oceanography final review
oceanography final review GEO230
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This 10 page Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) was uploaded by alyssa hawley on Sunday February 15, 2015. The Test Prep (MCAT, SAT...) belongs to GEO230 at Washington State University taught by Vervoort in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 175 views. For similar materials see Oceanography in Geology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/15/15
Review Notes Material for Exam lll Lectures 3142 Laws Governing the Sea Territorial Sea 1 league or 3 nautical miles from shore aside nautical mile knots de ned as a minute of arc along an NS meridian Q How many nautical miles on a pole to pole meridian 60 minutes in a degree 180 degrees N to S 180 x 60 10800 nautical miles 1 Coastal nation 5 jurisdiction EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone established shing mining rights pollution regulation 2 Ship Passage free passage for all vessels on high sees 3 Deepocean mineral resources regulated by International Seabed Authority controlled by United Nations 4 International disputes arbitrated by United Nations Law of the Seatdbunal The Law of the Sea puts 42 of world s oceans under control of coastal nations The Coastal Ocean General characteristics Shallow ocean close to shore Coincide with continental shelf River runoff tidal currents and seasons affect watercharacter About 95 of total mass of marine life Coastal Ocean Temperature Isothermal same heat Highlatitude areas low temperature Low latitude areas high temperature isothermal seasonal thermoclines mid lat areas warmer surface water in summer Coastal Ocean Estuaries Partially enclosed coastal body Where you have mixing of freshwater run off and ocean water Most commonly developed at river mouths ex Chesapeake Bay Fjord ooded glacially carved valleys Example Barbuilt estuary body of water lagoon separated from sea by barrier bar Examples Chesapeake Bay Laguna Madre Tectonic estuary formed by tectonic processes faults folding faulting Example San Francisco Bay Estuaries and human activities Important breeding and nursery grounds for many marine animals Humans affect estuaries negatively through industry Lagoons Shallow water landward of barrier islands Restricted circulation Freshwater zone Transitional zone brackish Saltwater zone Hypersaline if high evaporation Less saline if large runoff Examples Laguna Madre Coastal Oceans Marginal Seas Semiisolated large bodies of seawater Most due to tectonics or volcanic activity Typically shallow Ex Mediterranean Sea Caribbean Sea Bering Sea Red Sea Arabian Sea Bay of Bengal Life Working de nition capture store and transmit energy capable of reproduction can adapt to the environment can change through time All life is grouped into 3 Domains 1 Eukaryota organisms whose cels contain a nucleus 2 Bacteria nearly all single celled organisms without a nucleus 3 Archaea most primitive form of life on earth 5 Kingdoms of Organisms 1 Monera single celled but lack discrete nuclei genetic material ex bluegreen algae 2 Protoctista single and multicelled organisms cells contain nuclei example Marine Algae Protozoans 3 Fungi includes mold amp lichen but mostly land dwellers 4 Plantae multicelled plants all of which photosynthesize 5 Animalia multicelled animals Classi cation of living things Taxonomy Swedish Botonist Carolus Linnaeus 17071778 Kingdom phylum subphylum class order family genus species Species a population of organisms that share common characteristics can breed with each other and are reproductively isolated from other populations Classi cation based on how they move life cycle size where they live Benthos Organisms that live on or in the ocean bottom Epifauna live on the sea oor Infauna live in the sea oorburied in mud or sand Nektobentos live on bottom but swim or crawl through water above ocean oor How they move plankton drift and oat with ocean nekton move independenUy Holoplankton spend entire life as plankton amp meroplankton spend part of life Viscosity internal resistance to ow increases with decreasing temperature and increasing salinity Basic requirements of phytoplankton 1 they oat 2 have nutrients 3 efficiently take in nutrients 4 efficiently expel waste 0 Ocean temperatures have a much narrower temperature range than on land Why A Higher heat capacity in ocean water compared toland stenothermal able to withstand only a narrow range in temperature stenohaline able to withstand only a narrow range in salinity eurythermal able to withstand a wide range in temperature euryhaline able to withstand a wide range in salinity Diffusion Movement of soluble substances eg nutrients move from areas of high to low concentration until balanced Osmosis Movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from low to high concentrated solution Hypertonic high salinity solution hypotonic low salinity solution isotonic equal salinity solution During osmosis three things can happen at the same time 1 Water moves from low concentration to high 2 Nutrients incorporated into cells where concentrated 3 Waste expelled from cell 0 What could be the consequences of this A They would dehydrate because of osmosis Solution The sh drink lots of H20 secrete salt to urine and excrete small volume of highly concentrated urine aside this is Wh y drinking sea water Will dehydrate you Freshwater sh are hypertonic relative to fresh water Q What could be the consequences of this A Cells could potentially rupture due to osmotic pressure Solution The sh drink little H20 cells absorb salt and excrete large volume of dilute urine Lateral Biozones Neritic shore to less than 200 meters Oceanic greater than 200 meters Vertical Biozones Epipeagic 0 to 200 meters Mesopeagic 200 to 1000 meters Bathypeagic 1000 to 4000 meters Abyssopeagic gt 4000 meters Distribution of Light Euphotic zone usually less than 100 meters quotGood lightquot Disphotic zone up to 1000 meters quotApart from lightquot Aphotic zone more than 1000 meters quotWithout lightquot Divisions of the Marine Environment Epipelagic Zone 0 200 meters only place where light can support photosynthesis Mesopelagic Zone 200 1000 meters oxygen minimum later at 700 meters but highest nutrient level Bathypelagic Zone 1000 to 4000 meters over 75 of ocean volume Abyssopelagic Zone gt 4000 meters Biomass Mass of living organisms Primary Productivity The amount of carbon xed by organisms through synthesis of organic compounds using energy from solar radiation photosynthesis or chemical reactions chemosynthesis Photosynthetic Productivity H20 C02 light energy gt sugars 02 Factors Affecting Primary Productivity 1 Availability of Nutrients 2 Availability of Solar Radiation Euphotic quotGood lightquot zone It is the balance of the availability of nutrients and solar radiation that determines the amount of photosynthesis Color of objects effects wavelengths blue light is least absorbed example green leaves re ect green wavelengths Water Color in the Oceans Eutrophic biologically productive greenish Oligotrophic biologically unproductive blueish Ocean water selectively absorbs long wavelength EM Blue light least absorbed especially with increasing depth Color of open ocean water Blue Color of coastal ocean water BueGreen to yellowgreen due to primary ocean Upwelling nutrient supplyit delivers water rich in nutrients to the surface Photosynthetic Marine Organisms A Seed Bearing Plants eel grass and surf grass B Macroscopic Algae The seaweeds brown green red algae C Microscopic Algae produce food directly or indirectly for 99 marine life mostly phytoplankton How do dead zones form fertilizers nutrients nutrients stimulate algae algae die and take up oxygen water becomes anoxic Productivity in Polar Oceans limited by availability of sunlight High Arctic two extremes Darkness in Winter and continuous sunlight in summer Antarctica summer arrives Northern Hemisphere winter there is an explosion of productivity Productivity in Tropical Oceans limited by nutrients nutrients are rich in cold waters Exceonns 1 Equatorial Upwelling due to Ekman transport 2 Coastal Upwelling West side of continents 3 Coral Reefs able to concentrate and retain available nutrients Productivity in Temperate Oceans controlled by availability of solar energy and availability of nutrients Winter High nutrient concentrations Isothermal waters Solar energy low and re ected Shallow CDP Compensation Depth for Photosynthesis Low Productivity Sp ng More solar energy absorbed Thermocline develops Sunlight increasing Spring Bloom Nutrients decreasing Summer Sunlight highest Sun higher more energy absorbed Thermocline strongly developed Nutrients depleted above thermocline Productivity decreases Fall Sunlight decreasing Nutrients increasing from decomposition Thermocline weakens Water mixes bringing nutrients rich water to surface Fall Bloom but smaller than Spring Bloom Entropy measure of disorder in a system in order to create an ordered system organism life an input of energy is required what happens when you cut off the energy to a system it tends towards disorder when organisms die they decompose resulting in increased entropy in the system 3 Categories of Organisms 1 Producers Autotrophic organisms Photosynthetic These organisms x or store energy 2 Consumers eat other organisms utilize stored energy Herbivores 3 Decomposers eat other organisms utilize stored energy Feeding relationship Trophic eves feeding stations Trophic Level 1 Primary producers diatoms coccoithophores Trophic Level 2 Herbivores zooplankton copepods Trophic Level 3 Lower Carnivores eg small sh Trophic Leve 4 Middle Carnivores eg tuna Trophic Leve 5 High eve Carnivores eg killer whale How organisms stay above ocean oor Gas containers gas chambers swim bladders other strategies Tuna and other active swimmers bottom dweers Ability to Float neutral buoyancy Fin Designs in Fish Paired ns Pelvic and PectoraI turn brake balance Vertical ns Dorsal and Anal stabilizers Propulsion CaudaI the main propulsion Types of caudal ns Rounded acceleration and maneuvering eg reef sh Truncate and forked better for acceleration Lunate symmetrical good for propulsion poor for maneuvering eg Tuna Heterocerca asymmetrica eg Sharks ColdBlooded vs Warm Blooded Most sh are coldblooded or poikilothermic body temperature water temperature and typically have white muscle tissue Some species eg Tuna have warmer body temps warmblooded or homeothermic and red muscle tissue Adaptation for avoiding being prey SchooHng Speed Poisons Mimicry Transparency Camou age Commensalism Iess dominant individual bene ts but host is not harmed eg remora with shark Mutualism both organisms bene t eg clown sh with anenome Parasitism one individual bene ts at expense of other Marine Mammal Characteristics All organisms in Class Mammalia share the following They are warmblooded They breathe air They have hair or fur They bear ve young They have mammalian glands to provide milk for young Order Carnivora meat eaters Sea Otters Polar Bears Pinnipeds quotfeatheredfootquot Walruses Seals earless seals or true seals Sea LionsFur Seals Difference between seals and sea lions Seals lack ear aps Seals have smaller fore ippers with claws Seals and sea lions have different pelvic structure Seals can only slither on land can t move well Sea Lions can crawl sit climb Seals use their rear ippers to swim Sea Lions ap their fore ippers Order Sirenia plant eaters Manatees tropical Atlantic Ocean Dugongs tropical Western Paci c and Indian Oceans Order Cetacea the whales Two suborders Odontoceti toothed whales Dolphins Porpoises Killer Whales Sperm Whales Beluga Whale Narwhal amp Mysticeti baleen whales Blue whale Humpback Whale Grey Whale quot are organisms that live on or in the sea oor Distribution of Benthic Organisms The distribution of benthic biomass closely matches the distribution of primary productivity in surface waters dominantly in coastal waters Types of Benthic Organisms Epifauna Organisms attached to bottom eg Sea Anemonesand those that move over it eg Crabs lnfauna Animals that live buried in the mud or sand of the ocean bottom Intertidal zonation Spray Supratidal Zone Above the spring high tide Challenges Drying out predators Intertidal Zone between high and low tide extremes Middle tide zone covered by high tides and exposed at low tides Low tide zone exposed during the lowest low tides High tide zone covered by only the highest tides Rocky Shoreline communities tough place to live high wave activity predator vs prey challenges drying out high wave energy reproduction Adaptations to the tough life strong shells thick cells camo regeneration of lost limbs Coral Reefs Organisms and Their Adaptations Conditions Necessary for Coral Reef Development coral growth is very temperature sensitive average monthly temps must exceed 18 C 64 F temps greater than 30 C 80 F can damage coralscoral bleaching and other diseases Strong sunlight Salt water Algae provide coral polyps with a supply of food corals provide zooxanthaellae with nutrients Aesthetics Billion dollar tourism industry Biologic diversity home to 25 of all species in the ocean Support 16 of worldwide shery production Protection help prevent shoreline erosion Earth 5 climate includes interactions of Atmosphere Hydrosphere Geosphere Biosphere Cryosphere