MCAT Next Step content outline
MCAT Next Step content outline
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Date Created: 05/08/15
Next Step MCAT Outline The following outline details all of the information you need to know for the MCAT You will see each topic listed under a Concept Categoryquot with code like 2C or 5E The AAMC has organized the MCAT content around general concepts that cut across disciplinary boundaries To make the material more manageable for you we have sorted the content into the seven MCAT sciences biology chemistry biochemistry organic chemistry physics psychology and sociology You will see certain topics listed more than once under multiple sciences For example amino acids are listed in both the biochemistry and biology sections When a topic can be covered under multiple sciences you may get questions that ask about that topic as it s normally taught in a biochemistry class or as it s normally taught in a biology class Biology Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems 1A Proteins A Structure a Protein Structure Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary b Protein Stability Folding Denaturing Hydrophobic interactions c Separation Techniques Isoelectric Point Electrophoresis B Protein Function Immune System Motors C Enzymes a Catalysts Reduction of Activation Energy Cofactors Coenzymes b Classification c Substrate interactions Active Site Induced Fit d Vitamins e Effects on Enzyme Activity pH temperature etc D Enzyme Control a Kinetics MichaelisMenten Cooperativity b Feedback c Inhibition Competitive Noncompetitive d Regulatory Enzymes Allosteric enzymes Zymogens Covalentlymodified enzymes 1B Molecular Genetics A Nucleic Acids Structure Function Nucleotides Nucleosides SugarPhosphate Backbone Purines Pyrimidines WatsonCrick Model DoubleHelix BasePair Specificity Transmission of genetic information Denaturation Reannealing Hybridization B DNA R plication and Repair a Replication Mechanism SemiConservative Enzymes Replication Origin b Replicating the ends of DNA c Repair During Replication Mutation Repair C Genetic Code a Triplets CodonAnticodon Degeneracy Wobble Pairing Missense Nonsense Initiation Termination b Transcription i tRNA mRNA rRNA snRNPs snRNAs meow 2014 Next Step PreMed LLC All rights reserved ii introns exons c Translation i mRNA tRNA rRNA ii ribosomes initiation termination cofactors iii posttranslational processing D Chromosomes Proteins Repetitive DNA Supercoiling Heterochromatin Euchromatin Telomeres Centromeres E Gene Expression a Prokaryotes Operons IacobMonod Model Repression Positive Control b Eukaryotes i transcriptional regulation DNA binding proteins transcription factors ii gene amplification duplication iii posttranscriptional control introns exons iv cancer v regulation of chromatic structure methylation vi noncoding RNAs F Biotechnology Cloning Restriction Enzymes cDNA Hybridization PCR Blotting Electrophoresis Stem Cells Applications Ethics 1C Classical Genetics A Mendelian Genetics Phenotype Genotype Gene Locus Allele Zygosity Wildtype Recessive Dominant Codominant Incomplete Dominance Leakage Penetrance Expressivity Hybridization Gene Pool B Meiosis and Variability Significance Differences with Mitosis Gene Segregation Independent Assortment Linkage Recombination SexLinkage Y Chromosome Sex Determination Extranuclear Inheritance Mutation Types Effects Errors of Metabolism Mutagens and Carcinogens Genetic Drift Crossingover C Analysis HardyWeinberg Test Cross Crossover Frequency Biometry D Evolution a Natural Selection Fitness Differential Reproduction Group Selection b Speciation Polymorphism Adaptation Inbreeding Outbreeding Bottlenecks c Time as gradual random changes in genome Unwrapewe 1D Metabolism A Glycolysis a Aerobic Substrates and Products b Anaerobic Fermentation c Net Results B Regulation of Pathways Krebs Cycle Reactions Substrates Products Regulation D Metabolism of Fat and Protein a Fats Digestion Transport b Fatty Acids Oxidation Saturated Fats Unsaturated Fats c Proteins Metabolism d Anabolism Synthesis of Lipids and Polysaccharides E Oxidative Phosphorylation a Electron Transport Chain Substrates Products Function b NADH NADPH Flavoproteins Cytochromes c ATP Synthase Chemiosmosis 0 2014 Next Step PreMed LLC All rights reserved d Net Results e Regulation 2A Cell Biology A Plasma Membrane a Composition Phospholipids Steroids Waxes Proteins i Receptors b Solute transport Thermodynamics Osmosis Passive Active Na K Pump Channels c Membrane Potential d ExocytosisEndocytosis e Gap Junctions Tight Junctions Desmosomes B MembraneBound Organelles Nucleus Genetic Information Nucleolus Nuclear Envelope Pores Mitochondria Function Membranes Replication Lysosomes Function ER Rough vs Smooth Double Membrane Biosynthesis Golgi Structure and Function Peroxisomes Function C Cytoskeleton Microfilaments Microtubules Intermediate Filaments Cilia Flagella Centrioles Microtubule Organizing Centers D Epithelial and Connective Cells chop99 2B Microbiology A Cell Theory History Development Impact B Prokaryotes a Archaea Bacteria Bacilli Spirilli Cocci b Lack of Eukaryotic Features c Cell Wall Flagella d Fission Exponential Growth e Quick Adaptation Antibiotic Resistance f Types Aerobic Anaerobic Parasitic Symbiotic g Chemotaxis h Genetics Plasmids Transformation Conjugation Transposons C Viruses a Structure Size Lack of Organelles b Bacteriophages c Genome DNA RNA d Life Cycle Intracellular Reproduction Attachment Replication Release e Transduction f Retroviruses g Prions Viroids 2C Cell Division Cell Development Reproduction Embryology A Mitosis Phases Structures Growth Arrest Control and Loss of Control B Reproduction a Gametogenesis Meiosis b Ovum Sperm Formation Morphology Contribution to Zygote c Sequence Fertilization to Birth C Embryogenesis a Stages Fertilization Cleavage Blastula Gastrula Cell Movements Neurulation b Germ Layers Endoderm Mesoderm Ectoderm c Neural Crest 2014 Next Step PreMed LLC All rights reserved d Environmental Effects D Cell Development hegewe 3A Nervous and Specialization Determination Differentiation Tissue Types Cell communication Cell Migration Stem Cells Gene Regulation Apoptosis Regeneration Senescence Aging Endocrine Systems A Nerve Cell a b c d e Structures Soma Dendrites Axon Myelin Nodes of Ranvier Synapse Structure Neurotransmitters Resting Potential Action Potential Excitatory Inhibitory Fibers Summation Firing Frequency Glia Neuroglia B Nervous System a b c d e Function Organization Efferent Afferent Sympathetic Parasympathetic Re exes Re ex Arc Spinal Cord Supraspinal Circuits Endocrine System Integration C Endocrine System a b c 3B Physiology Function Major Glands Major Hormones Mechanism of Hormone Action Transport of Hormones and Second Messengers A Respiratory System Structure Function Thermoregulation Henry s Law pH control Regulati on B Circulatory System 39waegowe 1 C 92mm f D Digestiv a b c Structures Functions Regulation Heart Chambers Systolic Diastolic Pressure Pulmonary System Circulations Arteries Veins Capillaries Blood Composition Plasma Cells Chemicals Clotting Gas Transport Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Hemoglobin Hematocrit Lymphatic System Structures Functions Immune System Innate Macrophages Phagocytes Adaptive Tcells Bcells Tissues Marrow Spleen Thymus Lymph Nodes Antigens Antibodies Ag Presentation AgAb Recognition Structure of Ab Autoimmune Diseases Major Histocompatibility Complex e System Ingestion Peristalsis Organs Stomach Liver Gall Bladder Pancreas Small Intestine Large Intestine Control Muscular Endocrine Nervous E Excretory System a 2014 Next Step PreMed Homeostasis bp osmoregulation acid balance nitrogenous waste LLC All rights reserved b Kidney Cortex Medulla c Nephron Glomerulus Bowman s Capsule Tubules Loop of Henle Collecting Duct i filtration countercurrent multiplier secretion reabsorption concentration d Storage ureter bladder urethra F Reproductive System Gonads Genitals Sexual Development Menstrual Cycle Pregnancy Lactation G Muscle System a Function Mobility Circulatory Assistance Thermoregulation Shivering b Smooth Striated Cardiac c Muscle Structure Ttubule Contractile Apparatus Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Contractile Velocity d Cardiac Muscle Regulation e Oxygen Debt f Control Motor Neurons Neuromuscular Junction Motor End Plates Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Voluntary Involuntary g Sarcomeres h Troponin Tropomyosin H Skeletal System a Function Support Protection Calcium Storage b Bone Types oint Types c Composition of Bone Matrix and Cells d Cartilage Ligaments Tendons e Endocrine Regulation I Skin System a Structure Layers Cell Types Impermeability to Water b Function Homeostasis Osmoregulation Thermoregulation Physical Protection c Hormonal Control Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems 4B Fluids A Circulatory System Pressure and Flow in Arteries and Veins 4C Electrochemistry and Circuits A Nerve Cell Propagation Myelin Schwann Cells Insulation Nodes of Ranvier 5D Biological Molecules A Nucleotides and Nucleosides Composition Purines Pyrimidines DNA DoubleHelix 5E Thermodynamics and Kinetics A Enzymes a Reaction Types b Mechanisms Active Site Inducedfit Cofactors Coenzymes Vitamins c Kinetics Catalysis MichaelisMenten Cooperativity Environmental Effects d Inhibition and Regulation Psychological Socialand Biological Foundations of Behavior 6A Sensation A Sensory Processing Thresholds Adaptation Pathways Receptor Types 2014 Next Step PreMed LLC All rights reserved B Vision a The Eye Structure and Function b Visual Processing Brain Pathways C Hearing a The Ear Structure and Function Hair Cells b Auditory Processing Brain Pathways D Other Senses a Somatosensation Nociception b Taste Smell Pheromones c Vestibular Sense 6B Cognition Consciousness and Memory Biological Factors Affecting Cognition Alertness Sleep and Circadian Rhythms Emotional Effect on Memory Retrieval Memory Changes in Synaptic Connections Neural Plasticity LongTerm Potentiation Language Brain Areas of Language and Speech FWPCW Emotion and Stress A Biological Factors in Perceiving Emotion B Physiological Response to Stress 7A Behavior A Biological Basis of Behavior a Nervous System Neurons Neurotransmitters i central and peripheral nervous systems ii brain forebrain midbrain hindbrain lateralization methods of study iii spinal cord b Endocrine System Components Effects on Behavior c Genetics Temperament and Heredity Adaptive Value of Behaviors i Regulatory Genes and Behavior ii Behavior Variation Between Populations B Disorders Schizophrenia Depression Alzheimer s Parkinson s StemCell Therapy C Motivation Biological Drives 7C Learning A Classical Conditioning Conditioned and Unconditioned Response Processes B Operant Conditioning a Shaping Extinction b Reinforcement Schedules and Types c Punishment Escape Avoidance C Biological Effects on Associative Learning 8C Social Interaction A Animal Signals and Communication B Social Behavior in Animals Foraging Mating Game Theory Altruism Inclusive Fitness 2014 Next Step PreMed LLC All rights reserved Biochemistry Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems 1A Proteins A Amino Acids configuration dipolar ions acidicbasic hydrophobichydrophilic B Structure a Protein Structure Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary b Protein Stability Folding Denaturing Hydrophobic interactions Solvation and Entropy c Separation Techniques Isoelectric Point Electrophoresis C Protein Function Immune System Motors D Enzymes a Catalysts Reduction of Activation Energy Cofactors Coenzymes b Classification c Substrate interactions Active Site Induced Fit 1 Vitamins e Effects on Enzyme Activity pH temperature etc E Enzyme Control a Kinetics MichaelisMenten Cooperativity b Feedback c Inhibition Competitive Noncompetitive Mixed Uncompetitive 1 Regulatory Enzymes Allosteric enzymes Zymogens CovalentIymodified enzymes 1B Molecular Genetics A Nucleic Acids a Structure Function b Nucleotides Nucleosides SugarPhosphate Backbone Purines Pyrimidines c WatsonCrick Model DoubleHelix BasePair Specificity d Denaturation Reannealing Hybridization 1D Metabolism A Bioenergetics a Thermodynamics Bioenergetics AG Keq Concentrations Spontenaiety b Phosphoryl Groups ATP Hydrolysis Group Transfers c Redox HalfReactions Soluble Electron Carriers Flavoproteins B Carbohydrates Classification Configuration Hydrolysis of Glycosides Monomers and Polymers C Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis a Aerobic Substrates and Products b Anaerobic Fermentation c Net Results 1 Gluconeogenesis and Pentose Phosphate Pathway D Regulation of Pathways a Regulation of Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis b Glycogen Synthesis and Breakdown Regulation c Analysis of Metabolic Regulation E Krebs Cycle Acetyl CoA Production Reactions Substrates Products Regulation F Metabolism of Fat and Protein a Fats Digestion Transport b Fatty Acids Oxidation Saturated Fats Unsaturated Fats Ketone Bodies 2014 Next Step PreMed LLC All rights reserved G H Oxidative Phosphorylation a Electron Transport Chain Substrates Products Function b NADH NADPH Flavoproteins Cytochromes c ATP Synthase Chemiosmosis d Net Results e Regulation f Mitochondria Apoptosis Oxidative Stress Hormonal Regulation High Level Integration Tissue Specific Metabolism Obesity 2A Cell Biology A Plasma Membrane a Composition Phospholipids Steroids Waxes Proteins i Receptors Solute transport Thermodynamics Osmosis Passive Active Na K Pump Channels c Membrane Potential d ExocytosisEndocytosis 3A Nervous and Endocrine Systems A B Biosignalling Gated Ion Channels Voltage and Ligand Gated Receptor Enzymes G protein coupled receptors Lipids Structure Steroids Terpenes Terpenoids Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems 5A Solution Chemistry and Acid Base WPDW BronstedLowry Definitions AutoIonization of Water Conjugates Weak Acids Bases Salts pH Calculations Constants Ka Kb Kw Buffers Common Systems Titration Curves Ions Common Names and Charges Hydration and Hydronium 5C Separation and Purifications PCP Extraction Distillation Chromatography Column HPLC Paper TLC Peptides Electrophoresis Quantitative Analysis SizeExclusion IonExchange Affinity 5D Biological Molecules A B Nucleotides and Nucleosides Composition Purines Pyrimidines DNA DoubleHelix Chemistry Other Functions Amino Acids and Pepties a Amino Acids Configuration Dipolar Acid Base HydrophobicHydrophilic b Peptides Sulfur Linkage Polypeptides 1Q 49 Structure Isoelectric Point 3D Protein Structure Conformational Stability Hydrophobic Interactions Solvation and Entropy 49 Structure Folding and Denaturing NonEnzymatic Protein Function Binding Immunoglobulins Motors Lipids Storage Triacyl Glycerols Saponification Phospholipids Phosphatids Sphingolipids Waxes FatSoluble Vitamins Steroids Prostaglandins Cyclic Molecules Phenols Hydroquinones Ubiquinones 2e Redox Centers Aromatic Heterocycles 2014 Next Step PreMed LLC All rights reserved 5E Thermodynamics and Kinetics A Enzymes a Reaction Types b Mechanisms Active Site Inducedfit Cofactors Coenzymes Vitamins c Kinetics Catalysis MichaelisMenten Cooperativity Environmental Effects 1 Inhibition and Regulation B Bioenergetics A G Keq Phosphorylation ATP ATP Group Transfers Redox Soluble Electron Carriers Flavoproteins 2014 Next Step PreMed LLC All rights reserved Chemistry Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems 1D Metabolism A Bioenergetics A G Keq Concentration Le Chatelier s Principle Exo and Endothermic Spontaneity ATP hydrolysis A G ltlt 0 Redox Halfreactions Soluble Electron Carriers Flavoproteins 999 2A Cell Biology A Plasma Membrane Osmosis Osmotic Pressure Colligative Properties 3A Nervous and Endocrine Systems A Electrochemistry Concentration cell direction of ow Nernst Equation 3B Physiology A Respiratory System Henry s Law Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems 4B Gas Phase Absolute Temp Kelvin Scale Pressure Mercury Barometers 224 L mol STP Ideal Gas Ideal Gas Law Boyle s Law Charles s Law Avogadro s Law Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases Real Gases Qualitative Quantitative Van der Waals s Equation Partial Pressure Mole Faction Dalton s Law mama 4C Electrochemistry and Circuits A Electrochemistry a Electrolytic Cell Electrolysis Anodes and Cathodes Electrolytes Faraday s Law Electron Flow Galvanic Cells Halfreactions Potential Electron Flow c Concentration Cell 1 Batteries EMG Voltage LeadStorage NickelCadmium 4E Atomic Nucleus Periodic Table Stoichiometry A Atomic Nuclei Atomic Number and Weight Nucleons Nuclear Forces Radioactive Decay Mass Spectrometer B Electronic Structure Hydrogen Atoms Bohr Model Effective Nuclear Charge Quantum Numbers Ground vs Excited States Pauli Exclusion Principle Paramagnetic and Diamagnetic Elements 999 2014 Next Step PreMed LLCA11 rights reserved f Photoelectric Effect g Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle The Periodic Table Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals Halogens Noble Gases Transition Metals Representative Elements Metals and NonMetals Oxygen Group Valence Electrons f Ionization Energy Electron Affinity Electronegativity Atomic and Ionic Radius Stoichiometry Molecular Weight Molecular and Empirical Formula Metric Units Percent Mass Avogadro s Number Density Oxidation Disproportionation Reactions Chemical Equations Yields Limiting Reagents 92mm 5A Solutions and Acid Base A Acid Base B C a BronstedLowry Autoionization of Water Conjugate Acids and Bases b Strong Acids Weak Acids c Weak Acids Dissociation Salts Hydrolysis pH Calculations d Ka Kb KW e Buffers Concepts Titration Curves Ions and Solutions a Anions Cations Familiar Ions Hydration Hydronium Units of Concentration Ksp CommonIon Effect Complex Ions Titration Indicators Neutralization Titration Curves Redox Titration 5B Covalent Bonds A B C D E Lewis Dot Formulas Resonance Formal Charge Lewis Acids and Bases Partial Ionic Bonds Electronegativity Dipole Moment Sigma and Pi Bonds a Hybrid Orbitals VSEPR Resonance b Structural Formulas involving H C N O F S P Si Cl Double and Triple Bonds Bond Length Bond Energy Rigidity Liquids Intermolecular Forces Hbonding Dipoles Van der Waals London Dispersion 5E Thermodynamics and Kinetics A B Thermochemistry and Thermodynamics Zeroth Law First and Second Laws PV Diagrams Work Entropy Disorder Phases Calorimetry Heat Capacity Specific Heat Conduction Convection Radiation Hess s Law Enthalpy Bond Dissociation Energy Free Energy Spontaneity Phase Changes Phase Diagram Heat of Fusion and Vaporization Kinetics and Equilibrium a Rate Law Rate Constants Reaction Order RateDetermining Step b Temperature and Rate Activation Energy Transition State Reaction Profiles Arrhenius Equation c Kinetic vs Thermodynamic Control d Catalysts e Reversible Reactions Law of Mass Action Keq and AG Le Chatelier s Principle quwsbpep e 2014 Next Step PreMed LLC All rights reserved Organic Chemistry IA ID 2A 3A 4D 5C 5D Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems Proteins A Amino Acids configuration dipolar ions acidicbasic hydrophobichydrophilic B Structure a Protein Structure Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary b Protein Stability Folding Denaturing Hydrophobic interactions Solvation and Entropy c Separation Techniques Isoelectric Point Electrophoresis Metabolism A Carbohydrates Classification Configuration Hydrolysis of Glycosides Monomers and Polymers Cell Biology A Plasma Membrane Composition Phospholipids Steroids Waxes Proteins Nervous and Endocrine Systems A Lipids Structure Steroids Terpenes Terpenoids Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems Light and Sound A Molecular Structure and Absorption Spectra a IR UVVis Proton NMR Separation and Purifications Extraction Distillation Chromatography Column HPLC Paper TLC Peptides Electrophoresis Quantitative Analysis SizeExclusion IonExchange Affinity Racemic Mixtures Separation of Enantiomers mama Biological Molecules A Amino Acids and Peptides a Amino Acids Configuration Dipolar Acid Base HydrophobicHydrophilic b Peptides Sulfur Linkage Polypeptides 1Q 49 Structure Isoelectric Point B Lipids Storage Triacyl Glycerols Saponification Phospholipids Phosphatids Sphingolipids Waxes FatSoluble Vitamins Steroids Prostaglandins C Carbohydrates Classification Configuration Cyclic Conformation a Hydrolysis of Glycosides b KetoEnol Tautomers D Carbonyl Compounds a Nomenclature and Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones 2014 Next Step PreMed LLCA11 rights reserved b Nucleophilic Addition to Carbonyl Carbon Acetal Ketal Imine Enamine Hydrides Cyanohydrin c Oxidation of Aldehydes d Enolates Tautomerism Aldol Condensation RetroAldol Kinetic and Thermodynamic Enolate e Steric Hindrance of Carbonyl Bond f Acidity of a hydrogens Carbanions E Alcohols a Nomenclature Physical Properties b Reactions Oxidation Sn1 Sn2 Protection Mesylates Tosylates F Carboxylic Acids a Nomenclature Physical Properties b Reactions Amides Lactam Esters Lactones Anhydrides Reduction Decarboxylation Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution G Carboxylic Acid Derivatives a Nomenclature Physical Properties b Reactions Nucleophilic Substitution Transesterification Amide Hydrolysis c Reactivity Steric Effects Electronic Effects Strain B lactams H Cyclic Molecules Phenols Hydroquinones Ubiquinones 2e Redox Centers Aromatic Heterocycles 2014 Next Step PreMed LLC All rights reserved Physics Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems 4A Kinematics Translational Motion Units Vectors Velocity Acceleration Force Newton s Laws Friction Center of Mass Equilibrium Vector Analysis Torque Work Mechanical Advantage Work Energy Theorem Conservative Forces Energy Kinetic Potential Gravity Spring Conservation Power Units Periodic Motion a Amplitude Frequency Phase b Transverse and Longitudinal Waves Wavelength Speed FWPCW 4B Fluids A Liquids Density Specific Gravity Buoyancy Pressure Viscosity Continuity Turbulence Surface Tension Bernoulli s Equation Venturi Effect Pitot Tube B Gas Phase Temperature in Kelvin Pressure and Barometer Ideal Gases Boyle s Law Charles s Law Avogadro s Law Kinetic Molecular Theory Heat Capacity Boltzmann s Constant Real Gases Qualitative and Quantitative Partial Pressure Dalton s Law 92mm 4C Electrostatics and Circuits A Electrostatics Charge Conservation Coulomb s Law a Electric Field Field Lines Charge Distribution b Electrostatic Energy Potential B Circuits a Current EMF Voltage Ammeters Voltmeter b Resistance Ohm s Law Series Parallel Resistivity c Capacitance Parallel Plate Capacitor Energy Series Parallel Dielectric d Conductivity Metallic Electrolytic C Magnetism Field Lorentz Force 4D Light and Sound A Sound a Sound Production b Pitch Speed Intensity Attenuation c Doppler Effect 1 Resonance e Ultrasound f Shock Waves a Interference Young DoubleSlit Thin Films Diffraction Grating SingleSlit Diffraction Xray Diffraction b Polarization Linear Circular c Speed Oscillating E and B Fields 1 EM Spectrum Visual Spectrum Color Photon Energy 2014 Next Step PreMed LLCA11 rights reserved chop99 Re ection Refraction Snell s Law Dispersion Total Internal Re ection Mirrors Curvature Focal Length Real and Virtual Images Lenses Converging Diverging Diopters Combinations of Lenses Aberrations Optical Instruments the Eye 4E Nuclear and Electronic Structure A Nucleus Atomic Number and Weight Nucleons Decay B Electronic Structure 92mm Ground State Excited State Bohr Model Absorption and Emission Spectra Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Photoelectric Effect 5E Thermodynamics and Kinetics A Thermodynamic System Zeroth Law First Law Second Law a b c PV Diagram Work Conduction Convection Radiation Coefficient of Expansion 2014 Next Step PreMed LLC All rights reserved Psychology Psychological Socialand Biological Foundations of Behavior 6A Sensation Threshholds Weber39s Law Signal Detection theory Sensory adaptation PWNH Particular Senses 1 Vision a Parallel Processing b Feature detection Hearing and Auditory Processing Auditory processing Somatosensation and Pain Kinesthetic sense U39I PPJN Perception 1 Bottomup Topdown processing 2 Perceptual organization depth form motion constancy 3 Gestalt principles 6B Consciousness and Thinking Consciousness 1 States of consciousness a Alertness b Sleep i Stages and cycles of sleep ii Dreaming iii Sleep disorders c Hypnosis d Meditation 2 Drugs that change conscious perception a Types of drugs b Drug addiction 2014 Next Step PreMed LLCA11 rights reserved Memory and Attention PENN Selective Attention Divided Attention Memory encoding process and how to increase it Memory storage a Types b Semantic networks c Spreading activation Memory retrieval effect of emotion a Recall b Recognition c Relearning d Retrieval cues Memory loss a Aging b Alzheimer39s disease c Korsakoffs syndrome d Decay e Interference f Memory construction and source monitoring Cognition and Language 1 Cognitive development a Piaget b Later adulthood c Effect of language d Role of culture heredity environmental Problem solving a Approaches b Barriers c Hueristics i Biases ii Intuition iii Emotion iv Overconfidence v Belief perseverance Intelligence a Various definitions and levels of ability b Effect of heredity environment Theories of language development a Learning b Nativist c Interactionist 2014 Next Step PreMed LLC All rights reserved 6C Emotion and Stress Emotion 1 Cognitive component 2 Physiological component 3 Behavioral component 4 Universal emotions 5 IamesLange theory 6 CannonBard theory 7 SchachterSinger theory Stress 1 Stress appraisal 2 Stressors 3 Responses to stress physiological emotional behavioral 4 Stress management 7A Behavior and Personality Biology in uences behavior 1 2 3 4 Neurotransmitters Endocrine effects Genetic factors a Temperament b Interaction between heredity and environment Environment and experience effect behavior Attitudes and Motivation 1 S 9 In uences on motivation a Instinct b Arousal c Drive d Needs Link between motivation and behavior a Drive Reduction Theory b Incentive Theory c Cognitive Theories d Needbased Theories Specific behaviors explained by theories a Eating Sex b Drug use c Others Regulation of motivation biological factors cultural factors Components of attitudes a Cognitive b Affective c Behavioral Cognitive dissonance Behavior and attitude affect each other Personality 2014 Next Step PreMed LLC All rights reserved 2 Perspectives on Personality a Psychoanalytic b Humanistic c Trait 1 Social cognitive e Biological f Behaviorist Explaining behavior situationally Psychological Disorders 1 Psychological disorders a Biomedical approach b Biopsychosocial approach c Classification schemes and types 1 Anxiety ii Somatoform iii Mood iv Schizophrenia v Dissociative vi Personality 1 Incidence and prevalence Psychological disorders as nervous system disorders a Schizophrenia b Depression c Alzheimer39s d Parkinson39s 7B The Presence of Other People WPS JNH Social facilitation Deindividuation Bystander effect Social loafing Peer pressure 7C Behavior Change and Learning 1 2 Habituation Classical Conditioning a Stimuli i Neutral ii Conditioned iii Unconditioned b Responses i Conditioned ii Unconditioned c Acquisition d Extinction e Spontaneous recovery f Generalization g Discrimination Operant Conditioning 2014 Next Step PreMed LLC All rights reserved a Shaping b Extinction c Reinforcement i Positive ii Negative iii Primary iv Conditional d Reinforcement Schedules i Fixed ratio ii Variable ratio iii Fixed interval iv Variable interval e Punishment f Escape g Avoidance 4 Observational learning a Modeling b Mirror Neurons c Vicarious Emotions 5 Attitude change a Elaboration Likelihood Model i Central and Peripheral route processing b Social Cognitive theory c Factors that affect attitude change i Changingbehavior ii Characteristics of the message and target iii Social factors 2014 Next Step PreMed LLC All rights reserved 8A Identity and Interaction Identity 1 Selfconcept 2 Identity 3 Social Identity 4 Selfesteem 5 Selfefficacy 6 Locus of control in selfidentity 7 Stages of identity development a Erikson b Vygotsky c Kohlberg d Freud 8 Social factors on identity development a Imitation b Roletaking c Reference group BB Interaction 1 Attribution theory a Fundamental attribution error b Cultural impact on attribution 2 Selfperception shapes perception of others 3 Perception of environment affects perception of others 4 Prejudice a Power b Prestige c Class d Emotion e Cognition f Discrimination i How power prestige class affect discrimination 5 Stereotypes a Selffulfilling prophecy b Stereotype threat 6 Interaction between animals a Signals used by animals 8C Social behaviors 1 Attraction 2 Aggression 3 Attachment 4 Social support 2014 Next Step PreMed LLC All rights reserved Sociology Psychological Socialand Biological Foundations of Behavior 7B Social In uences on Behavior Peer pressure Group polarization Groupthink Culture Assimilation Multiculturalism Subculture Socialization a Norms b SocializingAgents i Family ii Peers iii Media iv Workplace 5 Deviance a Stigma 6 Obedience a Conformity PENNH 8C Social Interactions 1 Types of Group a Status b Roles c Groups 1 Networks e Organizations 2 In uences on interaction a Responses to emotional displays i Gender ii Culture 3 Manipulating perception by others a Front stage vs Back stage b Dramaturgy 4 Discrimination a Individual discrimination b Institutional discrimination 5 Ethnocentrism a Ingroup vs Outgroup b Cultural relativism 9A Structure of Society Analyzing social structures Functionalism Con ict theory Symbolic interaction Social constructionism Institutions that shape society WPS JNH a Education 2014 Next Step PreMed LLCA11 rights reserved 7 8 b Family c Religion 1 Government e Economy i Health care Culture a Material culture b Symbolic culture c Language 1 Values e Beliefs i Norms i Rituals Social groups placement within the culture Evolution 93 Demographics 8 9 NP S IPS JNH Age Gender Race Ethnicity Immigration Sexual orientation Demographic shifts a Fertility b Migration c Mortality Social movements Globalization 10 Urbanization 2014 Next Step PreMed LLC All rights reserved 10A Social Inequality 1 Spatial Inequality a Segregation b Environmental inequality c Globalization Social Class a Stratification into classes i Status ii Power b Cultural capital c Social capital d Social reproduction e Privilege i Prestige Class and race gender age Social mobility a Intergenerational b Intragenerational c Downward d Upward e Meritocracy Povery a Relative b Absolute c Segregation d Isolation Healthcare Disparities a Inequality in health status i Race ii Gender iii Class b Unequal access to healthcare i Race ii Gender iii Class 2014 Next Step PreMed LLCA11 rights reserved