digestive tract in food Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 878 47) Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria? A) produce gas B) absorb bilirubin C) synthesize vitamin K and Bcomplex vitamins D) synthesize vitamins C and D Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 893 48) Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________. A) somatic neurons in the spinal cord B) the vagus nerve and enteric plexus C) the rubrospinal tracts D) the reticulospinal and vestibulospinal tracts Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 873 49) Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds? A) fungiform and circumvallate B) palatine and circumvallate C) circumvallate and filiform D) fungiform, circumvallate, and filiform Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 859 50) Which of the following produce intrinsic factor? A) parietal cells B) zymogenic cells C) mucous neck cells D) enteroendocrine cells Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 870 36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 51) Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins? A) dextrinase B) amylase C) trypsin D) lipase Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 897 52) Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body? A) tongue B) esophagus C) nasal cavity D) salivary glands Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 859 53) A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________. A) bile B) pancreatic juice C) intestinal juice D) gastric juice Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 884 54) The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the ________. A) mucosa B) submucosa C) muscularis externa D) serosa Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 856857 55) Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It ________. A) does not contain villi B) exhibits external muscular bands called teniae coli C) is longer than the small intestine D) has haustra Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 890 37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 56) What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs? A) HCl B) pepsinogen C) intrinsic factor D) gastric lipase Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 870 57) How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villa? A) simple diffusion B) facilitated diffusion C) active transport driven directly or indirectly by metabolic energy D) bulk flow Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 878 58) Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion. A) Vagus stimulation of the stomach results in decreased secretion of gastric juice. B) The presence of food in the stomach prevents hormonal control of gastric secretion. C) Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth. D) Gastric secretion is enhanced by very low pH (below a pH of 2). Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 872873 59) Paneth cells ________. A) are more common in the ileum than in the jejunum B) are absorptive cells in the small intestine C) secrete enzymes that kill bacteria D) are located next to the lacteal in a villus Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 879 60) Select the correct statement about digestive processes. A) Enterogastrone is a hormone that helps increase gastric motility. B) Pepsin is an enzyme produced by the stomach for the purpose of starch digestion. C) Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex. D) All commonly ingested substances are significantly absorbed by the mucosa of the stomach. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 887, 889 38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 61) Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves ________. A) a significant amount of enzyme secretion by the intestinal mucosa B) cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction C) secretions from the spleen that contain all enzymes necessary for complete digestion D) bile salts that help emulsify carbohydrates so that they can be easily digested by enzymatic action Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 886 62) Select the correct statement about absorption. A) Eighty percent of ingested materials have been absorbed by the end of the large intestine. B) Carbohydrates diffuse across the villus epithelium and are then actively transported into blood capillaries. C) If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated. D) Amino acid transport is linked to chloride transport. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 899 63) Select the correct statement about electrolyte absorption. A) Chlorine ion absorption is coupled to glucose and amino acid transport. B) Potassium moves across the epithelium by active transport. C) If vitamin B is not present, calcium is not absorbed. D) Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 900 64) You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk. Which of the following glands would be active in helping you to digest this food? A) the pancreas B) the buccal glands C) the thyroid gland D) the parotid glands Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 885 65) The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur? A) Severe indigestion would occur, caused by the lack of sufficient digestive enzymes. B) This type of food would cause secretion of gastrin to cease, causing digestive upset. C) Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum. D) The acid secretions from the stomach would be sufficient to digest this food. Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 885 39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 66) The mucosa of the developing alimentary tube comes from ________. A) ectoderm B) mesoderm C) endoderm D) pachyderm Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 901, 904 67) A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the baby's loss of gastric juice, his blood probably indicates ________. A) acidosis B) ketosis C) alkalosis D) dysphagia Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 876878 68) Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include ________. A) ACh B) secretin C) gastrin D) histamine Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 873; Tbl. 23.1 69) Which of these is not part of the splanchnic circulation? A) hepatic portal vein B) inferior vena cava C) superior mesenteric artery D) celiac artery Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 856 70) Which of these is not a component of saliva? A) lysozyme B) a cyanide compound C) defensins D) nitric oxide Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 860 40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 71) There are some 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine; our Ig ________ antibody mediated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing problems. A) D B) A C) M D) E Answer: B 41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.