Anatomy & Physiology ch 12
Anatomy & Physiology ch 12 Biol 2301
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Human Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Marieb/Hoehn) Chapter 12 The Central Nervous System Matching Questions Figure 12.1 Using Figure 12.1, match the following: 1) Afferent impulses from all senses and all parts of the body converge here and synapse with at least one of its nuclei. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 441; Fig. 12.11 2) Putamen. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 442; Fig. 12.11 3) Anterior horn of lateral ventricle. Answer: A 1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 442; Fig. 12.11 4) Inferior horn of lateral ventricle. Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 442; Fig. 12.11 5) Part of the basal nuclei. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 441; Fig. 12.11 6) Thalamus. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 443; Fig. 12.11 Figure 12.2 Using Figure 12.2, match the following: 7) Pons. Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 440; Fig. 12.10 8) Corpus callosum. Answer: A 2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 440; Fig. 12.10 3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 9) Caudate nucleus. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 440; Fig. 12.10 10) Globus pallidus. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 440; Fig. 12.10 11) Thalamus. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 440; Fig. 12.10 Figure 12.3 Using Figure 12.3, match the following: 12) Site of efferent soma. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 468; Fig. 12.31 13) Site of axons and afferent neurons. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 468; Fig. 12.31 14) Site of sensory soma. Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 469; Fig. 12.31 15) Gray commissure. Answer: A 4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 469; Fig. 12.31 16) Horn usually containing interneurons. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 468; Fig. 12.31 17) Site containing central canal. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 468; Fig. 12.31 18) Multipolar neurons are common here. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 468; Fig. 12.31 Match the following: A) Parietal lobe B) Temporal lobe C) Insula D) Frontal lobe E) Occipital lobe 19) Auditory area. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 438 20) Primary sensory cortex. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 438; Fig. 12.8 21) Somatic motor cortex. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 435; Fig. 12.8 22) Motor speech area. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 438; Fig. 12.8 23) Premotor area. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 437; Fig. 12.8 24) Visual area. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 438; Fig. 12.8 25) Taste (gustatory) area. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 439; Fig. 12.9 26) Seat of intelligence, abstract reasoning. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 439; Fig. 12.8 5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Answers: 19) B 20) A 21) D 22) D 23) D 24) E 25) C 26) D 6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Match the following: A) Primary motor cortex B) Prefrontal area C) Hypothalamus D) Thalamus 27) A major relay station for sensory information ascending to primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Contains many specialized nuclei. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 441; Fig. 12.12 28) This brain area associates experiences necessary for the production of abstract ideas, judgment, and conscience. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 439; Fig. 12.8 29) The axons from this area form the major pyramidal tracts. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 435; Fig. 12.8 30) This area is the main visceral control center of the body. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 443; Fig. 12.12 Answers: 27) D 28) B 29) A 30) C Match the following stages of sleep with their descriptions: A) Stage 1 B) Stage 3 C) REM D) Stage 4 E) Stage 2 31) The stage when vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature) reach their lowest normal levels. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 456; Fig. 12.21 32) Indicated by movement of the eyes under the lids; dreaming occurs. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 456; Fig. 12.21 33) Theta and delta waves begin to appear. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 456; Fig. 12.21 34) Very easy to awaken; EEG shows alpha waves; may even deny being asleep. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 456; Fig. 12.21 35) Typified by sleep spindles. 7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 456; Fig. 12.21 36) Begins about 90 minutes after the onset of sleep. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 456; Fig. 12.21 37) Necessary for emotional health; may be neural "debugging." Diff: 3 Page Ref: 456; Fig. 12.21 Answers: 31) D 32) C 33) B 34) A 35) E 36) C 37) C Match the following: A) Hypothalamus B) Brain stem C) Thalamus D) Cerebrum E) Cerebellum 38) Gateway to the cerebrum Diff: 2 Page Ref: 443 39) Motor command center Diff: 2 Page Ref: 450 40) Survival center Diff: 2 Page Ref: 445 41) Executive suite Diff: 2 Page Ref: 435 42) Visceral command center Diff: 2 Page Ref: 443 Answers: 38) C 39) E 40) B 41) D 42) A True/False Questions 1) NREM sleep normally exhibits four distinct stages, which appear to alternate. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 455456 2) Petit mal seizures found in children generally go away with age. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 454 8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 3) Specific motor and sensory functions are localized in specific areas called domains, whereas memory and language have overlapping domains. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 435 4) A flat EEG is a good indication of deep sleep. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 455 5) The corpora quadrigemina superior colliculi are visual reflex centers, whereas the inferior colliculi are auditory reflex centers. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 446 6) Cell bodies of the somatic motor neurons of the spinal nerves are located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 468; Fig. 12.32 7) Meningitis is the most accurate term for inflammation of neurons. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 463 8) The adult spinal cord ends between L 1 d L .2 Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 468 9) Cerebrospinal fluid circulates within the ventricles of the brain and in the subarachnoid space outside the brain. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 463; Fig. 12.26 10) The terms fainting and syncope describe the same thing. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 455 11) The RAS is comprised of specific pathways primarily in the limbic system. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 451453 12) Nondeclarative memories preserve the circumstances in which they are learned. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 458 13) The first obvious sign that the nervous system is forming in the embryo is the thickening of 9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. the surface ectoderm to form the neural plate. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 430 14) The left cerebral hemisphere is usually dominant. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 440 15) The limbic system acts as our emotional, or affective, brain. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 452; Tbl. 12.1 16) The canal connecting the third and fourth ventricles and running through the midbrain is the foramen of Monro. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 432; Fig. 12.5 17) Commissural fibers form the corpus striatum. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 441 18) A disturbance of posture, muscle tremors at rest, and uncontrolled muscle contraction are all symptoms of damage to the basal nuclei. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 441 19) Projection fibers in the brain mainly connect the right and left hemispheres. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 441 20) Most of the ascending and descending pathways to and from the brain cross over from one side of the body to the other. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 470 21) The primary visual cortex contains a map of visual space. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 438 22) One functional center found within the medulla oblongata is a respiratory center involved in the control of the rate and depth of breathing. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 449 23) Sorting of sensory information and relaying it to the appropriate cerebral sensory area occurs 10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. in the hypothalamus. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 443444 24) Embryonic damage to the mesencephalon could result in improper formation of the midbrain. Answer: TRUE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 430 11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. MultipleChoice Questions 1) The anteriolateral pathways ________. A) are evolutionarily newer than the specific pathways B) receive inputs from a single type of sensory receptor C) are involved in the emotional aspects of perception D) are also called the lemniscal system Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 471; Tbl. 12.2 2) The suprachiasmatic nucleus is found in the ________. A) pons B) thalamus C) hypothalamus D) medulla Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 444; Fig. 12.13 3) Nuclei of cranial nerves V, VI, and VII are found in the ________. A) midbrain B) medulla C) pons D) cerebrum Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 447 4) The arbor vitae refers to ________. A) cerebellar gray matter B) cerebellar white matter C) the pleatlike convolutions of the cerebellum D) flocculonodular nodes Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 450 5) The brain stem consists of the ________. A) cerebrum, pons, midbrain, and medulla B) midbrain, medulla, and pons C) pons, medulla, cerebellum, and midbrain D) midbrain only Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 445 12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6) The primary auditory cortex is located in the ________. A) prefrontal lobe B) frontal lobe C) temporal lobe D) parietal lobe Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 438 7) Spinocerebellar tracts ________. A) terminate in the spinal cord B) carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum C) give rise to conscious experience of perception D) are found in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 471; Tbl. 12.2 8) What cells line the ventricles of the brain? A) ependymal cells B) neurons C) epithelial cells D) astrocytes Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 431 9) The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges? A) arachnoid and epidura B) arachnoid and pia C) arachnoid and dura D) dura and epidura Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 461 10) The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the ________. A) pons B) medulla C) midbrain D) cerebrum Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 448449 11) Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in ________. A) the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord B) the ventral root ganglia of the spinal cord C) the thalamus 13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. D) sympathetic ganglia Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 470 12) Which fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres? A) central fissure B) longitudinal fissure C) parietooccipital fissure D) lateral fissure Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 433; Fig. 12.6 13) Which of the following best describes the cerebrum? A) motor command center B) visceral command center C) executive suite D) decussation center Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 435 14) A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called a ________. A) sulcus B) fissure C) gyrus D) furrow Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 433 15) Which of the following generalizations does not describe the cerebral cortex? A) The cerebral cortex contains three kinds of functional areas. B) Each hemisphere is chiefly concerned with sensory and motor functions of the contralateral side of the body. C) The hemispheres are exactly equal in function. D) No functional area of the cortex works alone. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 435 16) If the posterior portion of the neural tube failed to develop properly the ________. A) spinal cord may be affected B) cranial nerves would not form C) hindbrain would not be present D) telencephalon would cease development Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 430 14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 17) The central sulcus separates which lobes? A) frontal from parietal B) parietal from occipital C) temporal from parietal D) frontal from temporal Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 433; Fig. 12.6 18) Neural tracts that convey lifesaving information to the brain concerning burning pain would be ________. A) anterior spinothalamic B) reticulospinal C) lateral spinothalamic D) posterior spinothalamic Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 471; Tbl. 12.2 19) Which of these would you not find in the cerebral cortex? A) cell bodies B) dendrites C) unmyelinated axons D) fiber tracts Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 435 20) The hypothalamus ________. A) is the thermostat of the body because it regulates temperature B) is an important auditory and visual relay center C) has the Pulvinar body as part of its structure D) mediates sensations Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 443444 21) The white matter of the spinal cord contains ________. A) myelinated nerve fibers only B) unmyelinated nerve fibers only C) myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers D) soma that have both myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 470 15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 22) Which of the following is not a role of the basal nuclei? A) regulating attention and cognition B) controlling starting and stopping movements C) inhibiting unnecessary or antagonistic movements D) initiating protective reflex actions Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 441 23) An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T and L . This would result 1 1 in ________. A) paraplegia B) hemiplegia C) quadriplegia D) spinal shock only Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 476 24) Spastic paralysis suggests involvement of the ________. A) upper motor neurons B) lower motor neurons C) spinal nerve roots D) neuromotor junction Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 476 25) Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are called ________. A) gyri B) sulci C) fissures D) ganglia Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 433 26) The frontal lobe is separated from the temporal lobe by the ________. A) longitudinal fissure B) lateral sulcus C) central sulcus D) cranial fossa Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 433 16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 27) Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement? A) Damage to the primary motor cortex results only in the loss of voluntary muscle control. B) Damage to the premotor cortex results in loss of motor skills programmed in that area but movement is still possible. C) Damage to the visual association area results in blindness. D) Damage to the primary auditory cortex results in the inability to interpret pitch, loudness, and location. Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 435439 28) Two terms for the massive motor tracts serving voluntary movement are ________. A) pyramidal and corticospinal B) extrapyramidal and rubrospinal C) segmental and nigrostriatal D) supplementary and cerebellarpontine Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 435, 437 29) An individual who could trace a picture of a bicycle with his or her finger but could not recognize it as a bicycle is most likely to have sustained damage to the ________. A) calcarine cortex B) primary visual area C) visual association area D) lateral geniculate body Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 473; Tbl. 12.3 30) Broca's area ________. A) corresponds to Brodmann's area 8 B) is usually found in the right hemisphere C) serves the recognition of complex objects D) is considered a motor speech area Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 437 31) Which part of the cerebral cortex is involved in intellect, cognition, recall, and personality? A) prefrontal cortex B) posterior association area C) limbic association area D) combined primary somatosensory cortex and somatosensory association cortex Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 439 17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 32) The bloodbrain barrier is effective against ________. A) metabolic waste such as urea B) nutrients such as glucose C) alcohol D) anesthetics Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 463 33) Which of the following is not part of the basal nuclei? A) putamen B) lentiform nucleus C) globus pallidus D) substantia nigra Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 441; Fig. 12.11 34) All of the following are structures of the limbic system except the ________. A) hippocampus B) cingulate gyrus C) amygdaloid nucleus D) caudate nucleus Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 452 35) Which of the following is not a midbrain structure? A) third ventricle B) cerebral peduncles C) corpora quadrigemina D) red nucleus Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 445446 36) The process of linking new facts with old facts already stored in the memory bank is called ________. A) consolidation B) automatic memory C) longterm memory D) rehearsal Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 458 37) Which category of memory is involved when playing the piano? A) declarative B) procedural C) motor 18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. D) emotional Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 458 38) The brain area that regulates activities that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex is the ________. A) thalamus B) reticular formation C) pyramids D) limbic system Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 452453 39) Which of the following would you not find in normal cerebrospinal fluid? A) glucose B) red blood cells C) potassium D) protein Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 463 40) REM sleep is associated with ________. A) decreased vital signs, such as heart rate and blood pressure B) decreased activity of the brain, especially the cerebral cortex C) temporary skeletal muscle inhibition except for the extrinsic eye muscles D) decreased oxygen use, especially in the cerebral cortex Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 455456 41) Which of the following is not a function of the CSF? A) reduction of brain weight B) protection from blows C) nourishment of the brain D) initiation of some nerve impulses Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 463 42) Injury to the hypothalamus may result in all of the following except ________. A) pathologic sleep B) loss of body temperature control C) production of excessive quantities of urine D) loss of proprioception Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 444 19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 43) Which association regarding the function and location of the cerebrum is most accurate? A) sensoryanterior B) motormedial C) sensorymedial D) motoranterior Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 435439 44) Brain wave amplitude ________. A) reflects the number of neurons firing synchronously B) is an average of about 1 V C) results from subtraction of delta waves from theta waves D) is the measure of activity of specific individual neurons Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 453454 45) Important nuclei of the indirect (multineural) system that receive impulses from the equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear and help to maintain balance by varying muscle tone of postural muscles are the ________. A) red nuclei B) vestibular nuclei C) reticular nuclei D) superior colliculi Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 435439 46) Which of the following structures is probably not directly involved in memory? A) hippocampus B) medulla C) amygdala D) prefrontal cortex Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 458 47) The area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of the full bladder and the feeling that your lungs will burst when you hold your breath too long is the ________. A) olfactory cortex B) gusatory cortex C) vestibular cortex D) visceral sensory area Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 439 20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 48) Which statement about coma is true? A) Coma is defined as total unresponsiveness to stimuli for a long period of time. B) During coma, brain oxygen consumption resembles that of a waking state. C) Coma is neurologically identical to syncope. D) Coma is rarely caused by damage to brain stem structures. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 455 49) Tremor at rest, shuffling gait, stooped posture, and expressionless face are characteristics of ________. A) Huntington's disease B) Parkinson's disease C) cerebellar disease D) spinal cord disease Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 465466 50) Which of the following is the mildest consequence of traumatic brain injury? A) contusion B) concussion C) hemorrhage D) swelling Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 464 51) Declarative memory ________. A) is the ability to learn specific information B) is best remembered in the doing C) is hard to unlearn when learned once D) usually involves motor skills Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 458 52) Which of the following is (are) involved with motor activity (either initiation or coordination)? A) postcentral gyrus B) gustatory cortex C) red nuclei D) Wernicke's area Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 446447 21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 53) Which statement is not true? A) Sleep requirements decline from infancy to early adulthood, level off, then decline again in old age. B) Half of infant sleep is composed of REM sleep. C) Tenyearolds are in REM sleep about 1.52 hours per night. D) Stage 4 sleep increases in old age. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455456 54) Which statement about epilepsy is most accurate? A) During seizures, sensory messages are processed normally but responses are blocked. B) Absence seizures typically begin in adolescence and is often severely disabling. C) Epilepsy is often genetically induced but also frequently caused by head trauma, stroke, infection, and tumor. D) The aura in tonicclonic seizures typically occurs as the patient regains consciousness. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 454 55) White matter (myelinated fibers) is found in all of the following locations except the ________. A) corpus callosum B) cerebral cortex C) corticospinal tracts D) outer portion of the spinal cord Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 435, 440 56) Secondorder neurons of both the specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in the ________. A) spinal cord B) medulla C) thalamus D) somatosensory cortex Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 441443, 471 57) Loss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as piano playing, with no paralysis or weakness in specific muscles, might suggest damage to the ________. A) spinal cord B) premotor cortex C) primary motor cortex D) rubrospinal tracts Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 437 22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 58) Which brain waves are not normal for awake adults but are common for children? A) Alpha B) Beta C) Delta D) Theta Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 454 FillintheBlank/Short Answer Questions 1) The fourth ventricle is continuous with the ________ of the spinal cord. Answer: central canal Diff: 1 Page Ref: 433 2) The large commissure that connects the right and left sides of the brain is called the ________. Answer: corpus callosum Diff: 2 Page Ref: 441 3) The ________ is a conduction pathway between higher and lower brain centers and houses nuclei for cranial nerves VVII. Answer: pons Diff: 2 Page Ref: 447 4) The infundibulum connects the hypothalamus to the ________. Answer: pituitary gland Diff: 1 Page Ref: 443 5) The structures that are valvelike and protrude externally through the dura mater to absorb cerebrospinal fluid into venous blood are the ________. Answer: arachnoid villi Diff: 1 Page Ref: 461 6) Sensory neurons enter the spinal cord via the ________ horn. Answer: dorsal Diff: 1 Page Ref: 468; Fig. 12.32 7) ________ memory requires practice, and is remembered by doing. Answer: Procedural (skill) Diff: 1 Page Ref: 458 8) The ________ includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus. Answer: diencephalon Diff: 1 Page Ref: 441; Tbl. 12.1 9) The two longitudinal ridges on the medulla oblongata where many descending fibers cross 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. over are called the ________. Answer: pyramids Diff: 2 Page Ref: 447 10) The largest nuclear mass in the midbrain is the ________. Answer: corpora quadrigemina Diff: 2 Page Ref: 446 11) In stage 3 sleep, ________ and ________ waves appear. Answer: theta; delta Diff: 2 Page Ref: 456; Fig. 12.21 12) The ________ is the main switch station for memory; if the right and left areas are damaged, the past is lost. Answer: hippocampus Diff: 2 Page Ref: 458460 13) ________ rhythm is a 24hour cycle of sleep and wakefulness. Answer: Circadian Diff: 1 Page Ref: 455 14) ________ is a temporary cessation of breathing during sleep found most commonly in the elderly. Answer: Sleep apnea Diff: 2 Page Ref: 457 15) The ________ is a protective mechanism that helps maintain a stable environment for the brain. Answer: bloodbrain barrier Diff: 2 Page Ref: 463464 16) Describe the cause of hydrocephalus and explain why this condition is much more serious in adults than in newborns. Answer: Hydrocephaly refers to a blockage of the normal circulation and drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) throughout the meninges and ventricles. If CSF is allowed to accumulate, excessive pressure could be exerted on the brain. In newborns, the fontanels allow the skull to enlarge, while in adults, the cranial bones are fused and no expansion is possible. This disorder is treated by insertion of a shunt to drain excess fluid into a vein. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 463 17) Which brain areas lack a bloodbrain barrier, and what purpose does this absence serve? Answer: The bloodbrain barrier is absent around the vomiting center of the brain stem, so that it can monitor the blood for poisonous substances. It is also absent around the hypothalamus, so that it can monitor the chemical composition of the blood and adjust water balance and other factors. 24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 464 25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 18) What is the importance of the fact that the outer portion of the cerebral hemispheres is convoluted? Answer: The cerebral cortex is only 24 mm thick; however, the convolutions effectively triple the cortical surface area. As a result, the cortex accounts for 40% of the total brain mass and functions in all conscious activity, including movement, sensory perception, thinking, and memory. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 435 19) What is the cauda equina and why is it given this name? Answer: The cauda equina is a collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of the vertebral canal and is given this name because of its resemblance to a horse's tail. This arrangement reflects the different rates of growth between the vertebral column and spinal cord. Because the column grows more rapidly than the cord, the lower nerves must "chase" their exit points inferiorly, thus forming the cauda equina. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 468 20) Describe the role of the reticular activating system in cortical arousal and stimulation. Answer: The reticular activating system (RAS) appears to mediate the alertness state of the cerebral cortex. The thalamus, hypothalamus, and other areas such as the brain stem appear to be interconnected with the RAS. The hypothalamus seems to be the structure responsible for the actual timing of the sleepwake cycle. The primary neurotransmitter involved is serotonin. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 452453 21) Sixyearold Jimmy is confined to a wheelchair. He frequently drools and his limbs hang limply in strange angular positions. His diagnosis is cerebral palsy. Name several (possible) causes of cerebral palsy. Answer: Cerebral palsy may be due to a lack of oxygen at birth, or to a viral infection, excessive smoking by the mother, radiation, drugs, or alcohol. The disorder is a neuromuscular disability in which the voluntary muscles are poorly controlled or paralyzed. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 477 22) Describe the main ideas of the holistic processing school of thought, relative to consciousness. Answer: Holistic processing involves many lines of reasoning that suppose that: (1) consciousness involves simultaneous activity of large areas of the cerebral cortex; (2) consciousness is superimposed on other types of neural activity; and (3) consciousness is totally interconnected. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 455 23) Differentiate clearly between shortterm and longterm memory. Answer: Shortterm memory (STM) is a fleeting memory of events that one is continuously exposed to, and seems to be limited to 7 or 8 chunks of information at a time. Longterm memory (LTM) is semipermanent storage of information that involves the transfer of data from STM banks to LTM banks based on several factors such as rehearsal, emotional state, and association. 26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 457 27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 24) How do scientists hope the discovery of drugs such as NMDA antagonists and calcium channel blockers will improve the outlook for stroke patients? Answer: After a stroke, neurons deprived of oxygen release large amounts of glutamate. This acts as an excitotoxin on receptors, causing (among other things) calcium influx. These changes result in damage to surrounding healthy cells, which then release additional glutamate. Scientists hope that rapid administration of NMDA antagonists or calcium channel blockers will stop the chain reaction and prevent additional destruction of tissue. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 464465 25) What seven areas of the body does the hypothalamus control? Answer: 1. ANS 2. Center of emotional responses 3. Body temperature regulation 4. Regulation of food intake 5. Regulation of water balance and thirst 6. Regulation of the sleepwake cycles 7. Control of the endocrine functions Diff: 3 Page Ref: 443444 26) What is the limbic system? Answer: This is a functional area of the brain that is in control of our emotions, such as fear, anger, love, hate, etc. It can be acted upon by smell (the smell of a gas, perfume, dead animals), memories, taste, sight, and selfwill. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 451452 27) What might be a cause of dyslexia? Answer: the cerebral hemispheres sharing their functions equally Diff: 3 Page Ref: 439440 28) Which white matter tracts connect the cerebrum to the lower brain areas? Answer: projection fibers Diff: 1 Page Ref: 441 29) Which part of the brain functions to filter out repetitive and/or unimportant stimuli? Answer: reticular activating system Diff: 2 Page Ref: 452453 30) List factors that can enhance the transfer of information from shortterm memory to long term memory. Answer: emotional state, rehearsal, association, and autonomic memory Diff: 2 Page Ref: 458 28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Clinical Questions 1) Mrs. Sagalov has recently been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. What clinical symptoms is she likely to show, and what would probably be seen if her brain were examined? Answer: Mrs. Sagalov is likely to show increasing cognitive deficits, including difficulties with memory and attention, and personality changes such as irritability, moodiness, and confusion. Her brain, particularly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, is likely to show senile plaques (clumps of cells and fibers around a protein core) and neurofibrillary tangles (twisted fibers within neuron cell bodies). Diff: 3 Page Ref: 465 2) A patient is admitted to the rehabilitation unit five days after having a stroke. The nurse assesses his muscle strength and determines that he has rightsided weakness. Based on this assessment data, what part of the brain was injured? Answer: Damage to localized areas of the primary motor cortex paralyzes the body muscles controlled by these areas. If the stroke is in the left hemisphere, the right side of the body will be weak or paralyzed. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 435438 3) A patient was admitted to the medical/surgical unit with a stroke that affected the motor neurons in the pyramidal pathway. This affected the loss of voluntary movement to his left side. What other problems would the patient experience? Answer: The patient may have difficulty swallowing because of weakness to the mouth or throat muscles. The patient may also experience problems with urinary incontinence. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 435438 4) Death from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis usually results from respiratory infection secondary to compromised respiratory function. Explain why. Answer: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or Lou Gehrig's disease, is a rare neuromuscular disease that involves progressive destruction of the ventral horn motor neurons and fibers of the pyramidal tract. As the disease progresses, the sufferer loses the ability to speak, swallow, and breathe. Because the lungs have difficulty fully expanding, secretions may develop, causing respiratory infection. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 476477 5) Explain why heparin is used as an anticoagulant in the treatment of thrombotic strokes but contraindicated in a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Answer: The most common cause of a stroke is a blockage of a cerebral artery by a clot. Heparin would keep more clots from forming. It would be contraindicated in a subarachnoid hemorrhage because it would not be effective in treating the bleeding from ruptured vessels. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 464465 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6) An 86yearold patient with Alzheimer's disease was admitted to the hospital with dehydration. Her daughter states that her mother has been very confused and combative lately. Explain why the patient developed dehydration. Answer: One of the simplest mechanisms for maintaining fluid balance is the thirst mechanism. Normally, when a person is thirsty, he or she drinks because the thirst center in the hypothalamus is stimulated. In this patient's confused and combative state, she is probably refusing or forgetting to eat or drink, thereby developing dehydration. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 465 7) The location and arrangement of the arteries supplying the hippocampus make it particularly vulnerable to injury. How would memory be affected if the hippocampus suffered deterioration? Answer: The hippocampus oversees the circuitry for learning and remembering spatial relationships. In other words, it acts as a switchboard, receiving and sorting information, helping to turn that information into a memory, and forwarding it to other parts of the brain. Without the help of the hippocampus we might learn, but we wouldn't remember. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 458460 8) Susan and Robert are the parents of three children. One night while the family was sleeping, a fire broke out next door. Susan and Robert heard the fire trucks and rushed out to see what was happening. None of the children woke up, even with the sound of sirens close to the house. Why did the parents wake up, but the children didn’t wake up? Answer: The reticular formation activation system, which filters stimuli, awakened the parents, who were responsible for the safety of their children. It allowed the children to ignore the stimuli so that they could get their rest, because the parents were in charge of the situation. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 452453 30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
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