Anatomy & Physiology ch 20
Anatomy & Physiology ch 20 Biol 2301
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Human Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Marieb/Hoehn) Chapter 20 The Lymphatic System and Lymphoid Organs and Tissues Matching Questions Figure 20.1 Using Figure 20.1, match the following: 1) Axillary node(s). Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 755; Fig. 20.2a 2) Cisterna chyli. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 755; Fig. 20.2a 3) Entrance of thoracic duct into subclavian vein. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 755; Fig. 20.2a 1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 4) Thoracic duct. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 755; Fig. 20.2a 5) Lymphatic collecting vessels. Answer: E Diff: 3 Page Ref: 755; Fig. 20.2a Figure 20.2 Using Figure 20.2, match the following: 6) Efferent vessels. Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 757; Fig. 20.4a 7) Cortex. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 757; Fig. 20.4a 8) Medullary cord. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 757; Fig. 20.4a 9) Trabecula. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 757; Fig. 20.4a 10) Medulla. 2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 757; Fig. 20.4a Match the following: A) Thoracic duct B) Spleen C) Lymph D) Lymph nodes E) Peyer's patches 11) Proteincontaining fluid within lymphatic vessels. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 753 12) Stores blood platelets. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 758 13) Receives lymph from most of the body. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 754 14) Small organs intimately associated with lymphatic vessels. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 756 15) Largest lymphatic organ. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 758 16) Isolated clusters of lymph follicles found in the wall of the small intestine. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 760 Answers: 11) C 12) B 13) A 14) D 15) B 16) E True/False Questions 1) Peyer's patches are clusters of lymphoid tissue found primarily in the large intestine. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 760 2) The lymphatic capillaries function to absorb the excess proteincontaining interstitial fluid and return it to the bloodstream. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 753754 3) Lymph always flows away from the heart. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 753 3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 4) Lymphatic capillaries are permeable to proteins. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 754 4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 5) Digested fats are absorbed from the intestine by the lymph capillaries. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 754 6) Chyle is delivered to the blood via the lymphatic system. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 754 7) All lymphoid organs develop from mesoderm. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 761 8) About 3 liters of fluid are lost to the tissue spaces every 24 hours and are returned to the bloodstream as lymph. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 754 9) Because lymph vessels are very lowpressure conduits, movements of adjacent tissues are important in propelling lymph through the lymphatics. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 754 10) Lymphoid tissue is mainly reticular connective tissue. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 756 11) Lymphocytes reside temporarily in lymphoid tissue, then move to other parts of the body. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 756 12) All the lymphoid organs are well developed before birth. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 761 13) An infected lymph gland is called a bubo. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 757 14) When tissues are inflamed, lymphatic capillaries develop openings that permit uptake of large particles such as cell debris, pathogens, and cancer cells. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 754 15) The cisterna chyli collects lymph from the lumbar trunks draining the upper limbs and from the intestinal trunk draining the digestive organs. 5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 754 16) If even a small part of the spleen is left in a tenyearold child, it will most likely regenerate itself. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 758 17) All lymphatic organs are composed of epithelial tissue. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 758 18) The most important role of the spleen is to provide a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 758 19) The simplest lymphoid organs are the lymph nodes. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 756 MultipleChoice Questions 1) Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed ________. A) lymph follicles B) lymph nodes C) axillary nodes D) cisterna chyli Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 756 2) Which of the following would not be classified as a lymphatic structure? A) pancreas B) spleen C) tonsils D) Peyer's patches of the intestine Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 758; Fig. 20.5 3) The distal portion of the small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles called ________. A) islets of Langerhans B) Peyer's patches C) rugae D) villi Answer: B 6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 760; Fig. 20.5 7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 4) Both lymph and venous blood flow are heavily dependent on ________. A) the pumping action of the heart B) skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement C) contraction of the vessels themselves D) twoway valves Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 754 5) The thymus is most active during ________. A) fetal development B) childhood C) middle age D) old age Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 759 6) Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax? A) lumbar trunk B) thoracic duct C) right lymphatic duct D) cisterna chyli Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 754 7) What effect does age have on the size of the thymus? A) The size of the thymus increases continuously from birth to death. B) The size of the thymus decreases continuously from birth to death. C) The thymus is not affected by age. D) The thymus initially increases in size and then decreases in size from adolescence through old age. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 759 8) The lymphatic capillaries are ________. A) more permeable than blood capillaries B) less permeable than blood capillaries C) as permeable as blood capillaries D) completely impermeable Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 753754 8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 9) Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ________. A) T lymphocytes B) plasma cells C) lymph nodes D) medullary cords Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 756 10) Lymph leaves a lymph node via ________. A) efferent lymphatic vessels B) afferent lymphatic vessels C) the cortical sinus D) the subscapular sinus Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 757 11) Which cells become immunocompetent due to thymic hormones? A) basophils B) lymphocytes C) macrophages D) monocytes Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 759 12) Functions of the spleen include all of those below except ________. A) removal of old or defective blood cells from the blood B) forming crypts that trap bacteria C) storage of blood platelets D) storage of iron Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 758 13) When the lymphatic structures are blocked due to tumors, the result is ________. A) shrinkage of tissues distal to the blockage due to inadequate delivery of lymph B) severe localized edema distal to the blockage C) increased pressure in the lymphatics proximal to the blockage D) abnormally high lymph drainage from the distal region Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 754755 14) Select the correct statement about lymph transport. A) Under normal conditions, lymph vessels are very highpressure conduits. B) Lymph transport is faster than that occurring in veins. C) Lymph transport is only necessary when illness causes tissue swelling. D) Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles. 9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 754 15) Select the correct statement about lymphocytes. A) The two main types are T cells and macrophages. B) B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood. C) T cells are the precursors of B cells. D) T cells are the only form of lymphocyte found in lymphoid tissue. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 756 16) Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue. A) Once a lymphocyte enters the lymphoid tissue, it resides there permanently. B) Lymphoid macrophages secrete antibodies into the blood. C) Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue. D) T lymphocytes act by ingesting foreign substances. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 756 17) Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n) ________. A) tonsil B) thymus C) Peyer's patch D) appendix Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 760 18) Which of the following is not a mucosaassociated lymphatic tissue? A) tonsil B) thymus C) Peyer's patch D) appendix Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 758760 19) Peyer's patches are found in the ________. A) duodenum of the small intestine B) ileum of the small intestine C) large intestine D) jejunum of the small intestine Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 760 10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 20) Lymph capillaries are absent in all but which of the following? A) bones and teeth B) bone marrow C) CNS D) digestive organs Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 753754 21) What is a bubo? A) a wall in a lymph node B) a lobe of the spleen C) an infected Peyer's patch D) an infected lymph node Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 757 22) The thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not: A) have lymphocytes B) produce hormones C) have a cortex and medulla D) directly fight antigens Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 759 23) Large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the ________. A) inguinal region B) cervical region C) axillary region D) lower extremities Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 756 24) Digestive tractassociated lymphatic tissue includes all of the following except ________. A) Peyer's patches B) palatine tonsils C) lingual tonsils D) islets of Langerhans Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 760 25) Which of the following is not a method that maintains lymph flow? A) skeletal muscle contraction B) breathing C) valves in lymph vessel walls D) smooth muscle contraction 11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 754 26) The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ________. A) lingual tonsils B) palatine tonsils C) pharyngeal tonsils D) Peyer's tonsils Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 760 27) Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph? A) water B) plasma proteins C) red blood cells D) ions Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 753 28) A sentinel node is ________. A) a lymph node found in the intestinal lamina propria B) the first node at the junction of all the lumbar trunks C) a small node in the spleen D) the first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 764 29) Which of the following are functions of lymphoid tissue? A) house and provide a proliferation site for lymphocytes B) house and provide a proliferation site for neutrophils C) furnish an ideal surveillance vantage point for lymphocytes and macrophages D) A and C Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 756 30) Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system? A) draining excess interstitial fluid B) carrying out immune responses C) transporting dietary fats D) transporting respiratory gases Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 753 12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 31) Which of the following is not a function of lymph nodes? A) act as lymph filters and activate the immune system B) produce lymphoid cells and granular WBCs C) produce lymph fluid and cerebrospinal fluid D) serve as antigen surveillance areas Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 756 FillintheBlank/Short Answer Questions 1) The ________ are the simplest lymphoid organs and are found at the entrance to the pharynx. Answer: tonsils Diff: 2 Page Ref: 760 2) The appendix, tonsils, and Peyer's patches are examples of ________. Answer: MALT Diff: 2 Page Ref: 761 3) Highly specialized lymph capillaries called ________ are present in the villi of the intestinal mucosa. Answer: lacteals Diff: 2 Page Ref: 754 4) The thoracic duct of the lymphatic system empties into the ________. Answer: left subclavian vein Diff: 2 Page Ref: 754 5) Tonsils have blindended structures called ________. Answer: crypts Diff: 2 Page Ref: 760 6) Hassall's corpuscles are always found in the lightercolored ________ regions of the thymus. Answer: medullary Diff: 2 Page Ref: 759 7) The ________ pulp of the spleen forms cuffs around the central arteries. Answer: white Diff: 2 Page Ref: 758 8) Lymphatic ________ are formed from the union of the largest collecting vessels. Answer: trunks Diff: 2 Page Ref: 754 13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 9) Describe the structural and functional relationship of the vessels of the blood vascular system and the lymphatic system. Answer: Vessels of the blood vascular system are relatively highpressure conduits compared to vessels of the lymphatic system. The same mechanisms that promote venous return in blood vessels act within lymphatic vessels. Because lymphatics are usually packaged together in connective tissue sheaths with blood vessels, the pulsating expansions of the nearby arteries also promote lymph flow. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 753754 10) Describe the mechanisms by which lymphatic fluid is moved through the lymphatics. Answer: Lymphatic fluid is moved through the lymphatics by the milking action of active skeletal muscles, pressure changes within the thorax during breathing, valves to prevent backflow, and pulsation of adjacent arteries. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 754 11) What is the consequence of obstruction of the lymphatics? Answer: Obstruction of the lymphatics results in edema distal to the obstruction. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 754755 12) Where are the lymph node aggregations most dense? Answer: Lymph node aggregations are most dense near the body surface in the inguinal, axillary, and cervical regions of the body. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 756 13) What is the special role of the thymus gland? Answer: By secreting hormones, the thymus gland causes T lymphocytes to become immunocompetent. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 759 14) Name the tonsils and state their body locations. Answer: Palatine tonsils are located on either side at the posterior end of the oral cavity. The lingual tonsils lie at the base of the tongue. The pharyngeal tonsils are in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 760 15) List the functions of the spleen. Answer: The spleen's main functions are to remove aged or defective blood cells and platelets from the blood and to store or release some of the breakdown products of RBCs to the blood for processing by the liver. Other functions include acting as a blood filter and reservoir, serving as a site for erythrocyte production in developing embryos, storing blood platelets, and providing a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 758 14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 16) Characterize lymph transport in terms of rate, volume, and ability to change. Answer: Lymph transport is sporadic and much slower than that occurring in veins. About 3 liters of lymph enters the bloodstream in a 24hour period. An increase in physical activity will cause lymph flow to increase, balancing the greater rate of fluid outflow from the vascular system. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 754 17) How do the lymph capillaries differ from blood capillaries? Answer: Although similar to blood capillaries, lymphatic capillaries differ structurally in the following ways: (1) The endothelial cells forming the walls of lymphatic capillaries are not tightly joined. Their edges loosely overlap one another, forming flaplike minivalves. (2) Bundles of fine filaments anchor the endothelial cells to surrounding structures so that any increase in interstitial fluid volume separates the cell flaps, exposing gaps in the wall rather than causing the lymphatic capillary to collapse. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 753754 18) How does the lymphatic system both help and hinder the spread of cancer through the body? Answer: Lymph nodes help rid the body of cancer cells by immune mechanisms. Lymph vessels may also be used to spread cancer cells throughout the body if immunity is not effective against the cancer cells. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 758 19) How does the structure of a lymph node allow lymphocytes and macrophages to perform their protective function? Answer: Macrophages and lymphocytes are located in lymph nodes. Macrophages ingest microorganisms and cellular debris. Lymphocytes monitor the lymphatic stream for the presence of antigens and mount an immune response. Because there are fewer efferent vessels draining the node than afferent vessels that feed it, the flow of lymph through the node stagnates somewhat, allowing time for the lymphocytes and macrophages to work. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 756 20) Explain the term MALT. What is its function? Answer: MALT is an acronym for mucosaassociated lymphatic tissue. It includes Peyer's patches, the appendix, and the tonsils in the digestive tract, lymphoid follicles in the walls of the bronchi, and genitourinary tract. Collectively, MALT protects passages open to the exterior from foreign matter entering them. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 761 21) How is the skeletal system tied to the lymphatic system? Answer: 1. The lymphatic system removes excess fluids in the periostea. 2. The lymphocytes protect the bones from pathogens. 3. Parts of the skeletal system produce the lymphocytes found in the lymphatic system. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 762 15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Clinical Questions 1) A mother takes her son to the doctor and describes the following symptoms that she has observed. The child is running a fever, has flulike symptoms, and his lymph glands are very swollen and sore to the touch. Of what significance are the swollen and sore lymph glands? Answer: When tissues are inflamed, such as due to a bacterial infection, lymphatic capillaries develop openings that permit the uptake of the pathogens. The inflammation and pain indicate lymph nodes infected by microorganisms. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 757 2) A woman had a mastectomy that included the removal of axillary lymph nodes on her left side. What can she expect regarding her left arm and why? Answer: Removal of the axillary lymph nodes results in severe localized edema because the lymphatic vessels are also lost. She can expect chronic edema along the arm, although some lymphatic drainage is eventually reestablished by regrowth of the vessels. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 754756 3) A man involved in a traffic accident is rushed to the emergency room of a hospital with severe internal bleeding. Examination reveals a ruptured spleen. What is the treatment of choice and what is the likely longterm outcome (prognosis)? Answer: Splenectomy is not as necessary as once believed, and is now performed less frequently. If the spleen does need to be removed, the prognosis is very good, as the functions of the spleen are taken over by the liver and bone marrow. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 758 4) While passing through a village on safari you notice a man with one enormous leg and one normalsized leg. What could have caused the increased size of the swollen leg? Answer: The man has elephantiasis, which is caused by parasitic worms that get in the lymph system and reproduce to proportions that block the vessels. The swelling is due to edema. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 761 5) Lymphedema may occur as a complication after a radical mastectomy, in which lymph nodes have been removed. Explain why it might occur. Answer: Anything that prevents the normal return of lymph to the blood, such as blockage of the lymphatics by tumors or removal of lymphatics during surgery, results in severe localized edema (lymphedema). Diff: 2 Page Ref: 754755 6) A nurse palpated enlarged lymph nodes. Describe signs and symptoms that help to distinguish cancerous lymph nodes from infected lymph nodes. Answer: Tender nodes are usually due to inflammation, whereas hard, fixed nodes are suggestive of malignancy. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 757758 16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 7) Describe why the prognosis of cancer is best when there is no detectable spread from the region of the primary tumor to the lymph nodes. Answer: The lymphatic system consists of a meandering network of lymphatic vessels. Cancer cells that break free from the primary tumor can metastasize via the lymph system. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 757758 8) As the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) progresses, some individuals develop persistent generalized lymphadenopathy. Explain why this may occur. Answer: This may occur because lymph nodes are overwhelmed by a large number of virus particles trapped in the nodes. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 757, 761 17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
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