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11IUPAC Naming Conventions Wednesday February 182 2 15 1157 AM o How to Name a compound 1 9quot Parent Chain The longest carbon chain in the compound that contains the highest priority functional group Determine the suffix Number the chain giving the carbon nearest the functional group the lowest number Determine the prefix ID the substituents di tri tetra etc Assign a number to the substituent based on its location on the carbon chain Alphabetize the substituents and separate them with commas Chapter 1 Nomenclature Page 1 12 Hydrocarbons and Alcohols Friday February Z 2 15 8633 AM Alkanes hydrocarbons without any double or triple bonds 0 Named with the suffix ane 0 Me Eat Peanut Butter gt Pentane hexane heptane octane nonane etc Alkenes contain double bonds gt has the suffix ene Alkynes Contain triple bonds gt has the suffix yne Alcohols contain hydroxyl group OH 0 Named with the suffix ol OR by using the prefix hydroxy OR by using alcohol such as ethyl alcohol 0 Have HIGHER PRIORITYthen alkanes alkenes and alkyls Diols contain two hydroxyl groups gt O Geminal if located on the same carbon 0 Vicinal if located on adjacent carbons Chapter 1 Nomenclature Page 2 13 Aldehydes and Ketons Friday February 2Q 2 15 813 AM Carbonyl Group a carbon double bonded to an oxygen Aldehydes Carbonyl group hydrogen on the terminal carbon 0 Named with the suffix al OR the prefix oxo if higher priority is present 0 EX formaldehyde methanal acetaldehyde for ethanal and propioaldehyde for propanal Ketones Carbonyl group a nonterminal end carbon 0 Named with M and share the prefix M if higher priority group is present Can also have the prefix ke 0 Can also be named by naming the alkyl groups on either side ofthe ketone O Acetone is the smallest ketone gt propanone Alpha Carbons the carbonyl containing carbon Chapter 1 Nomenclature Page 3 14 Carboxylic Acid and Derivates Friday February 2Q 2 15 823 AM 0 Carboxylic Acids the HIGHEST PRIORITY functional group bc it has 3 bonds to Oxygen gt one from the OH and 2 from the double bonded carbonyl group 0 Always terminal 0 Named with the suffix oic acid 0 EX I Formic acid gt Methanoic acid I Acetic Acid gt Ethanoic Acid I Propionic Acid gt Propanoic Acid 0 Derivates O Esters Replace the OH with OR alkoxy group I Named using the suffix and prefix alkoxycarbonyl O Amides Replace the OH with an amino group that is or is not substituted I Named using the suffix amide OR prefixes carbonyl or amido O Anhydrides formed from two carboxylic acids via DEHYDRATION I Named using the suffix anhydride in place of acid Chapter 1 Nomenclature Page 4 15 Summary of Functional Groups Friday February 23 2 15 836 AM Functional groups are arranged in order of priority as follows Carboxylic acid gt anhydride gt Esters gt Amides gt Aldehydes gt Ketones gt Alcohols gt AlkeneAlkynes gt Alkanes Chapter 1 Nomenclature Page 5 21 Structural Isomers Weolhegolayy February 182 2 15 1157 AM 0 Structural Isomers isomers that only share a molecular formula 0 They have different physical and chemical properties Chapter 2 Isomers Page 6 22 Stereoisomers Friday February 2Q Z 15 839 AM I Newman Projection Presentation 0 Conformational lsomers differ by rotation about the sing sigma bond I Staggered conformation groups that are 60 degrees apart III Newman Projection III AntiStaggered molecules where the two largest groups are 180 degrees apart and stain is minimized III Gauche Staggered molecules where the two largest groups are 60 degrees apart I Eclipsed Conformations groups that are directly in front of each other as seen in Newman Projection III Totally Eclipsed Projection molecules where the two largest groups are directly on top of each other and strain is maximized I Angle Strain the strain created by stretching and compressing angles fro their normal size I Torsional Strain eclipsing conformations I Nonbonded Strain from interactions bt subs attached to nonadjacent carbons I Cycic molecules adopt a nonpolar shape to minimize strain III Axial subs that are sticking UP 9 create more nonbonded strain III Equatorial Subs that are in the plan of the molecule 9 In cyclohexane the LARGEST sub will be equatorial to reduce strain 0 Configurational lsomers isomers that are formed only by breaking and remaking bonds I Enantiomers nonsuperimposable mirror images with opposite stereochemistry at every chiral carbon III Differ in their rotation or planepolarized light and reactions in a chiral environment I Optical Activity the ability of a molecule to rotate planepolarized light I D or gt molecules that rotate light to the right I L or H gt rotates light to the left I Racemic Mixtures a mixture of enantiomers that is not optically active due to the equal concentration of each enantiomer I Meso Compounds compounds with an internal plane of symmetry making them optically inactive I Diastereomers NOT mirror images gt Differ at some but not all chiral carbons III Have different chemical and physical properties I Chiral Centers when 4 different groups are attached to the same carbon Chapter 2 Isomers Page 7 23 Relative and Absolute Configurations Friday February 2Q 2 15 259 AM 0 Relative Configuration give the stereochemistry of a compound in comparison to another molecule 0 Absolute Configuration gives the stereochemistry of a compound WITHOUT having to compare to another model 0 Priority Rules given by looking at the atoms connected to the chiral carbon or double bonded carbons which ever has the highest atomic number gets highest priority If there is a tie one moves outward from the chiral carbon until the tie is broken 0 2 vs E An alkene with highest subs on the same side at Z and on opposite sides are E 0 Stereocenter Configuration determined by putting the lowest propriety group in the back and drawing from group 1 to 2 to 3 in descending priority 0 Clockwise R 0 Counter Clockwise S 0 Fisher Diagrams O Dashes into the plane of the page 0 Wedges out of the plane of the page I Switching one set of subs OR rotating it 90 degrees makes the stereochemistry opposite Chapter 2 Isomers Page 8 31 Atomic Orbitals and Quantum Numbers Wednesday February 18 2 15 1157 AM 0 Quantum Numbers describes the size shape orientation and number of atomic orbitals an element has 0 Principle n describes the energy level shell in which an electron resides and indicates the distance from the nucleus to the electron I Range 1 infinity 0 Azimuthal X I determines the subshell in which an electron resides I Range 0 to n1 I 50 0 Magnetic mL any number from L to L 0 Spin ms 5 Chapter 3 Bonding Page 9 32 Molecular Orbitals Friday February 29 215 114 PM 0 Bonding Orbitals created by headtohead or tailtotail overlap of orbitals of the SAME sign and are energetically favored 0 Antibonding Orbitals created by headtohead or tailtotail overlap of orbitals of the DIFFERENT sign and are energetically favored 0 Single Bonds contain 2 electrons called SIGMA BOND 0 Double Bonds Contains 4 electrons one SIGMA one PI BOND 0 Triple Bonds one SIGMA BOND two PI BONDS 0 the more bonds the less flexible bc of the PI BONDS 0 PI bonds are WEAKER then sigma bonds Chapter 3 Bonding Page 10 33 Hybridization Friday February 2Q 2 15 127 PM Sp3 Form TETRAHEDRAL geometry with 1095 degree bond angles 0 Any carbon with 4 single bonds attached is sp3 sz Form TRIGONAL PLANAR geometry with 12 degree bond angles 0 Any carbon with one double bond is sp2 Sp form LINEAR geometry with 180 degree angles 0 Any carbon with a triple bond or two double bonds are sp Resonance describes the delocalization o Conjugation when resonance goes too far and creates an unhybridized porbital o ncreases the stability of the molecule 0 favored when they make the molecule lack a formal charge and stabilizes aromaticity Chapter 3 Bonding Page 11 41 Acid and Bases Wednesday February 18 2 1S 1158 AM 0 Lewis Acids electron acceptors 0 Lewis bases electron donors 0 BronstedLowry acid proton donors 0 BronstedLowry bases proton acceptors 0 Amphoteric molecules molecules that can act as either an acid or a base 0 Ka Acid dissociation constant the measure of acidity gt the equilibrium constant that tells us the dissociation of an acid HA into a proton H and its conjugate base A o pKa the logKa gt the lower the pKa the stronger the acid correlates to pH 0 PkA decreases down the periodic table and increases with electronegativity 0 Alcohols aldehydes ketones and Carboxylic Acidsdeviates are common ACIDIC FUNCTIONAL GROUPS Chapter 4 Analyzing Organic Reactions Page 12 42 Nucleophiles Electrophiles and Leaving Groups Friday February 2D 2MB 82 PM 0 Nucleaophiles contains lone pairs or pi bonds a Affected by i Charge ii Electronegativity iii Steric Hindrance iv The Solvent b Increased electron density c Carry a negative drive 0 Similar to basicity THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTY 0 Nucleophilicity is a KINETIC PROPERTY Electrophiles contains a positive charge are positively polarized 0 More positive compounds are electrophilic O EX Aldehydes Ketones Carboxylic Acidsdeviates Leaving Groups molecular fragments that retain electrons following splitting in half heterolysis 0 May stabilize charge through resonance or induction 0 WEAK BASES GOOD leaving groups 0 Alkanes and Hydrogens BAD LEAVING GROUPS I Become reactive anions SN1 Reactions Unimecular nucleophilic substitution reactions i Leaving group leaves forming carbocation ii Nucleophile attacks leading to racemic mixtures O Prefers sp3 hybridized molecules 0 Rate substrate gt Rate kRL SN2 Reaction Bimolecular nucleophilic substitution i Nucleophile attacks at the same time as the leaving group leaving ii Nucleophile then performs backside attack 0 ABSOLUTE CONFIG is REVERSED if they have the same priority 0 Rate kNucleophilRL OxidationReduction Reactions 0 Oxidation State the charge an atom would have if it were completely ionic I CH4 is the lowest of a carbon I COZ has the highest for a carbon I COOH gt Aldahydes gt Ketones gt lminies gt Alcohols gt HCL gt Amines Chapter 4 Analyzing Organic Reactions Page 13 O O Oxidation an increase in oxidation state caused by an oxidizing agent I Oxidizing agents accepts electrons and are REDUCED in the process I Normally contain a metal and a large number of oxygens I Primary OH PCC Aldehydes I Carboxylic Acid Cr03Na2Cr207K2Cr207 Aldehydes 0 Reduction a decrease in oxidation state by a reducing agent I Reducing agents donate electrons I Aldehydes ketons carboxylic acids and LiALH4 are reducing agents III LiALH4 reduces amides to amines AND esters to two OH groups Chapter 4 Analyzing Organic Reactions Page 14 43 Chemoselectivity Friday February Z y 2 15 951 PM set the highest priority to the most oxidized functional group Steric Hindrance acts as a property to negatively target functional groups 0 DIOLS are used as protecting groups for ALDAHYDES and KETONS carbonyls LESS STERICALLY HINDERED BEST 0 Tertbutyl protects ALCOHOLS Chapter 4 Analyzing Organic Reactions Page 15 44 Steps for Problem Solving Friday February 23 2 15 954 PM Steps for ProblemSolving 1 Know you nomenclature Identify the functional groups Identify the other reagents Identify the most reactive functional groups Identify the first step of the reaction Consider stereoselectivty P P PWP Chapter 4 Analyzing Organic Reactions Page 16 51 Description and Properties of Alchols Wednesday February 182 2 15 1159 AM 0 Alcohols o Ends in ol 0 Begins with hydroxy Phenols o Ortho Meta Para 0 Properties 0 Alcohols increased H bonds cause it to have increase stability 0 Phenols are the most ACIDIC alcohols o Electrophils decreae acidity Chapter 5 Alcohols Page 17 52 Reactions of Alcohols Thursday March 192 2 15 122 PM 0 Pyridinium ChloroChromate PCC will OXIDIZE all the way to carboxylic acids by any stronger oxidizing agents 0 Secondary Alcohols are oxidized to Ketones Alcohol Leaving Groups 0 Mesylates o Tosylates 0 Aldehyde and Ketone Protection 0 Acetal primary carbon with 2 OR groups and a hydrogen 0 Ketal Secondary carbon with 2OR groups 0 Catalytic Acid deprotects these Chapter 5 Alcohols Page 18 53 Reaction of Phenols Thursday March 192 2 15 1248 PM 0 Quinones synthesize through oxidation and phenols resonance stabilized electrophiles o Vit K 0 Hydrozyquinones produced by oxidation of quinones adding a variable number of hydroxyl groups 0 Ubiquinone coenzyme Q another biologically active quinone that acts as an electron acceptor being reduced to ubiquinol Chapter 5 Alcohols Page 19 61 Description of Properties in Aldahydes and Ketones Thursday March 192 2 15 122 PM Aldehydes 0 End in al 0 Begins with oxo 0 With rings they include carbohydrates Ketones o Ends in one o Begins with oxo OR keto Carbonyl Group 0 CO 0 Carbon is an electrophile bc it has an partial positive charge 0 Have higher BP then an equivalent ALKENE Properties 0 Aldehyde Synthesis PCC o Ketone Synthesis dichromateschromium trioxidePCC can make ketones when attaching a secondary carbon with an alch Chapter 6 Aldehydcs and Ketoncs 1 Page 20 62 Nucleophilic Addition Reactions Thursday March 192 2 15 1257 PM Nucleophilic Attack Properties 0 Ccarbonyl carbons get pushed to the 02 0 Bad Leaving Group gt forms an alch 0 Good Leaving Group gt leaving group is kicked off 0 Hydration water adds to a carbonyl forming a GEMINAL DIOL 0 Forms a geminal diol 0 HemiacetalHemiketal formed witht he addition of ONE EQUIVALENT 0 AcetalKetal when an alch reacts with a hemiacetaIhemiketal lminesOximes hydrazones and semicarbazones when nitrogen and nitrogen derivates react with carbonyls Chapter 6 Aldehydes and Ketones 1 Page 21 63 OxidationReduction Reactions Thursday March 192 2 15 441 PM Aldehydes o Hydride Reagents LiALH4 AND NaBH4 when reacted with aldehydes make secondary alcohols O Oxidizing Agents KMnO4 CrO3 AgOZ and H202 when reacted with aldehydes make carboxylic acids Ketones o CANNOT be further oxidized o Hydride Reagents LiALH4 AND NaBH4 when reacted with aldehydes make secondary alcohols Chapter 6 Aldehydcs and Ketones 1 Page 22 71 General Principles Thursday March 192 2 15 449 PM 0 Alpha Carbon 0 Alpha Hydrogens o Acidic gt can be removed by a strong base 0 Oxygen withdraws the electrons allowing the hydrogen to readily leave 0 Enolate results from deprotonation and can be stabilized by resonance Ketones 0 Less reactive toward nucleophiles bc of steric hindrance AND alpha carbon destabilization Chapter 7 Aldehydcs and Kctons 2 Enolatcs Page 23 72 Enolate Chemistry Thorsoiay March 19 2 1S 455 PM 0 Enol form double bond alcohol 0 Tautomers isomers that cn be interconverted by moving a hydrogen and a double bond I Keto Form and Enol Form are tautomers of each other 0 H 0 Michael Addition an enolate attcks an alphabetaunsaturated carbonyl creating a bond 0 Kinetic Enolate favored by FAST IRREVERSABILE rxns at lower temps with STRONG STERICALLY hindered bases 0 Thermodynamic Enolate favored by SLOW REVERSSIBLE rxns at HIGHER Temps with WEAKER and small bases Enamines tautomers ofimines 5 are 0 Less common then Enols a C A 5 C 1 f 3 1 WD 5 90 2r 0 G You 39 quot cl quot C v u H lr H50 v Cf m i w quotv i h H v37 JCN A ll0 o W l D sok 010 x I 139 l r C c 00 H gt so a J A Chapter 7 Aldehydes and Ketons 2 Enolates Page 24 73 Adol Condensation Thursday March 19 2 15 52 PM 0 Aldol Condensation Aldehyde or ketone acts as both nucleophile and electrophile resulting in the formation of a carboncarbon bond in a new molecule called an aldol 1 Condensation Rxn where two molecules come together 2 Dehydration Rxn wheree a water is produced 0 Aldols a molecule containing both Aldehydes and alcohol functional groups 0 Nucleophile is the enolate formed from the deprotanation of the alphacarbon O the electrophile i s the aldehyde or ketone in the feto tautemer form 0 RetroAldol Rxn the reverse of aldol condensations o Catalyzed by heat and a base 0 The bonds bt the alpha and beta carbons are broken Chapter 7 Aldehydes and Ketons 2 Enolates Page 25 81 Description and Properties of Carboxylic Acids Thursday March 192 2 15 513 PM 0 Carboxylic Acids o Ends in oic Acid 0 If it has 2 Carboxylic Groups it ends in dioic acids 0 Physical Properties a There polar and hydrogen bond very well resulting in HIGH BP b Are often dimers in solution c the resonance bt the two oxygens enhances its acidity i Can be enhanced by additing substituents that are electron withdrawing groups d The hydrogens on a 13 dicarbonyl have are highly acidic Chapter 8 Carboxylic Acids Page 26 82 Reaction of Carboxylic Acids Thursdan March 19 26315 SQlPM Mort MW W 0 formed from oxidation of a primary alcohol or aldehyde 4 7 C b 0 0 Nucleophilic Acyl Substituion W A srgoL9 37 WMquot a Nucleophilic attacks the carbonyl carbon forming tetrahedral intermediate b The carbonyl reforms kicking off the leaving group i If an amine or ammonia is the nucleophile an AMIDE is formed ii If the nucleophile is an alcohol then an ester is formed iii If another carboxylic acid is the nucleophile an anhydride is formed 0 Reduction of Carboxylic Acids forms a primary alcohol using LiALH4 o Aldehyde intermediate form but are also reduced to primary alcohols O NaBH4 is NOT strong enough to reduce the carboxylic acid 0 Long chain carboxylic acids fatty acids form soaps I Saponification Soaps have hydrophilic carboxylate heads and hydrophobic alkyl chain tail I Micelles dissolves nonpolar organic molecules in its interior and can be solvated with water Chapter 8 Carboxylic Acids Page 27 91 Amides Esters and Anhydrides Thursday March 19 2 15 534 PM Amides the condensation products of carboxylic acids and ammoniaamines 0 End in amide o Molecules containing amides being with N 0 Lactams cyclic amides o Named based on the location of the nitrogen alpha beta gamma etc 0 Esters the condensation products of carboxylic acids with alcohols FISCHER ESTERFICATION 0 End in oate 0 Lactones cyclic esters 0 Saponification break down of esters such as triacylglycerides to carboxylic acids 0 Anhydrides the condensation dimers of carboxylic acids 0 Symmetric anhydrides re named anhydrides Chapter 9 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Page 28 92 Reactivity Principles Friday March 2Q 2 15 82 AM 0 Reactivity Scale anhydrides gt esters gt amides 0 Steric Hindrance 0 Protecting Groups 0 Induction the uneven distribution of charge across a sigma bond because of differences in electronegativity 0 Increased electronegative groups increased reactivity 0 Conjugation the presence of alternating single and multiple bonds creating delocalized pi electron clouds above and below the plane of the molecule 0 EX resonance BetaLactams prone to hydrolysis because they have significant ring strain 0 Ring strain due to torsional strain from eclipsing interactions and angle strain from compressing bond angles below Chapter 9 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Page 29 93 Nucleophilic Acyl Substituion Reactions Friday March 2Q 2 15 845 AM All COOH derivate undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions 0 The rate depends on the substituents Anhydride Cleavage occurs through the addition of a nucleophile o NH4NH3 AMIDES I Can be hydrolyzed to the COOH under strong acidic or basic conditions I Attacked by water of OH anions o OH ester and COOH o H20 2 COOH Transesterfication the exchange of one esterifying group for another on an ester 0 Attacking nucleophile is an ALCOHOL Chapter 9 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives Page 30 101 Amino Acids Peptides and Proteins Friday March 2Q 26315 851 AM 0 Alphacarbon R Group all have chiral stereoisomers EXCEPT glycine All amino acids in eukaryotes are L amino acids CYSTINE is the one R stereoisomers 0 000 0 Amphoteric being able to react with acids and bases 0 aa are acidic due to the COOH o Zwitterion dipolar ionsthe natural state of aa 0 Classifying amino acids by RGroups o Nonpolar nonaromatic aa create a hydrophobic environment I Alanine I Valine I Leucine I Isoleucine I Glycine I Proline I Methionine o Aromatic aa create a hydrophobic environment I Tryptophan I Phenylalanine I Tyrosine Polar aa I Serine I Threonine I Asparagine I Glutamine I Cysteine Negative aa contain COOH in their R group I Aspartic Acid I Glutamic Acid Positively Charged aa contain amines in their R groups I Arginine I Lysine I Histidine O O 0 Chapter 10 Nirtogen and PhosphorusContang Comp Page 31 0 Peptide bonds 0 Formed via condensation 0 Broken via Hydrolysis 0 Polypeptides multiple aa linked by peptide bonds gt portions are large folded functional polypeptides 102 Synthesis of Alpha Amino Acids Friday March 2Q 2 15 955 PM 0 Strecker SynthesisAMINO ACID SYNTHESIS generation of aa from an ALDEHYDE o NH4C and KCN are used a NH4 attacks carbonyl carbon IMINE b CN attacks Imine AMINONITRILE c 2 H20 hydrolyze Aminonitrile Amino Acid 0 Gabriel SynthesisAMINO ACID SYNTHESIS from ALKYL HALIDE and 2 K and 3 molecules The Kmolecule attacks Bmolecule PHTHALIMIDOMALONIC ESTER The ester attacks an aky halide ALKYL ESTER Alkyl Ester is hydrolyzed COOH One COOH is removed by decarboxylation 999 5390 Chapter 10 Nirtogen and PhosphorusContaing Comp Page 32 103 PhosphorusContaining Compounds Fr dgnyy Mgwdm 2Q 2 15 1 247 PM 0 SKIP Chapter 10 Nirtogen and PhosphorusContaing Comp Page 33 111 IR Spectra Infrared Spectroscopy J 0 IR Spectra measure ABSORBPTION of IF light which causes molecular vibration Stretching bending twisting and folding 0 Plot Transmittance vs wave number 1lambda 0 Fingerprint Region between 1500 and w gt contains a number of peaks that can be used by experts to identify a compound 0 must have a change in the dipole moment OH water and alcohols 3300 Broad Peaks OH COOH 3000 Sharp Peaks NH 3300 Sharp Peaks EX Amines mines Amides O C O 1750 Sharp Peak EX CHO RCOR COOH Amides Esters anhydrides Chapter 11 Spectroscopy Page 34 112 UV Spectroscopy Ultraviolet Friday March 2Q 2 15 256 PM 0 UV Spectroscopy measure absorption of UV light which causes movement in electrons between orbitals 0 Plot transmittanceabsorbance vs wavelength 0 must have a large enough distance bt HOMO and LUMO to appear 0 permits an electron to move from one orbital to the other I SMALLER DISTANCE LONGER WAVELENGTHS I Conjugation occurs between molecules with unhydbridized porbitals gt causes a shift in the absorption spectrum to higher maxs wavelengths Chapter 11 Spectroscopy Page 35 113 NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 0 NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy useful for determining the structure connectivity of a compound including its functional groups 0 EX MRIS 0 Plot Freq vs Absorption of Energy 0 Integration the area under a curve proportional to the number of protons contained under the peak 0 Deshielding occurs when EWGs pull electron density away from the nucleus allowing it to be more easily affected by the magnetic field gt moves a peak further downfield o SpinSpin Coupling splitting 0 Measures alignment of nuclear spin with an applied magnetic field which depends on the magnetic environment of the nucleus Sp3 o 3 sz 45 60 Sp 2 3 Aldehyde Hs9 10 COOH Hs 105 12 Aromatic Hs 6 85 Chapter 11 Spectroscopy Page 36 121 Solubility Base Reaction Will a Precipitate FormWill it be dissolved Friday March 2Q 2 15 955 PM 0 Extraction combines immiscible liquids one of which easily dissolves the compound of interest Aqueous Phase the Liar water layer gt dissolves POLAR compounds Organic Phase the nonpolar layer gt dissolves NONPOLAR Counds Instruments sepratory funnel gt one phase is collect the other is evaporated Acidbase properties can be used to increase solubility 0 000 0 Wash reverse extraction where a small amount of solute that dissolves impurities is run over the compound of interest 0 Filtration isolates a solid residue from a liquid filtrate O Gravity Filtration 0 Vacuum Filtration 0 Recrystalization the product is dissolved in a minimum amount of hot solvent gt if impurities are more soluble they will reform when the solution cools Chapter 12 Separations and Puri cations Page 37 122 Distilations Friday March 2Q 2 15 1126 PM 0 Distillation separates liquids according to differences in their boiling points 0 Simple Distillation al east 25 degree apart under 150 0 Vacuum Distillation over 150 degrees 0 Fractional Distillation less then 25 degrees Chapter 12 Separations and Purifications Page 38 123 Chromatography Friday March 2Q 2 15 1129 PM Chromatography uses two phases to separate compounds based on physical or chemical properties 0 Stationary PhaseAdsorbent polar solid 0 Mobile Phase runs through the stationary phase and is usually a liquid or gas ELUTION PHASE Paper ChromatOgraphy used to identify a sample 0 Stationary Phase paper 0 Mobile Phase nonpolar solute solvent that climbs the paper via capillary action 0 Reverse Paper Chromatography uses a nonpolar paper and a polar solvent Column Chromatography utilizes polarity size or affinity to separate compounds based on their physical or chemical props Stationary Phase a column with silica or alumina beads Mobile Phase nonpolar solvent which travels through the column by gravity IonExchange Chromatography beads with charges Size Exclusion Chromatography beads with pores Affinity Chromatography beads have affinity for a particular compound OOOOO Gas Chromatography separates vaporizable compounds according to how well they adhere to the adsorbent in the column 0 Stationary Phase a cpl of crushed metal 0 Mobile Phase a nonreactive gas 0 HPLC 0 Uses computers to mediate solvent and temp gradients Chapter 12 Separations and Purifications Page 39 11 Amino Acids Found in Proteins Monday February 16 2015 7amp7 PM 0 b on Chiral to be the central atom and Four Groups Attached to the Central Carbon X QO Be connected to4different substituents 1 Ketone 3 Ram 9mm are V Mb 2 Hydrogen on w we 3 A mine lbwquot NW M 4 Rgroup O A 39 y t Eukaryotic Proteins X 3 b LFormation wuw 6n U olm f WM 0M3 Stereochemistry L amwvs ow a Q W 0quot cm liow D cv A VA Cx3quot3 9 9x onpolar nonaromatic Side Chains CW Cg l now 353W o cik u i 6 MN Mo on 9 O 9 Qrbww 0 K Aromatic Side Chains Polar Side Chains Acidic Side Chains quot f 1 I 9 1 Tryptophan 1 Serirge 1 Aspartic Acid A 0 0 MM 3 l W i 0 labY 0 og 397 0 cl l W o W I H p D D Vt 2 Phenylalanine 2Threonine 2 Glutamic Acid WW 1 039 7 3 quot quotW l Q m KM Rowan OWr M 3 Tyrosine 3 Asparagine mlquot 3 9 Basic Side Chains on m W ow N pm 6 Why 1 Arglnlne 6 k b 4 Cysteine emuK s o 0 ll R w W N 2 Lysine m A WM Chapter 1 Amino Acids J Peptides J and Proteins Page 1 if RSY o A 2 Lysine 5 U Ko 5 Glutamine 3 Histidln a O O I 3 NY Mquot Woamp U 5 Take Aways Chapter 1 Amino Acids J Peptides J and Proteins Page 2 12 Acid Base Chemistry of Amino Acids Monday February 162 2 15 819 PM pKa When on avg half the group of molcules of that species are deprotonated gt If pH is higher then pKa than a majority of the species will be deprotonated Titrations of Amino Acids When pHpKa then it becomes a buffer oelectric Point the pH at which a molecule is electrically neutral C935 Q Lk 339 9 9quot 6 6 gtlt J 3 Take Aways Chapter 1 Amino Acids J Peptides J and Proteins Page 3 13 Peptide Formation and Hydrolysis l 0 Lin ya a gig Hit t Peptides Dipeptides Tripeptides Oligopeptides Polypeptides Singe Two Three 20 or lt gt 20 Take Aways Chapter 1 Amino AcidsJ PeptidesJ and Proteins Page 4 14 Primary and Secondary Structures Monday February 162 2 15 838 PM Primary Structure the order of its aa Secondary Structure The alpha helix and the beta pleated sheets Proine is not found in the centers of secondary structures because it causes kinks Therefore it is normally at the top of a helix or turn of a sheet Tertiary Structures the result of moving hydrophobic side chains into the middle of a protein includes folding Denaturation is the loss of the folding Quaternary Structures Globular formation of proteins that contain more then only polypeptide chain Allosteric Effects one subunit can undergo conformation alstructural change to either enhance or reduce the activity Conjugated Proteins gt contain Prosthetic groups gt Organic molecules like VITAMINS METAL IONS LIPIDS CARBS or Nucleic acids or IRON gt major role in determining the function of their proteins Denaturation HEAT gt increased heat causes the hydrophobic interactions to come apart because of increased Kinetic Energy SOLUTE CONC gt High concentrations can interfere with the disulfide bridges holding the protein together Take Aways Chapter 1 Amino Acids J Peptides J and Proteins Page 5 21 Enzymes as Biological Catalysts Monday February 16 2 15 92 PM Key Features 1 Lover Activation Energy 2 Increase rate of rxn 3 Does NOT alter EQUALIBRIUM CONSTANT S 4 Not changed or consumed by rxn v 5 pH and Temp sensitive E 6 Does not effect Spontaneity of Rxn b6 7 Are specific to classes of rxns Ci Major Enzyme Classifications L IL HM Enzyme Specificity The characteristic by which 3 7 WM r M3 939 9 wquot MW quot5 m an enzyme will only catalyze a single reaction or class of reactions with LW 4gt W 3 MM specific substrates L smv W A m 9 MDW4 WS 5 quot usws 36 O rofbma WM 619W 0 2 W m5 Tmhwo 7 mm or Slam groves Take Aways Chapter 2 Enzymes Page 6 22 Mechanisms of Enzyme Activity Monday February 162 2 15 92 5 PM Types of EnzymeSubstrate Binding 0 Lock and Key Model The enzymes active site is already in the appropriate conformation for the appropriate substrate 0 Induced Fit Model MORE sCIENTIFICALLY ACCEPTED Ex Stress ball being squeezed in someone hand Cofactors small inorganic molecules like like metal ions that are normally ingested as dietary mineral Coenzymessmall organic groups like vitamins Apoenzymes enzymes without their cofactors Holoenzymes enzymes that have their cofactors Take Aways Chapter 2 Enzymes Page 7 23 Enzyme Kinetics Mendav February 16 2 15 9 5 PM quotW WW I MichaelisMenten Plot LineweaverBurk Plots 3 5 g Of Enzyme Kinetics MK w mom MWRM SUV 3 mwg Xh u de i A M wwm w A swam quotV a Ist w I s39l Cooperative Enzymes Show a sigmoidal curve because of the change in aactivity with substrate binding Take Aways Take Aways Chapter 2 Enzymes Page 8 24 Effects of Local Conditions on Enzyme Activity Monday February 162 2 15 92 PM Temp 0 7mm Ms S in MM MMuA MAMWW 33972 er M rwth We Ninalam 52 F W1 10390quot pH Can affect but depends on functional group and its function mow awnv45 QtV1 WW ef a remMm 3 Q 155 Salinity osmolarity only effective in vitro gt increase in salt can effect hydrogen and ionic bonds that can cnage enzyme function Take Aways Chapter 2 Enzymes Page 9 25 Regulation of Enzyme Activity Monday February 16 2 15 92 PM FeedForward ReguationEnzyme regulated by intermediates that precede the enzyme pathway Negative feedback feedback inhibition helps maintain homeostasis gt once we have enough of a given product we want to turn off that pathway instead of creating more Reversible Inhibition 0 Competitive lnhibtion involves occupancy of the active site gt substrate cannot access enzymeatic binding sites if there is an inhibitor in the way IV I www ulo c quot r quot Im 0 Noncompetitive Inhibition inhibitor binds to the allosteric site instead of the active binding site w WW wo enhW A 0 Mixed nhibitionWhen an inhibitor can bind to either the enzyme or the enzymesubstrate complex but has a different affinity for either TAM gr q Mvwi 3v mm st amply5 0 Uncompetitive Inhibition inhibitor binds only to the enzymesubstrate complex and essentiallys locks the substrate in the enzyme Cm N UW Zymogens enzymes that are dangerous when active so they are released in a zymogen state in order to prevent harm Take AanS Chapter 2 Enzymes Page 10 31 Cellular Functions Monday February 16 2 15 239 PM Structural Proteins the proteins in the cytoskeleton anchoring proteins and the extracellular matrix 0 Collagen Elastin Keratin Actin and Tubulin 0 Normally fibrous Motor Proteins have one or more heads capable of force generation through a conformational change 0 Acts as an ATPase to power movement 0 Used in muscle contraction vesicle movement within cells and cell motility 0 Myosin Kinesin and Dynein Binding Proteins used either to sequester or hold a concentration steady Ce Atmesion Molecules CAMS 0 Cadherin calcium dependent glycoproteins that hold similar cells together 0 lntegrin meaning proteins that permit cells to adhere in the ECM 0 Selectins allow cells to adhere to carbohydrates Antibodies Variable region the portion of the Ab that binds to the antigen has 2 heavy chains and 2 light chains that are linked by disulfide bridges Take Aways Chapter 3 Nonenzymatic Protein Function and Protein Analysis Page 11 32 Biosignaling Monday February 162 2 15 1 24 PM Ion Channels 0 Voltage gated Channels 0 Ligand gated channels 0 Ungated Channels Enzymelinked receptors G proteincoupled receptors initiate second messenger system LIGAND binding engages the G Protein GDP turns to GTP ALPHA subunit DISSOCIATES from the BETA and GAMMA subunits ALPHA subunit alters the activity of ADENYLATE CYCLASE and PHOSPHOLIPASE C GTP is dephosphorylated and the subunits recombine WPWP Take Aways Chapter 3 Nonenzymatic Protein Function and Protein Analysis Page 12 33 Protein Isolation Monday February 162 2 15 1 24 PM Electrophoresis the process of separating proteins 0 Native PAGE most useful in comparing the molecular size or charge of a protein 0 SDSPAGE separates proteins on the basis of MASS alone 0 lsoelectric Focusing separates on the basis of whether the protein is acidic or basic 0 pl the pH at which the protein or aa is electrically neutral Chromatography the separation of proteins along a porous matrix 0 Column Chromatography allows proteins to move based on size and polarity o Esp USEFUL bc it can separatecollect all macromolecules like nucleic acids 0 IonExchange Chromatography uses beads that are charged 0 SizeExcision Chromatography uses beads that contain pores of varying sizes 0 Affinity Chromatography the creation of beads that have a strong affinityreceptors for the protein of interest Take Aways Chapter 3 Nonenzymatic Protein Function and Protein Analysis Page 13 34 Protein Analysis Monday February 162 2 15 1 24 PM Determining Protein Structure 0 XRay Crystallography 0 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR Spectroscopy Amino Acid Composition 0 Edman Degradation the use of cleavage to sequence proteins of up to 50to70 amino acids by removing the N Terminal aa group 0 Cannot tell disulfide bond location 0 Trypsin is used for larger proteins Activity Analysis 0 Assed by correlating the concentration of the protein with a known standard Concentration Determination 0 UV Spectroscopy gt easily contaminated 0 BCA Lowry reagent assay and Bradfird protein assay are other ways Take Aways Chapter 3 Nonenzymatic Protein Function and Protein Analysis Page 14 41 Carb Classification Tuesday February 172 2 15 512 PM Nomenclature Frequently Tested Sugars Qgto 3 a 0 ago C hO 0 2ch a 390 R0 c quot oh Y J m x b CM cm c 7r C b 0 Carbs with Aldehyde groups as there most oxidized groups are ALDOSE sugars 0 Carbs with ketones as there most oxidized group are KETOSE sugars 2quot 03 D or L MN WQ rLs mm dun wl bx oh wqu39S W Frvm Stereochemistry b 5mm b39b39AMK Emma Stereoisomers optical isomers o Enantiomers non identical non superimposable mirror images I D and L forms of the same sugar are enantiomers o Diastereomers molecules that differ at one or more of their chiral carbons I Epimers molecules that differ at exactly one carbon I Anomers molecules that differ at the anomeric carbon Take Aways Chapter 4 Carb Structure and Function Page 15 42 Cyclic Sugar Molecules Tuesday February 172 2 15 512 PM 0 Anomeric Carbon the new chiral center formed in ring closure gt it was the carbon containing the carbonyl in the straight form 0 Alpha Anomers have the OH on the anomeric carbon TRANS to free the CHZOH group 0 Beta Anomers have the OH group on the anomeric carbon CIS to the free CHZOH 0 Hawthorn Projections best way to project 3D FIGURES Take Aways Chapter 4 Carb Structure and Function Page 16 43 Monosaccharides Tuagdayy Fabruary 172 2 15 513 PM 0 Sugars as REDUCING AGENTS can be detected by ROLLWNBENEDICTs REAGENTS 0 Deoxy Sugar When an H replaces an OH its 0 Glycoside Formation Take Aways Chapter 4 Carb Structure and Function Page 17 44 Complex Carbs Tuesday February 172 2 15 513 PM Common Disaccharides Sucrose Lactose Maltose Common Polysaccharides Cellulose maintains structural components for plant cells Starches amylose and amylopectin function as a main energy storage system in plants Glycogen functions as a main energy storage for animals Take Aways Chapter 4 Carb Structure and Function Page 18 51 Structural Lipids Friday February Z y 2 15 247 PM 0 Lipids are only soluble in nonpolar organic solvents 0 Phospholipids o Amphipathic 0 Form bilayers of biological membranes 0 Contain hydrophilic POLAR heads and hydrophobic NONPOLAR tails 0 Head groups are attached by phosphodiester linkages O Saturation determines the fluidity of a membrane and are determined by the presence of double bonds I Unsaturated Fatty acids are used more during HIBERNATION o Glycerophospholipids phospholipids with a glycerol backbone 0 Sphingolipids contain a SPHINGOSINE backbone o Sphingomyelins contain PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINEPHOSPHATIDY ETHANOLAMINE head groups gt found in myelin sheaths o Glycosphingolipids 0 Waxes long chain fatty acids esterified to longchain OHs gt protection against evaporation and parasites Take Aways Chapter 5 Lipid Structure and Function Page 19 52 Signaling Lipids Friday February 23 2 15 255 PM 0 Terpenes a five carbon molecules that smells strong and is a steroid precursor gt made from isoprene 0 ONE terpen TWO isoprene o Terpenoids Steroids 3 cyclohexane rings 1 cyclopentane ring 0 Steroid Hormones I Affect gene expression and metabolism I Have highaffinity receptors I Work at low conc 0 Cholesterol I A steroid imp in membrane fluidity and stability I An imp Precursor O Prostaglandins autocrine and paracrine hormones that regulate cAMP levels I Effect muscle contractions body temp and sleepwake cycle 0 Vitamins Vit A metabolized to retinal for vision and gene expression Vit D metabolized to calcitriol in kidneys to promote bone formation Vit E antioxidants whose aromatic rings destroy free radicals Vit K vital clotting factor Take Aways Chapter 5 Lipid Structure and Function Page 20 53 Energy Stoarge Friday February Z y 2 15 112 PM 0 Triacylglycerols preferred method of storing energy for long term use 0 Very hydrophobic O Twice as much energy as carbohydrates when metabolized 0 Adipocytes animals specified cell for storing triacylglycerols 0 Soaps salts of free fatty acids 0 Soapnification the ester hydrolysis of triacylglycerols USING STRONGE BASES 0 Help for MICELLES Take Aways Chapter 5 Lipid Structure and Function Page 21 61 DNA Structure Friday February ZDZ 2 15 1123 PM 0 Nucleosides a fice carbon sugar bound to a nitrogenouse base 0 WatsonCrick Model the model of DNA we use today 0 Most form a right handed helix 0 Purines Adenine and Guanine PURE AS GOLD 0 Pyrimidines Cytosine Thymine and Uracil 0 Chargaff39s Rule PURINES and PYRIMIDINES are equal in number ina DNA molecules bc of base pairing 0 Reannealed the putting back together of DNA after it had been denatured Take Aways Chapter 6 DNA and Biotechnology Page 22 62 Eukaryotic Chromosome Orginization Friday February ZDZ 2 15 112 PM 0 DNA is organized into 46 chromosomes 0 Nucleosomes DNA wound around histones 0 Chromatin all DNA histones in the nucleus 0 Heterochromatin dense transciptionaly silent DNA that appears dark under a microscope o Euchromatin less dense TRANSCRIPTIONALLY ACTIVE DNA 0 Telomers found at the end of a DNA strand having HIGH GC CONTENT that prevents unravaling 3HBonds 0 get shorted during replication but can be reversed Take Aways Chapter 6 DNA and Biotechnology Page 23 63 DNA Replication Friday February 2112 21115 1111 PM 0 Replisome Replication Complex a set of specialized proteins that assist the DNA polymerase 0 Origin of Replication where the HELICASE binds and replication begins gt produces 2 REPLICATION FORKS at either end 0 Single Stranded DNA Binding Proteins proteins that keep the unwound DNA unwound 0 DNA Topisomerase ll keeps the DNA from SUPERCOILING which causes TORSIONAL STRAIN gt done by creating nicks in the DNA 0 Semiconservative Replication PARENT STRAND DAUGHTER STRAND DNA Polymerase IllDNA Polymerase Alpha what synthesizes new DNA and is made in the 539 to 339 orientation 0 Leading Strand requires one primer and can be replicated in its entirety o Lagging Strand made of OKAZAKI FRAGMENTS DNA Polymerase I what removes RNA primers 0 DNA Ligase The molecule fuses the OKAZAKI FRAGMENTS together Take Aways Chapter 6 DNA and Biotechnology Page 24 64 DNA Repair Friday February 2112 21115 1114 PM 0 Oncogenes come from mutations in PROTOONCOGENES and promote INCREASED cell cycling gt often lead to cancer 0 Cancer the unchecked cell proliferation with the ability to spread M ETASTASIZE gt migrate via the blood stream or lymphatic system 0 Tumor Suppressor Genes genes that code for REDUCED cell cycle and DNA REPAIR 0 Mismatch Repair occurs during the 62 PHASE of the cell cycle 0 Nucleotide Excision Repair fixes HELIX DEFORMING lesions via ENDONUCLEASE 0 Base Excision Repair fixes NONHELIX DEFORMING lesions vs AP ENDONUCLEASE Take Aways Chapter 6 DNA and Biotechnology Page 25 65 Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology Saturday February 212 2 15 1135 AM 0 Recombinant DNA DNA composed of nucleotides from TWO DIFFERENT SOURCES 0 DNA Cloning utilizes VECTOR PLASMIDS by using RESTRICTION ENZYMES to cut the plasmid at specific locations then uses STICKY ENDS to put them together 0 DNA Libraries Large collections of known DNA sequences 0 Genomic Libraries fragments of DNA that include BOTH CODING and NONCODING regions 0 cDNA Libraries smaller fragments of DNA EXONS expressed gt used in GENE THERAPY 0 Hybridization the joining of complimentary base pair regions 0 PCR 0 Agrose Electrophoresis separating PCR products based on size 0 Southern Blotting detect PRESENCE and QUANITY of DNA strands using PROBES 0 DNA Sequencing uses dieoxyribonucleotides which terminate the DNA chain bc it lacks the 339 OH gt then it is electrophoresised gt then the sequence can be read directly from the gel 0 Gene Therapy using a VIRAL VECTOR to INTRODUCE and functional gene into someone with a genetic deficiency 0 Transgenic Organisms O Chimeras Organisms that contain cells from two different lineages 0 Knockout Organisms Organisms created by deleting the gene of interest Take Aways Chapter 6 DNA and Biotechnology Page 26 71 The Genetic Code Friday February ZOZ 2 15 112 PM 0 Central Dogma DNA gt RNA gt Proteins 0 quotDegenerate Codequot multiple codons capable of producing the same amino acid 0 Initiation AUG 0 Termination UGA UAA UAG 0 quotRedundancyquot allows mutations to occur without effects to the protein Types of Mutation Point Mutations cause 0 Silent have NO EFFECT O Nonsense cause premature STOP CODON O Missense produces codon that CODES FOR DIFFERENT amino acid 0 Frameshift Mutation nucleotide ADITTlON or DELETION Difference Between DNA and RNA 0 Ribose sugar vs Deoxyribose 0 Uracil for Thymine 0 Single vs Double Stranded Types of RNA 0 mRNA 0 tRNA 0 rRNA Take Aways Chapter 7 RNA and the Genetic Code Page 27 72 Transcription Saturday February 212 2 15 1152 AM 0 HelicaseTopoisomerse UNWIND DNA double helix 0 RNA Polymeration binds to the TATA BOX within the PROMOTER REGION of the gene 0 hnRNA the ANTISENSE strand of DNA template Posttranscriptional Modifications 0 539 end CAP 0 339 end POLY A Tail 0 Splicing INTRONS are REMOVED LARIAT Structure EXONS are ligated TOGETHER 0 Polycistronic Genes in PROKARYOTES when transcription occurs at various places leading to gene product variability 0 Alternative Splicing COMBINING different EXONS to acquire variable gene products gt Take Aways Chapter 7 RNA and the Genetic Code Page 28 73 Translation Saturday February 212 2 15 122 PM 0 tRNA translates the codon into the correct amino acid 0 translation occurs in the ribosomes 0 initiation elongation and releasing factors help with RIBOSOME ASSEMBLYDISSAEMBILY 0 There is WOBBLE in the 3rd aa during translation as long as they are the same type Purine vs Pyrimidines Stages of Translation 1 Initiation a Prokaryotes when the 305 ribosome attaches to the SHINE DALGARNO sequence to find the start codon b Eukaryotes when the 405 ribosome attaches to the 539 cap to find the start codon 2 Elongation the ATTACHMENT of a new aminoacyltRNA at the A SITE and TRANSFER of the growing peptide chain from the tRNA in the P SlTE to the tRNA in the A SITE gt the uncharged tRNA in the P SlTE then moves to the E SlTE before it EXlTS 3 Termination when the codon in the A SITE is a stop codon UAG UAA UGA into the A SITE a Releasing Factors factor that places a water molecule on the polypeptide chain Take Aways Chapter 7 RNA and the Genetic Code Page 29 74 Control of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes Saturday February 212 2 15 1218 PM JacobMonod Model explains how OPERONS work Operons clusters of genes transcribed as a single mRNA Inducible System Lac operon REPRESSORS are bound under normal conditions gt must be turned off by an INDUCER at the OPERATOR SITE Repressible Systems TRP operon transcribed normally gt can be turned off by a COREPRESSOR REPRESSOR binding to the operator site Take Aways Chapter 7 RNA and the Genetic Code Page 30 75 Control of Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes Saturday February 212 2 15 1223 PM 0 Transcription Factors find the promoter and enhancer regions of the DNA 0 Promotor lt 25 base pairs of the transcription start site 0 Enhancers gt 25 BPs from the start site 0 Chromatin structure affect transcriptional ability I Acetylation increase in accessibility I Methylation decrease in accessibility Take Aways Chapter 7 RNA and the Genetic Code Page 31 81 Fluid Mosaic Model Saturday February 212 2 15 1225 PM Fluid Mosaic Model a model of biological membranes that states the pressence of LIPIDS PROTEINS and CARBS in a dynamicsemisolid PLASMA membrane around the cell 0 Phospholipid Biayer 0 Not Static o Lipids move freely in the plane of the membrane sometimes forming LIPID RAFTS O Fluppases specific membrane proteins that maintain the bidirectional transpot of lipids bt the layers 0 Proteins and Carbs cant do this bc of their size Take Aways Chapter 8 Biolgical Membranes Page 32 82 Membrane Components Saturday February 212 2 15 1229 PM Lipids the primary compnent of the membrane 0 Triacylglycerols AND Free Fatty Acids Phospholipid precurssors found in LOW LEVELS in the membrane 0 Glycerophospholipids replace fatty acids with hydrophoid group 0 Cholesterol present in LARGE AMOUNTS and contributes to fluidity and stability 0 Waxes present in VERY SMALL AMOUTNS gt more prevalent in plants 0 Proteins found WITHIN the membrane and act as transporters adhesion molecules and enzymes 0 Transmembrane Proteins 0 Embedded Proteins involved in catalytic complex or cellular COMMUNICATION O Membraneassociated Proteins RECOGNITION molecule or enzyme 0 Carbs form a protective glycoprotin coat cell recognition 0 Extracellular Ligands bind to membrane receptors activating a second messenger pathway 0 CellCell Junctions regulate transport in and out of the cell 0 Gap Junctions RAPID exchange of IONS and other SMALL MOLECULES 0 Tight Junctions PREVENT paracellular transport gt NO INTERCELLU LAR transport 0 Desmosomes Hemidesmosomes ANCHOR layers of EPITHELIAL TISSUE Take Aways Chapter 8 Biolgical Membranes Page 33 83 Membrane Transport Saturday February 212 2 15 1238 PM 0 Concentration Gradient helps determine appropriate membrane transport mechanisms in cells 0 Osmotic Pressure the pressure applied to a pure solvent to prevent osmosis gt used to express solvent gt quotsucking pressurequot where a solution is drawing the water in 0 Passive Transport the process of molecules mocing down a concentration gradient FROM AN AREA OF HIGH CONCENTRATION to are of LOW CONCENTRATION O No energy required From HIGH to LOW Simple diffusion NO TRANSPORTER for small nonpolar particles from HIGH to LOW Osmosis the diffusion of water across the membrane Facilitated Diffusion USES TRANPORTERS to move impermeable solutes across the cell membrane 0 Active Transport 0 Requires EnergyATP or an exisiting FAVORABLE gradient 0 Primary 0 Secondary I Symport I Antiport 0 Endocytosis Exocytosis methods of ENGULFING RELEASING meteriors fromto the exterior of the cell 0 PinocytosisL the ingestion of liwuid into the cell from vessibles O Phagocytosis the ingestion of bacteria by phagocytes 0000 Take Aways Chapter 8 Biolgical Membranes Page 34 84 Specialized Membranes Saturday February 212 2 15 1254 PM 0 most cell membranes are consistent BUT there are some with specialized abilities 0 Membrane potential maintained by the SODIUMPOTASSIUM PUMP and LEAK CHANNELS O Nernst Equation used in order to calculate ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL 0 Voltage Equation calculating the RESTING POTENTIAL at a particular TEMPERATURE Differences in the Mitochondrial Membrane 0 HIGHLY permeable to METABOLIC molecules and SMALL proteins 0 Surrounds the mitochondrial matrix 0 Does NOT contain CHOLESTEROL Take Aways Chapter 8 Biolgical Membranes Page 35 LineweaverBurk Plot H Wednegday February 18 2 15 1122 AM 4 EvaWNW r Kmamount of substrate needed to achieve Vmax HYPSG Page 36 Isoelectric Focusing pHpKa Wednesdam March 11 Z 15 72 7 PM QWLH W 9 dwdrx MN swam t W sows lt5 www a m bbwb grog303 x4393 u 5 30th wi X Wvquot o v quot h MW 383 M W M 3st WWW m 4 WW m 13 Esbwu 51le QKO QKa ZL g HYPSG Page 37 Isomerization of Carbohydrates Wdm5day Mamh 11 2 15 753 PM cm CM Fr le LL 5 7 Ur 0 D H W o u 0 l b H wavom CWFW Cgt QWOVOW L5 Q rm A K was Ac C 0 gr x Wow W 3 O 7 E With 5M BN waz s HYPSG Page 38 Lipid Sponification W n sdayg Mamh 119 2 15 831 PM SPDNf VHw MFL 05V 00Kpg 7 6191 LLOVM WM Qcm vow 7 3me HYPSG Page 39 DNA Replication W n ay Mamh 11 26315 841 PM acWW 7 HYPSG Page 40 Operon chdmgdayy Mamh 112 2 15 825 PM AUCDNJg U Wquot x WW HYPSG Page 41 QQJQ p5 0 Membrane Traffic chdmggdayy Mamh 112 2 15 9638 PM 3 M 4 av Ar MP m 7 W CWW QR Q A Wnleerwb m VWNL q XltDVWl H Mwobmm WVDDWD HYPSG Page 43 G cholysis chdmggdayy Mamh 112 2 15 922 PM MAJ QWDH 6136st MD I W waoX KMM Q MQJ kP Q FUUAK Kmmyx MMDW 3N5 WM Av 649 HYPSG Page 44 11 A Brief History of Neuropsychology Tuesday February 172 2 15 241 PM Phrenology f trait was well dev then ha part of the brain would be larger based on psychological traits and weaknesses Extirpation Oblation Remove the area and attribute specifics to it Pierre Flourens showed each area does have a specific function Functionalist How mental processes help individuals adapt to their environments as a whole William James and John Dewey How brain adapts to environment and Organisms adapting to the environment Organisms living in hot and cold climates gt organisms adapt either conserve heat or expel heat based on he environment Functional Impairments Discovered by Broca gt able to link specific brain lesions to specific disorders Nerve Impulse Speed of the AP measured by Mr H finally connected psychology with biology Synapses the space between the axon and dendrite Which of the following was a contribution made by Paul Broca to neuropsychology A The recognition of synaptic transmission B The reaction time of nerve impulses C Association between brain lesions and functional impairments D Specific parts of the brain had specific functions Chapter 1 Biology and Behavior Page 1 Organization of the Human Nervous System 03 m 74 j 7 7 g 397quot fi y I uui t ziuizg 12 Tu ii quot iii Goal ID the taxonomy and organization of the human nervous system Q Which of the following correctly represents the hierarchy of the nervous system from more specialized to most general Nv 3 1 SM WM m cth M3 SAW LaNM tgt vw NW r bf amp 5 9 Raw S IW YWOL JWW W5 in 3 CU S 5 M5061 EAMWS Mow ASWMA B Q W WNWr5 7 L WA 0 M 5 m 34 WWW 5 A cow Maw t Somatic System Voluntary consists of sensory and motor neurons Autonomic System Everything under involuntary control EX pupil dilation peristalses Sympathetic All behaviours associated with stress FIGHT or FLIGHT sympathizes with our situation Dilate pupils Relax bronchi Accelerate heartbeat Simulates sweating Inhibits peristalsis Stimulates glucose production Secrets Adrenaline Parasympathetic System Constricts bronchi Slows heartbeat Stimulates peristalsis Q Which of the following is an example of efferent neuron function A Feeling grass on yuour feet after walking on concrete B Moving your hand away from a hot stove C The shooting pain from stepping on a nail D The burn from placing your hand on a hot pan Chapter 1 Biology and Behavior Page 2 1I Chapter 1 Biology and Behavior Page 3 13 Organization of the Brain Tuesday February 17 2015 1042 PM i 1 7 33 1 yrquot 57 r 7 v V 9 1 i in mum o 3 urL lvgc hi i39 Hz r ihL hmin in k Layers of Meninges Dura Mater 51lt I ArachnOId Mater PW u am Pia Mater A 5 5M mm Mm 1 WWW DNAUT Divisions of the Brain Q TWWMM mm W bunk svbkkr mwt Forebrain PROSENCEPHALON Cerebral Cortex gt Complex perceptual cognitive and behavioral processes Basal Ganglia gt Movement Limbic System gt Emotion and Energy Thalamus gt Sensory relay station Hypothalamus gt Hunger and thirstemotion Midbrain MESENCEPHALON Involuntary Reflex Response Inferior Colliculus gt Receives auditory sensory stimulus Chapter 1 Biology and Behavior Page 4 Superior colliculi gt Receives visual sensory stimulus Hindbrain RHOMBENCEPHALONcontrols balance motor coordination breathing digestion and general arousal Cerebellum gt Refined motor movements such as posture and coordination of body movements Fans gt the connection for sensory and motor neurons from the cortex to the medulla Medulla Oblongata gt Vital functioning breathing and digestion Reticular formation gt Arousal and alertness Brain Ventricles specialized cells that produce CEREBROSPINAL FLUID Brain Stem Midbrain Hindbrain gt based on evolutionary development Mapping the Brain Cortical Maps using electrical stimulation to designatedetermine where the portion of the brain is connected to Cephalograms EEG placing electrodes on the scalp and observing electrical activity to determine where electrical activity that can be recorded preferred with large groups of neurons Chapter 1 Biology and Behavior Page 5 14 Parts of the Forebrain Tuesday February 17 2015 1042 PM Function of Hypothalamus 4 F5 Feeding Fighting Flighting Functioning Sexual Hypothalamus Divisions Lateral Hypothalamus LH When the lateral hypothalamus is destroyed one Lacks Hunger VentroMedial Hypothalamus VMH When VentroMedial Hypothalamus is destroyed one is Very Much Hungry Anterior Hypothalamus When the Anterior hypothalamus is destroyed one is Asexual Thalamus Relay station for sensory information EXCEPT smell Pituitary Posterior Pituitary Secretes ADH and Oxytocin Anterior Pituitary Pineal Glad secretes melatonin Basal Ganglia coordinates muscle movement gt keeps our movements smooth and our posture steady Extrapyramidal motor system gathers info about body position and carries it to the CNS Limbic System Nuclei Amygdala Hippocampus Cerebral Cortex neocortex and Cerebrum Gyri and Sulci Bumps and folds respectively Hemispheres FPOT Frontal gt executive function Prefrontal Cortex gt supervises and directs other parts of the brain Association areas gt an area that integrates input from diverse brain regions Chapter 1 Biology and Behavior Page 6 Projection Areas gt performs rudimentary or simple motor tasks Primary Motor Cortex gt located on the PRECENTRAL GYRUS The Motor Homunculus gt the neurons of the motor cortex that are arranged systematically y according to the part of the body they are connected with Parietal gt touch temp and pain Somatosensory Cortex gt located on the POSTCENTRAL GYRUS Occipital gt vision Visual Cortex Striate Cortex gt Temporal gthearing Auditory Cortex gt Wernicke39s Area gt associated with language reception and comprehension Definitions 0 Contralaterally when the side of the body communicates with the opposite side of the brain or vice versa 0 lpsilaterally When the brain communicates with the same side of the body Dominate Hemispheres Primarily Analytic processing providing ability for detailed movements Opposite dominant hand NonDominate Hemispheres intuition creativity music cognition and spatial processing Chapter 1 Biology and Behavior Page 7 15 Influences on Behavior Tuesday February 172 2 15 242 PM Neurotransmitters 0 Acetylcholine 0 Location CNS and PNS neurons I PNS transmits nerve impulses to muscles I CNS attention and arousal III Loss of Acetylcholine in Hippocampus is related to Alzheimer39s disease 0 Epinephrine and Norepinephrine CATACHOLAMINES 0 Location Sympathetic Nervous System in Adrenal Medulla 0 Controls Alertness and Wakefulness I EP EVERYWHERE I NEP Locally III Low levels Depression High levels anxiety 0 Dopamine CATACHOLAMINES 0 Location Basal Ganglia 0 Controls Movement and posture I lmbalances associated with Schizophrenia I Dopamine hypothesis of Schizophrenia argues that symptoms of schizophrenia arises from Chapter 1 Biology and Behavior Page 8 16 Development Tuegdayp February 179 2 15 1amp43 PM Qcad u QMHA Babinski Reflex The act of a babies big toe extending and the rest fanning Q 3 5 3 p D out 9 Q C 1 Diminishes with age G C 849 6 5 7 9 2 Should not occur or be opposite in older individuals 39 Q A L Chapter 1 Biology and Behavior Page 9 21 Sensation vs Perception Wednesday February 18 2 15 1132 AM Perception vs Sensation Sensation Sensory Receptors Photoreceptors gt Sights Hair Cells gtgt Hearing and acceleration Nociceptors pain Thermoreceptors temp Osmoreceptors gt regulate water in RBCs Olfactory Receptors gt smell Taste Receptors Perception Thresholds gt the min stimulus that is needed to generate an AP Absolute gt very min needed to create any type of stimulus Subliminal Conscious Threshold gt below threshold reaches CNS but does not reach the HIGHER portions of the brain Difference Threshold JND gt min difference in magnitudedistance between stimuli that allows them to be perceived as originating from different points Weber39s Law 3 0quot b an 7 gamer wx Tmh A N39A D Signal Detection Theory EX at a loud party where you cant hear your name and someone says your name and you pick up on it internal and external stimulus Response Biases responding to the biases based on prior experience EX eating a hot chile once and then not doing it again Hit Miss False Alarm Correct Negative Adaptation overtime there is a decrease in response to a stimulus Chapter 2 Sensation and Perception Page 10 22 Vision Wednesday February 18 2015 1141 AM Parallel Processing gt looking at all aspects including color shape and motion Lc rjhY L Cones Parvocellular Cells gt help process shape but low temporal resolution nothing fast moving Magnocellular Cells gt help detect motion good at speedy images but blury 1pr 4 WWW Nu A 7 V WMEs we 5 Pugx n5 M M MornU WW X D T 37 LA LJ coer k bx aYM m V r w kb 0 m r s a 5 f Dexow to 7 Resoution decreases as more receptors converge on ganglion cells PM 7 meow we LWquot39W UNB CKW 4 wk WY F M Iaxm MW L amwlc L 0 Chapter 2 Sensation and Perception Page 11 W L Vestibule and Semicircular gt important in balance and orientatione ftWA AWl Cf Vestibule and Semicircular L n 7 Canal gt important in balance PM DWW L gt SV ACJO and orientatione W M I J M YMM 5 39 W VINJJJ 395 m w gt ti 9 3lt U 1 4 0 3 l 0AA j f1 V Low 7 it germ m gt K WAVXWM wt r kx Vmw 50 km 56 Wt lx d 5W1 l b 0amp3 xva u SW S a k w e 9 3 WW 1 c m W W V 9 ME High pitch gt hair cells are close to oval window V l 0 W Chapter 2 Sensation and Perception Page 12 24 Other Senses D mw ab Wednesday February 182 2 15 1111 AM 65 3 3 Smell gt only sense that doe s not pass thru the thalamus Taste gt involves chemo receptors and specifically dissolved compounds Somatisensation Pressure Vibration Pain Temperature Zpt Threshold the min distance bt two points in order for them to be separate stimuli Gate theory of Pain threshold increases bc of adaption to hot or cold Kinesthetic Sense Proprioception Chapter 2 Sensation and Perception Page 13 25 Object Recognition Wednesday February 18 2015 1142 AM Bottom Up Data driven gt what occurs when experiencing something for the very first time Parallel Processing gt taking in everything around it gt the whole object Feature detection Theory gt Top Down Concept driven gt driven by expectation and memories gt very W Perceptual Org gt using both to come to a conclusion I I Odo p 925M 00b GestatPrincip er a L Ar 1 Proximity 7 LCMv Asst at V 3 e 539 Similarity w 5 M armh M Subjective Contours 397 Closure space is enclosed as contours gt Good Continuation Chapter 2 Sensation and Perception Page 14 Bottom Up Data driven gt what occurs when experiencing something for the very first time Parallel Processing gt taking in everything around it gt the whole object Feature detection Theory gt Top Down Concept driven gt driven by expectation and memories gt very quick Perceptual Org gt using both to come to a conclusion Ab gt31 49 35 9quot10 7 H dea at M 3quot QA39 a 7wsawm W 31 Learning Wednesday February 18 2 15 112 AM Habituation repeated exposure to similar or same stimulus that creates a decreased response to the stimulus EX Med student habituated to blood EX Eating multiple courses of the same meal will make you habituated to the taste of the type of food Dehabituation recovery to the response EX over time not seeing blood then fainting again EX Eating small snacks throughout your main course will make you more hungry bc you are dishabituated to the taste of the type of food everytime you switch things up Learning types Observational Learning Learning via imitation BoBo Doll Exp Monkey see monkey due Mirror Neurons when someone observes someone else theses neurons fire Located in Frontal and Parietal Lobe Associative Learning in order to learn you must either learn between 2 stimuli or behavior and response i Classical Conditioning gt creating association bt two unrelated stimuli 1 Pavlov Dogs 2 Conditioned Stimulus gt smell of popcorn 3 Unconditioned Stimulus gt popping of the balloon 4 Conditioned Responsegt being scared of the smell 5 Unconditioned Response gt fearful of the balloon ii Operant Condition gt the relationship of behavior and the consequences of the behavior to affect what the individual does later on 1 BF Skinner gt behaviorism 2 ALWAYS includes words Reinforcement and Punishment 3 Reinforment Schedules determines the rate at which a behavior is acquired a Fixed Ratio mouse gets pellet based on how many times it presses the lever b Variable Ratio Reinforces behavior after a number of performances inconsistent ratio i Rate get pellet at different times VERY RAPID and VERY RESISTENT c Fixed Interval Every 205ec the mouse presses the lever and gets pellet d Variable Interval inconsistent amounts of time i Works the fastest and is the most resistant to extinction ii Mouse keeps pressing lever without ever knowing when the pellet will come 4 Shaping rewarding very specific actions iii Latent Learning 1 Ex RATs in a maze with randomly run thru but once the scientist adds a pellet the rats will run to the pellet iv Instinctive Drift Difficulty overcoming instinctive behaviors Cahpter 3 Learning and Memory Page 15 Take Aways Dishabituation is the recovery of a response to a stimulus usually after a different stimulus has been presented 0 Refers to change in response to the original stimulus not the new one o Conditioned vs Unconditioned 0 determine which based on STIMULUS o Conditioned stimuli cause a conditioned response 0 Unconditioned stimuli that causes an unconditioned response Pavlov39s Dog 0 MCAT will explain Pavlov39s experiment to us ans ask us to ID the role of the stimuliu or responses described o Negative Reinforcement is often CONFUSED with POSITIVE PUNISHMENT 0 Negative Reinforcement the REMOVAL of a bothersome stimulus to ENCOURAGE a behaviour 0 Positive Punishment the ADDITION of a bothersome stimulus to STOP a behaviour Mnemonic VR stands for Rariable Ration but it also stands for VERY RAPID and VERY RESISTENT to EXTINCTION Cahpter 3 Learning and Memory Page 16 32 Memory Wednesday February 18 2 15 1142 AM Encoding the process of converting info to your memory 1 Visual gt weakest for recall 2 Acoustic 3 Semantic gt best for recall 0 Self Reference Affect being able to recall info by incorporating info into basic concepts about yourselfyour life 0 Maintenance vs Elaborative Rehearsal 0 Maintenance the reppetition of the concept in order to get it into your long term memory 0 Elaborative the connection of the concept with information that is already stored in long term memory 0 Automatic Processing being on auto piolet 0 DON T LET YOURSELF STUDY FOR THE MCAT USING AUTOMATIC PRCOESSING 0 Controlled effortful Processing 3 Types Sensory Memory the first thing that comes to you gt last Short Term Memory gt last for lt1min gt only to remember 7 2 items Long Term Memory Explicit Memorygt conscious memory involving declarative memory Episodic Memory gt events and experiences EX the first time I drove a Bentley Semantic Memory gt deals with facts and concepts EX the different parts of the Bentley Implicit gt unconscious gtinvolves skills gt riding a bike 0 State Dependent Memorygt when you have to be in the same internal state to remember 0 Serial Position Effect retrieving info regarding list gt most likely to recall things at the beginning and end of the list then at the middle 0 Spacing Effect Better to re learn things with time then to cram Recognition vs Retrival 0 Recognition utilizes images or other attributes that have already been learned to retrieve information 0 Recall the retrieval and statement of preciously learned information Cahpter 3 Learning and Memory Page 17 0 EX recalling a list of kinderarden class mates vs recognizing images from a year book and stating their names Alzheimer39s gt lose of Acetocholine Korsokov39s Syndrome gt thymine deficiency Take Aways Factors Affecting Evewitness Courtoom Testimonv 1 Manner in which the quesiton is being asked The nature of the info shared with the witness by the police Lawyers Other witnesses following the event Misinfomation Effecet Source Amnesia The mount of time elapsed bt the event and trial NP P PWF Cahpter 3 Learning and Memory Page 18 33 Neurobiology of Learning and Memory Wednesday February 182 2 15 1142 AM Synaptic Pruning responsible for breaking weak neural connections Long Term Potentiation the strengthening of neural connections by increasing the freq of a stimulus at the NT transmitting site AND Receptor end increasing both ends density Neuroplasticity Take Aways Cahpter 3 Learning and Memory Page 19 Review Questions Saturday February 28 2 15 1256 lata 5 W f K 0 PM ng M30 we xi 5 c 9 Q fl 6x9 69 C In habituation once you change the stimulus ANY CHANGE the participant increases their response The sound of a 5 CAN OPENER causing a cat to come is a CONDITIONED STIMULUS Generalization the process by which similar stimuli can produce the same conditioned response Avoidance Learning a type of NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT where a behavior is increased to prevent an unpleasant future consequence Credit Card companies CHARGING a LATE FEE is a positive punishment a Positive Punishment ADDIING a bothersome something to STOP a behavior 6 FixedVariable INTERVALS always dealing with time 10 11 12 13 14 Complicated multistage behaviors are taught through staging a Staging providing rewards at the end of the accomplished step in the multistep behavior Controlled Processing Effortful Encoding Sematic Encoding is the most effetive gt then acostic gt then visual SelfReference Affect the ability to remember something easier if YOU PERSONALLY have something attached to the topicsubject Elaborate Rehersal does NOT cover ALL attribution of a new topic to a preexisiting long term memory a PegWord the association of words to a preconstructed set of ideas using IMAGES associated with NUMBERS MethodofLoci association of words to a preconstructed set of ideas using LOCATIONS PartialReport Procedures the indicidual is asked to recall a speciic portion of the stimulus gt only accurate for a very brief time a Method od Stdying Sensory Memory Sematic Memory knowing the parts of a bently you39re interested in gt recalling facts Underwater is not a STATE that one can become dependent on for recall Cahpter 3 Learning and Memory Page 20 15 Elderly individualshave a problem with time based prospective memory gt when remembering to do an activity at a particular time Cahpter 3 Learning and Memory Page 21 41 Cognition Wednesday February 18 2 15 112 AM 0 Information Processing Model states that the brain encodes stores and retrieves information much like a computer i Sensation encoding and storage of stimuli ii Stimuli is analyzed the by the brain iii Problem solving Piaget39s Stages of Cognitive Development 0 Senorimote Stage focues on manipulating the environment to meet the physical needs through CIRCULAR REACTIONS I Final Stage is OBJECT PERMANENCE I EX Peek a Boo o Preoperational Stage focuses on I Symbolic Thinking I Egocentrism I Centration 0 Concrete operational Stage focuses on understand thing feelings of others and manipulating physicla concrete objects 0 Formal Operational Stage focuses on abstract throught and problem solving 0 Biological Factors 0 Organicbrain disorders 0 Genentic and chromosomalconditions Metaboloic derangements 0 Drug use I Lev Vygotsky proposed that the engine driving cognitive development is the childs internalization of her culture including interpersonal and social rules symbols and language I Delirium the time course course resulting in dementia 0 Chapter 4 Cognition Consciousness and Languages Page 22 42 ProblemSolving and DecisionMaking Wednesday February 18 2 15 1143 AM 0 Problem Solving requires identification and undertstanding of the problem generation of potential solutions testing of potential solutions and evaluation of the results 0 Mental Set a pattern of approach for a given problem I If the negative mental set is used then it will impact the problem solving 0 Functional Fixedness the tendency to use objects on in the way they are normaly utilized I Creats problems in problem solving 0 Types of Problem Solving O Tria and Error 0 Algorithms o Deducitve Reasoning O Inductive Reasoning 0 Heuristics shortcuts or rules of thumb 0 Biases exist when experimenter is unable to objectively evaluate information 0 ltution gut feeling 0 Gardner39s Theory 0 Multiple Intelligences seven areas of intelligence I Linguistic I Logical mathematical I Musical I Visual spatial I Bodily kinesthetic I Interpersonal I Intra personal 0 Variations are attributed to I Enviroment I Education I Genetics DO SECTION QUESTIONS GOOD QUESTIONS Chapter 4 Cognition Consciousness and Languages Page 23 43 Consciousness Monday Maroh 9 2 15 857 PM 0 mtes of Consciousness O Alterness the state of being awake BATD Mnemonic For Sleep Wave course BETA and ALPHA WAVES predominate on EEGs 3 are as39eequot ngthe DAY 0 Sleep I Stage 1 light sleep donminated by THETA WAVES on EEG I Stage 2 slightly deeper THETA WAVES SLEEP SPINDES and K COMPLEXES I Stage 3 and 4 NREM deep SLOW WAVE sleep SWS with DELTA WAVES III Consolidation of declaritive memories I REM paradoxical sleep the mind appears close to awake on EEG but the person is asleep I Eye and Body PARALYSIS III Consolidating procedural memories I Sleep Cycles 123432REM o Dreaming occurs during REM and occasionally during other sleep stages I Dyssomnias Insomnia narcolepsy and sleep apnea I Parasomnias night terrors and sleepwalking I CompareContrast Amount of sleep vs distrubed sleep 0 Altered States of Consciousness I Hypnosis state of consciousness in which individuals appear to be in control of their normal faculties but are in a highly suggestuble state III Used in pain control psychological therapy memry enhancement weight loss and smoking cessation I Meditation a quieting of the mind and is often used for relief of anxiety III Functions in many world religions 0 Meltonin absorbed by the PUNEAL GLAD and causes SLEEPINESS 0 Coritsol increases in the early morning and help promote wakefulness 0 Cirvadian Rhythems trend around a 24hr day 0 Hypnopompic Hallucinations O Menmonic Hallucinations that occur when one is POPPING out of bed 0 Hynagogic O Mnemonic hallucinations that occur when one is Going to bed 0 Hormones Involved in Sleep useful in maintaining circadian rythem O Meatonin O Cortisol Chapter 4 Cognition Consciousness and Languages Page 24 44 ConsciousnessAltering Drugs Monday March 9 2 15 92 PM Depressants promote or mimic GABA acitivity in the brain 0 EX Alch barbiturates benzodiazepines Stimulants increase DOPAMINE NOREPINEPHRINE and SEROTONING concentrations at the synpatic cleft OpuiatesOpiods cause death by respiratory depression 0 Heroin morphine opim precription pain meds Hallucinoens EX LSD peyote mescalin ketamine mushrooms Marijuana has depressant stimulant and hallucinogenic effects Active ingedient is THC Mesolimbic Pathway mediates drug addition gt DOPAMINE is the main NT in the pathway 0 Nucleus Accumbens o Medial Forebrain Bundle 0 Ventral Tegmental Area Chapter 4 Cognition Consciousness and Languages Page 25 45 Attention Monday March 92 2 15 92 PM 0 Selective Attention allows on to pay attention to a particular stimulus while determining if additional stimuli in the background require attention 0 Filer used to focus on one set of stimuli while scanning other stimuli in the background for important information 0 Divided Attention uses AUTOMATIV PROCESSING to pay attention to multiple activities at one time Chapter 4 Cognition Consciousness and Languages Page 26 46 Language Monday March 92 2 15 912 PM Phonology the actual sound of speech Morphology the building blocks of words such as rules for pluralization Semantics the meaning of words Sytax the rules dictating word order Pragmatics the changes in language delivery depending on context Primarv Triggers of Theories of Language 0 Nativist Theory the Language Acquisition Device o Leaning Theory Operant Learning 0 Social Interactionist Theory desire to act normally Whorfian Hypothesis linguistic relativeity states that the lens through which we view and interpret the world is created by language Speech Areas normally found on the LEFT 0 Broca39s Area I Broca39s Aphasia generating each word requires great effort 0 Wernicke39s Areas I Wernicke39s Aphasia words fluently spoken but not comprehensive o Arcuate Fasciculus Connects the two areas I Conduction Aphasia the inability to repeat words despite intact speech generation and comprehension Chapter 4 Cognition Consciousness and Languages Page 27 51 Motivation Monday March 9 2915 919 PM 0 Motivation the purpose or driving force behind our actions 0 Extrinsic 0 Intrinsic 0 Ectors Influencing Emotion o Instincts o Arousal the state of being awake and reactive to stimuli at an optimal level I YerkesDodson Law performance is optimal at a medium level of arousal o Drives internal states of tension that beget particular behaviors focused on goals I Primary Drivesgt related to bodily processes I Secondary Drivesgt stem from learning and include accomplishments and emotions I Drive Reduction Theory motivation arises from the desire to eliminate drives which create uncomfortable internal states 0 Needs I Maslow39s Hierarchy of Needs prioritizes needs Physiological Needs Safety and Security Love and Belonging Self Esteem III Self actualization I Self determination theory emphasizes the role of three universal needs III Autonomy III Competence III Relatedness o Incentive Theory motivation to pursue of avoid punishment 0 Expectancyvalue Theory based on the individuals expectation of success and how much success is worth 0 OpponentProcess Theory explains motivation for drug use as drug use increases the body counteracts its effects leading to tolerance and uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms 0 Sexual motivation is related to hormones as wellas cultural social factors El EIEIEI Chapter 5 Motivation J Emotion J and Stress Page 28 52 Emotion Monday March 9 2 15 922 PM 0 Emotion a state of mind that is subjectively experienced based on circumstances mood and relationship 0 Three Components 0 Cognitive gt subjective o Behavioral gt facial expressing and body language 0 Physiological gt changes in the sympathetic nervous system 0 Seven Universal Emotions 0 Happiness Sadness Contempt Surpirse Fear Disgust o Anger 0 3 Theories of Emotion O JamesLange theory nervous system arousal leads to a cognitive response in which the emotion is labeled I Primary Response I Secondary Response 0 CannonBard Theory the simultaneous arousal of the nervous system and cognitive response I Primary Response I Secondary Response 0 SchachterSinger Theory nervous system arousal and interpretation of contact lead to a cognitive response I Primary Response I Secondary Response 0 Limbic System primary nervous system component involved in experiencing emotion Amygdala attention and fear Thalamus sensory processing station Hypothalamus releases NTs that affect mood and arousal Hippocampus creates long term memory Prefrontal Cortex I Right Side negative emotion I Left Side positive emotion I Ventral Prefrontal Cortex I Ventro Medial Prefrontal Cortex 00000 O 0000 Chapter 5 Motivation J Emotion J and Stress Page 29 53 Stress Monday March 9 2 15 92 PM 0 Stress the physiological or cognitive response to challenges or life changes Stages of Stress 0 Primary Appraisal classifying a potential stressor as irrelevant benignpositive or stressful 0 Secondary Appraisal evaluations of the organisms ability to cope with the stress based on harm threat and challenge Stressor lead to O Distress o Eustress General Adaptation Syndrome Stages 0 Alarm 0 Resistance 0 Exhaustion psychological state then affects the health Stress Management 0 Psychological o Behavioral O Spriitual Aspects Chapter 5 MotivationAJ EmotionAJ and Stress Page 30 61 SelfConcept and Identity Monday March 9 2 1S 937 PM 0 Self Concept the sum of the ways in which we describe ourselves at any point in time 0 Identities individual components of our selfconcept related to the groups to which we belong o EX religions sexual orientation and ethnicities 0 SelfEsteem 0 Actual Self 0 Ideal Self o Ought Self 0 SelfEfficacy the degree to which we see ourselves as being capable at a given skill or in a given situation 0 Locus of Control a self evaluation that refers to the way we characterize the influences in our lives 0 People with an INTERNAL locus of control see their success and failures as a results of heir own characterics and actions 0 People with an EXTERNAL locus of control see others as having more of an influence in their lives 0 Three Factors in determining ethnic ID 1 Common Ancestry 2 Cultural Heritage 3 Language 0 National Identity determined by the political borders of where one lives and the cultural ID of that nation Chapter 6 Identity and Personality Page 31 62 Formation of Identity Monday March 9 2 15 938 PM CompareContrast O M the individual has become fixated in that state and will display personality traits of that fixation O Erikson the individual will still move through subsequent phases but will be lacking skills and virtues granted by successful resolution of that stage 0 Kohlberg the individual was incapable of reasoning at that level and would use reasoning described in previous stages to resolve problems Freud39s Psychosexual Stages of Personality Development based on the tensions caused by the LIBIDO Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development stem from conflicts that occur throughout life gt these conflicts are the result of decisions we are forced to make about ourselves and the environment around us at each phase of our lives a Trust vs mistrust 01 yr b Autonomy vs doubt 13yr c Initiative vs guilt 35yr 039 Industry vs inferiority 611 yr Kohlbergs States of MORAL Development describe the approaches of individuals to resolving moral dilemmas gt believed that we progress through SIX STAG ES divided intro three main phases 0 Preconventional child reasoning 0 Conventional adult reasoning O Postconventional more advanceda dults Vygostsky development of MUACE CUITURE and SKILLS proposed the idea of the ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT which describes those skills that a child has not et mastered and require a MORE KNOWLEDGEABLE OTHER to accomplish ImitationRole Taking common ways children learn from others Reference Group the group which we compare ourselves Chapter 6 Identity and Personality Page 32 63 Personality Monday March 9 2 1S 938 PM I Psychoanalytic views personality as resulting from unconscious urges and desires O Freud I ID base urge of survival and reproduction I Superego the idealist and perfectionist I Ego the mediator between the two and the conscious mind I Defense Mechanisms used to reduce stress caused by the urges of the id and superego o Jung assumed COLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS that links all humans together gt viewed personality as being influenced by archetypes O Adler and Horney distanced themselves from Freud and claim that the unconscious is motivated by social rather then sexual I Humanistic perspective emphasizes the internal feelings of healthy individuals as they strive toward happiness and selfrealization o Maslow39s NEEDS and Rogers39 0 Type and Trait Theory believe that personality can be described as a number of identifiable traits that carry character behaviors Types of Personalities 1 2 3 o 5 traits of personality 1 Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism o Mnemonic OCEAN 0 Social Cognitive perspective holds that individuals interact with their environment in a cycle called RECIPROCAL DETERMINATISM O Molding their environments according to their personalities and those environments in turn shape our thoughts feelings and behaviors I Behaviorist based on the concept of operant condition holds that personality can be described as the behaviors one has learned from prior rewards and punishments 0 Biological Theorist claim that behavior can be explained as a result of genetic expression CompareConter on Personalig descriptions O Psychoanalytic Humanistic Type Trait Behaviorist Social Cognitive Biological Eysenck39s PEN thou O P pdychoticism gt non conformity or social deviance o E xtraversion tolerance for social interaction and stimulation 0 N Neuroticism gt emotional arousal in stressful situations WhWN OOOOOO Chapter 6 Identity and Personality Page 33 71 Understanding Psychological Disorders Monday Maren 92 2 15 955 PM Chapter 7 Psychological Disorders Page 34 72 Types of Psychological Disorders Momdayy Maroh 9 2 15 956 PM Chapter 7 Psychological Disorders Page 35 73 Biological Basis of Nervous System Disorders Monday Meroh 92 2 15 956 PM Chapter 7 Psychological Disorders Page 36 81 Group Psycgology Thursday March 26 2 1S 52 3 PM 0 Social Facilitation describes the tendency of people to perform at a different label based on the fact that others are around Devindividuation the loss of selfawareness in large groups which in a group individuals are less likely to respond to a person in need Bystander Effect Peer Pressure Group Decisionmaking 0 Group Polarization the tendency toward making decisions in a group that are more extreme then the thoughts of the individuals in the group 0 Groupthinik Culture the beliefs ideas behaviors actions and characteristics of a group or society of people 0 Assimilation o Multiculturalism o Subcultures refers t a group of people within a culture that distinguish themselves from the primary culture to hih they belong Chapter 8 Social ProcessesJ Attitude and Behavior Page 37 82 Socialization Thursday March 262 2 15 52 9 PM 0 Socialization the process of developing and spreading norms customs and beliefs Norms what determine the boundaries of acceptable behavior within a society Stigma the extreme disapproval or dislike a person or group has based on perceived differences Deviance any violation of norms rules or expectation within a society Conformity changing beliefs or behaviors in order to fit into a group or society Compliance occurs when individuals change their behavior based on the request of others Foot in the door Door in the face Lowball ANot All techniques Obedience O O O 0 Chapter 8 Social ProcessesJ Attitude and Behavior Page 38 83 Attitudes and Behavior Thursday March 269 2 15 513 PM 0 Attitudes tendencies toward expression of positive or negative feelings or evaluation of something 0 Functional Attitude Theom states that there are four functional areas of attitudes 0 Knowledge 0 Ego expression 0 Adaptability o Ego defense 0 Learning Theory states that attitudes are developed through forms of learning 0 Direct Contact 0 Direct Instruction 0 Conditioning 0 Elaboration likelihood Model states that attitudes are formed and changed through different routs of information processing based on the degree of elaboration 0 Social Cognitive Theory states that attitudes are formed through observation of behavior personal factors and environment Chapter 8 Social ProcessesJ Attitude and Behavior Page 39 103 Stereotypes Prejudice and Discrimination Sunday Maroh 292 2 15 838 PM Stereotype Threat a threat where if someone knows about a stereotype they may follow thru with it and act in the same way as expected by the stereotype Chapter 10 Social Thinking Page 40 102 Social Perception and Behavior Sunday March 292 2 15 841 PM 0 Fundamental Attribution Error we are generally biased toward making dispositional attribution rather than situtational attribution o EX blamming someone for not completing something bc you assume they39re lazy or unreliable When the real attribution should be to the fact that they got sick Chapter 10 Social Thinking Page 41 Chapter 1 Regions of the Brain Wednesday February 18 2 15 448 PM The story of Phineas Gage who experienced significant personality changes after being impaled with a railroad spike laid the foundation for associating the frontal lobe with personality The forebrain is also associated with emotion and memory What areas of the brain maybe affected if one of multiple lesions are found in the forebrain and what cognitive or life functions would be lost Could an individual survive the loss of this area of the brain 1 What areas of the brain may be affected if one or multiple lesions are found in the forebrain Cerebral Cortex gtExecutive Function FPOT Basal gangliagt Coordinate Muscle movements Limbic systemgt Emotion and memory ThalamusgtRelay station for all sensory info except smell Hypothalamusgt homeostasis and integrates with endocrine system 2 What cognitive or life functions would be lost The 4Fs Feeding Fighting Flighting and Sexually Functioning 3 What cognitive or life functions would be lost 4 Could an individual survive the loss of this area of the brain An individual cannont survive with the loss of the WHOLE forebrain lurk o3r X VVX loinm1 J L mk 0 Xlx Wbm 4va 0k W341 quot SM 133 Viol DRAW t COMPwa W 3 t A hYWA HYPSG Page 42 HYPSG Page 43 Chapter 2 Vision Wednesday February 18 2 15 62 9 PM 5 501 Optic Nerve carriers all info from the associated eye Optic Chiasm Contains crossing nasal fibers temporal visual fields from each eye Optic Tract carries information from the opposite visual fields 0 Feature Detection Theory we interpret objects by assessing specific characteristics such as lines shapes or specific kinds of motion to identify something of importance vs something 05 little value 0 Parallel Processing the psychological counterpart to feature detection theory and refers to our analysis of different attributes of an object through separate pathways before integrating them 0 Color motion sound depth as separate entities HYPSG Page 44 Chapter 3 Associative Learning Saturday February 282 2 15 1248 PM Operant Conditioning 0 What is being added positive or taken away negative 0 What effect that will have on the target behavior reinforcementencourageincrease likelihood or punishstopdecreases the erhhood HYPSG Page 45 Test 3 QBank Questions Friday Aprii 39 2 15 829 PM 0 Medial Temporal Lobe controls declarative memory 0 keep in mind the connection between one39s psychological state and NS reactions 0 SchaterSinger Theory involves knowledge of an emotion intensifying the physiological developments gt postulates that arousal contributes to the intensity of emotion o EX when a person experiences physiological arousal with no explanation for the arousal they will attribute the arousal to the surroundings when labeling emotion 0 Skin Conductance a measure of suppressing emotion gt increased skin conductance suppressing emotion 0 Semantic Memory described as the knowledge of facts 0 Remembering the steps for solving an algebraic equation 0 Episodic Memory recall from experience 0 Recalling the experience of learning how to ride a bike 0 Procedural memory learning motor tasks 0 Having the ability to tie a knot quickly after being shown how 0 Observer Bias the categorical misclassification of information due to observer perception of participant status Qbank Review Page 46 Chapters IWritten Notes I Chapter 1 I I I Chapter 2 Chapter 3 I Chapter 4 I I I Incomplete Chapter 6 I I I I Chapter 7 I Chapter 8 I Chapter 9 Chapter 10 I Chapter 11 I Chapter 12 To Do Chapters Page 1 11 Cell Theory Wednesday February 18 2 15 1159 AM Four Compents of Cell Theory 1 All iving things are composed of cells 2 The cell is the basic functional unit of life 3 Cells arise only from preexisting cells 4 Cells carry genentic information in the form of DNA The genetic material is passed on from parent to daughter cell Chapter 1 The Cell Page 2 12 Eukaryotic Cells Friday February 27 Z 15 728 PM Nucleus contain genetic information in a completely separate environment Mitochondrion Partcipate in cellular respiration providing the energy of the cell in the form of ATP 0 Utilizes oxaloacetate in glucogenloysis which is need for the kreb cycle 0 Methonal Blocks energy use Lysosomes recycle waste within the cell Rough ER Have ribosomes attached and produce proteins designed to EXIT the cell Smooth ER designes proteins responsible for INSIDE the cell Golgi Apparatus adds carbohydrates to proteins to allow them to communicate and travel to the appropriate location Peroxisomes contain hydrogen peroxide and function in breaking down very long chain fatty acids as well as creating phospholipids Main Proteins in Cvtoskeleton Microfilaments made up of polymerized rods of ACTIN Microtubules hollow polymers of TU BULIN proteins Intermediate Filaments Diverse group of filamentous proteins including KERATIN and DESMIN CENTROLS have 9 TRIPLETS of microtubules FLAGELLACILIA have 9 PAIRS Epithelial Cells covers body lines cavities protecting against pathogen invasion and desiccation establish the PARENCHYMA which are the functional parts of the organ Endothelial Cells line blood vessels Alpha Cells produce glucagon in the pancreas Connective Tissue support the body and provide framework for epithelia cells for the STROMA or support structure by secreting materials t form an extracellular matrix Fibroblast produce collagen in a number of organs Osteoblasts produce osteoid the material that hardens into bone Chondroblase produce cartilage Chapter 1 The Cell Page 3 Take Aways 0 Nt all cells have the same relative ditribution of organelles Form wi folow function Cellls that require a lot of energy for locomotion have high concentrations of mitochondria Cells involved in secretion have high concentrations of RER andGolgi apparatuses Other cells such as RBCs which primaritily serve a transport function have no organelles at all 0 Definecnty in creating hydrogen peroxide creates a deficientcy in peroxisomes 13 Classification and Structure of Prokaryotic Cells Archaea Bacteria Similaritie 1 Both are single celled orgs that lack nucleus or s membrane bound organelles 2 Contain a single circular chromosome 3 Divide by binary fissionbudding 4 Share similar structure Three Common Shapes of Bacteria 0 Cocci SPHERICAL 0 Baccili ROD Spirrili SPIRAL Types of Bacteria based on oxygen consumption Eu ka ryotes 1 Start translation with methione AUG 2 Contain RNA polymerases 3 Associate their DNA with histones Oxygen Oxygen Present Oxygen Oxygen Absent Present Absent Can Can carry out Can Can carry out Survive aerobic Survive anaerobic metabolism metabolism Obligate Aerobe m E No No Facultative E E E E Anaerobe Obligate Anaerobes No No E E Aerotolerant E No Q E Anaerobe Flagella Comparison Eukaryotic 0 Contain microtubueles composed of tubulin Organized in 92 Prokaryotic Made of FLAGELIN 0 Consist of a FILAMENT BASAL BODY and HOOK Chapter 1 The Cell Page 4 Take Aways 0 Bacteria produce Vit K in the intertines 0 Required for the production of plasma proteins necessary for blood clotting 0 Babies are given an injection of Vit K bc they have no bacteria colonies 0 Pathogenic bacteria ARE NOT SPIRAL shaped EXCEPT o The cause of syphilis o The cause of lyme disease 0 The cause of Weil39s Syndrome Gram Positive bacteria have a thick layer of peptidoglycan Differents in ribosomal size off prokaryotes and eukaryotes allows us to target bacterial ribosomes with a number of antibiotics while leaving eukaryotic ribosomes more or less unaffected o and Growth of Prokaryotio Cells Ali51 l T39I lal F 14 Geneti El g r Mechanisms of Bacterial Genetic Recombination 0 Transformation the integration of a foreign genetic material INTO the HOST GENOME 0 Conjugation Bacterial form of SEXUAL REPRODUCTION 0 Transduction the passing of genetic material via a vector gt a virus that carries genetic material from one bacterium to another Four Phases of Bacterial Growth Curve and Feature Phase Feature Lag Phase 0 Bacteria get used to environment 0 Little growth during this time Exponential Phase 0 Bacteria use available resources to multiple at an exponential rate Stationary Phase 0 Bacterial multiplication ceases as resources are used up Death Phase 0 Bacteria die as resources become insufficient to support the colony Take Aways 0 Semilog and loglog graphs depict expoential growth NOT linear growth Chapter 1 The Cell Page 5 15 Viruses and Subviral Particles Friday February 27 26215 825 PM 0 Obligate Intracellular Parasites has to do with REPRODCTION gt since viruses don t can39t organelles like ribosomes they depend on the hijacking of an infected cell39s cellular machinary 0 PositiveSense RNA Virus imples that they genome may be directly translated by the ribsomes od the host cell gt tend to move more quickly COMMON COLD Retrovirus Pathway 1 2 9 gt Uquot39gtP Viral capsid attaches for CCRS receptor It fuses to the cell membrane and injects its viral genome and reverse transcriptaes The viral genome is transcribed into DNA In the CYTOPLASM It is inserted into the host DNA in the NUCLEUS RNA polymerse makes mRNA Ribosomes read mRNA and create viral proteins The viral proteins bud Mature from an immature virion to a mature virus Lvtic Vs Lvsogenic Cycles 0 Lytic bacteriophages replicate in the host cell in extrememly high numbers until the host cel lyses and releases the virions Lysogenic bacteriophages genom enters the host genome and replicates with the host cell as a provirus gt after exposure to a partiuclar stimulus the provirus leaves the host genome and cean be used to sythesize ew virions 0 Slow Virus Will not kill host cells quickly Chapter 1 The Cell Page 6 Take Aways RETTROVRUSES and TRANSDUCTION are the main avenues for gene therapy techniques Prions cause disease by triggering a change in the conformation of a protein from an alpha helic to a beta least sheet gt this REDUCES solubility of the protein and makes it HIGHLY RESISTANT TO DEGRADATION Question Review Friday February 27 2 15 855 PM 6N oX Q5 19 g gc m Mg Vy cw 1 Obligate Anaerobes cannot survive IN THE PRESESE OF OXYGEN Muscle cells are NOT connective tissue 3 Genomes of VIRUSES can be a Single Stranded RNA b Double Stranded DNA c Single Stranded DNA Golgi Apparatus Function modification and destruction of proteins Mitochondrial DNA is CIRCULAR and SELF REPLICATING not single stranded Smooth ER creates lipids detoxifies poisons and transports proteins but DOES NOT make proteins no ribosomes Nucleolus main function is rRNA SYNTHESIS of Membranes a Lysosomes have a SINGLE LAYER b Nucleus and Mitochondria have DOUBLE LAYERS c Ribosomes have NO MEMBRANE 9 Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have membranes on the outside of their cell a Differnces Include i Ribosomalsubunit weight ii Presence of nucleus iii Presence of membrane bound organelles 10 MicroFILLAMENTS DO NOT contain tubulin a DO CONTAIN TUBULIN gtlt i Cilia 0 ii Flagella MOVE 93Q iii Centrioles 11 Diffences bt Lytic and Lysogenic 12 Transduction and Conjugation INCREASE genetic variability 13 FERTILITY FACTOR CONJUGATION 14 Prions in BETA PLEATED SHEETS 15 If a virus genome MUST go into the nucleus it PROBABLY needs to use the RNA polymerase located in there gt MUST BE DNA Iquot P gt39 UquotP Chapter 1 The Cell Page 7 21 The lie Cell Cycle and Mitosis m m 7 r a r the x LBJ Law4 4 a 1 5 7 Cell Cycle Staging and Features G1 State Presynthetic Gap S Stage Synthesis of DNA G2 Stage Postsynthetic Gap M Stage Mitosis G0 Stage 0 Cell grows and performs its normal functions 0 DNA is examined and repaired 0 DNA is REPLICATED 0 Cell continues to grow and replicated organelles in preparation for mitosis 0 Cell continues to perform normal functions 0 Mitosis cell divisions begin The cell performs its normal functions and is not planning to divide Mitosis Stages and Features State Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Features 1 Chromosomes condense 2 Nuclear membrane dissolves 3 Nucleoli Dissapear 4 Centrioles migrate to opposite poles 5 Beginning the formation of the spindle apparatus 1 Chromosomes gather along the metaphase plate in the center of the cell under the guidance of the spindle apparatus 1 Sister chromatids separate 2 A copy of each chromosome migrates to opposite oples Telophase Cytokinesis Take Aways 0 each 1 Chromosomes decondense 2 Nuclear membrane reforms 3 Nucleoli reappear 4 Spinde apparatus breaks down 1 Cell divides into 2 identical daughter cells chromatid is coposed of a complete double standed molecule of DNA 0 Sister chromatides are identical copies of each other 0 Chromosome may be used to refer to either a single chromatid before the S PHASE of the pair of chromatides attached at the centromere after the S PHASE 0 Autosomal cellsL division results in two genetically identical daughter cells 0 Germ Cells faughter cells are not equivalent Chapter 2 Reproduction Page 8 22 Meiosi F iquot d a g 2 quotL l L I Ploidv of Daughter Cells Meiosis 1 end with 2 HAPLOID DAUGHTER CELLS Meiosis 2 End with up to 4 HALPLOID GAMETES Difference between Homologous Chromosomes and Sister Chromatids 0 Homologous Chromosomes related to chromosomes of opposite parental origin 0 Mother AND Father donating Chromosome 15 o X and Y chromosomes 0 CROSSING OVER OCCURS DURING MEIOSIS PROPHASE I 0 Sister Chromatids identical copies of the same DNA held together at the centomere 0 After S PHASE 92 Chromatids gt 46 Chromosomes gt 23 Homologous Pairs Phases of Meiosis 1 and difference fro Mitotic Phase Meiotic Differences from Mitotic Phase Phase Prophase 1 0 Homologous chromosomes come together as tetrads during synapsis gt CROSSING OVER Metaphase 0 Homologous chromosomes line up at opposite sides fthe metaphase plate 1 0 Rather than individual chromosomes lining up at the metaphase plate 0 Mitosis centromeres are present directly on the metaphase plate 0 Meiosis NO CENTROMERES at the METAPHASE PLATE Anaphase 1 0 Homologous chromosomes separate form each other 0 Centromeres do not break Telophase 1 0 Chromatin may or may not decondense 0 Interkinesis occurs as the cell prepares for meiosis 2 Take Aways the further apart 2 genes are the more likely they are to become unlinked during crossing over 0 These statistics are used to DETERMINE DISTANCE bt genes on a chromosome 0 Measure in CENTIMORGANS Differences bt Meiosis 1 and Mitosis Chapter 2 Reproduction Page 9 o Chromosome level is havled in meiosis 1 o The daughter cells have the HAPLOID number of chromosomes 23 in humans Similarities bt Meiosis 2 and Mitosis 0 Sister chromatids are separated from one another gt NO CHANGE in ploidy 0 Nondisjunction the FAILURE of HOMOLOGUOS chromosomes or SISTER CH ROMATIDES to fail to separate 0 Autosome Chromosome Nondisjunction Can result if Trisomy 21 21 down syndrome 0 Sex Chromosome Nondisjunction Klienfelter39s and Turner Syndromes Mitosis 2n gt 2n Occurs in all dividing cells Homologous chromosomes DO NOT PAIR No crossing over Meiosis 2n gt n Occurs only in sex cells Homologous chromosomes align on opposite dies of the metaphase plate Crossing over can occur Chapter 2 Reproduction Page 10 23 The Reproductive System Friday February 27 2015 1003 PM Leydig and Sertoli Cell Function 0 Leydig Cells secrete TESTOSTERONE and ANDROGENS utilize LH 0 Sertoli Cells Nourish sperm during their development Utilize FSH 0 Primary Oocyte arrested in Prophase 1 0 Secondary Oocyte arrested in Prophase 2 0 Acrosome contains enzymes that are capable of penetrating the corona radiate and zona pellucida of the ovum permitting fertilization to occur 0 Specific Organelles modified by GOLGI Phases of Female Menstrual Cvcle Phase Key Feature FSH LH Estrogen Progresteron e Follicular 0 Egg develops Increase Decreases then Decreases o Endometrial lining becomes vascularized and Increase glandularized Ovulation 0 Egg is released from follicle into peritoneal cavity Increase SUPER Increase Increase Increase Luteal 0 Corpus luteum produces progesterone to maintain Decreases Increase Increase endometrium Menses Shedding of endometrial lining Decreases Decreases Decreases Decreases we 9 wMMCoNW k g Wye s l f f h arst lo gerrth l I ll MINE IS a waw 3M Take Aways o Mnemonic sex linked is linked o Mnemonic Sperm Pathway SEVEN UP 0 S Seminiferous Tubules E Epididymis V Vas Deferens E Ejacultory duct NOTHING U Urethra o P Penis o Menmonic Estrogen Establishes and Progesterone Protects the endometrium 0 Birth Control oral contraceptics pills estrogen progestrone orjust progestrone that BLOCKS LH and FSH release gt inhibiting ovulation via NEGATIVE FEEDBACK o Mentral Cycle 0 Follicles mature during the follicular phase FSH LH o LH surges at midcycle to trigger ovulation o Ruptured follicle becomes corpus luteum which secreates ESTROGEN and PROGESERONE to build up uterine lining in preparation fo r implantation gt LH and FSH are inhibited o If fertilization DOES NOT OCCUR the corpus luteum atrophies PROGESTRONE and ESTROGEN levels DECREASE menses occurs and LH and 00000 Chapter 2 Reproduction Page 11 FSH levels begin to rise agin NO Y linked diseases on MCAT Chapter 2 Reproduction Page 12 Question Revrew Friday February 27 2 15 1 28 PM We 1 2 9 39 9quot39gtU vaw W a A e 711 45 c o Sperm Development a Female Puberty a BirthMenarche Prophase meiosis 1 PRRMARY OOCYTES b At Ovulation gt Egg completed meiosis 1 and is now ARRESTED in Metaphase 2 i Haploid Cell ii SECONDARY OOCYTE c At Fertilization gt Complete Meiosis 2 i MATURE OVUM Spindle Fibers attach to kinetochores in PROPHASE of MITOSIS S Phase latest point at which DNA can be modified to affect the subsequent lineage Excessive Estrogen in Female Reproductive System affects ENDOMETRIUM During OVULATION the Oocyte is released to the ABDOMINAL CAVITY Chemotherapy targets cells in S Phase Prophase and Metaphase that are rapidly dividing Male Reproductive System Structure and Features a Seminal Vesicles gt produce alkaline fructose containing secretions b Epididymis gt site of sperm maturation at the posterior side of the testis c Vas Deferens gt tubes connecting the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct gt surrounded by muscles d Cowpers Glands gt produce a fluid to clear traces of urine in the urethra The last phase of meiotic cycle where there is a diploid number of chromosomes is TELOPHASE 1 10 11 12 13 14 15 Replication during the S Phase does not contribute to genetic variability Centromeres at Metaphase Plate Meiosis vs No Centromeres at metaphase plate Mitosis Prophase Chromosomes DON T uncoil gt The Nucleoli Disappears With NONDISJUNCTION you end up with one less chromosome PROGESTRONE peaks during the LUTEAL PHASE GnRH is inhibited during pregnancy Chapter 2 Reproduction Page 13 31 Earl y Developmental Stages l 2 15711 1 0 Determinate Cleavage results in cells with fates that are already determined 0 Indeterminate Cleavage results in cell that can still develop into complete organisms Stages of Development from ngote to Gastrula Stage Feature Implantation occurs during the TROPHOBLAST stage of development gt develops into the chorion Germ Lavers and Organ Formation Germ Layer Organs Ectoderm o ATTRACTOderm bc its responsible for cosmetic features and smarts I ADRENAL MEDULLA gt has some nervous tissue Mesoderm o MEANSodemr bc it is the means of MOVEMENT gt muscles and bones 39 ADRENAL CORTEX gt Endoderm 0 Induction when NEARBY cells influences the differentiation of ADJACENT cells 0 ENSURE proper special LOCATION and ORIENTATION of cells that share function or have complementary functions 0 Neural Crest Cells Becomes the PNS as well as specific cell types in other tissues Take Aways 0 Mnemonic Remember that an embryo with a BLASTED OUT Cavity is a BLASTU LA Mnemonic DEUterostomes gt like duo which means 2gt as in quotnumber 2 and creates the AN US Mnemonic o Ectoderm ATTRACTOderm bc its responsible for cosmetic features and smarts I ADRENAL MEDULLA gt has some nervous tissue 0 Mesoderm MEANSodemr bc it is the means of MOVEMENT gt Chapter 3 Embryogenesis and Development Page 14 muscles and bones I ADRENAL CORTEX gt o Endoderm ENDERNAL organs gt the difestive and repiratory tract and accessory organs attahched to these systems 0 Failure of the NEURAL TUBE to close results in the SPINE being exposed o Preganant women are suggested to take FOLIC ACID supplements to prevent this Chapter 3 Embryogenesis and Development Page 15 32 Mechanisms of Development a 27 1 u A 2 I 1 a J S J S aquot 0 Determination the commitment of a cell to a particular lineage Differentiation the actual changes that occur in order for the cell to assume the structuure and function of the determined cell type Three Types of Potencv and their Cell Lineages Type of Potency Cell Lineages 39Totipotent All Cell types Placenta Structures IPluripotent All Cell Types I Multipotent A specific subset of cell types Four Tvpes of CellCell Communication Autocine Signal acts on SAME CELL 39Paracrine 39Signal acts on LOCAL AREA Juxtacrine Signals act through DIRECT STIMLARTION of ADJACENT CELLS Endocrine Signals act on DISTANT TISSUE after traveling through the BLOOD I 0 Growth Factors peptides that promote differentiation and mitosis in certain Hssue 0 Reciprocal Induction when two tissues induce FURTHER DIFFERENTIATION in each other 0 ALWAYS NEGATIVE FEEDBACK except during the LH Surge Difference bt APOPTOSIS and NECROSIS 0 Apoptosis programmed cell death via BLEBS o Apoptotic Bleb signals from apoptosis that can be absorbed and digested by other cells 0 Necrosis cell death due to injury and results in spilling of cytoplasmic contents Take Aways 0 Regenerative Capacity the ability for an organism to regrow certain parts of its body 0 EX the LIVER Chapter 3 Embryogenesis and Development Page 16 33 Pride Fetal Circulation MTV 7 r iquot quotl 71 m r r t n QCurg Placenta the structure during development that exchanges nutrients gas and easte NOT 02 02 and C02 are exchanged based on concentration gradients Fetal Hemoglobin HbF fetal blood that has a higher affinity for oxygen than adults which assist in the transfer and tension Fetal Shunts actively direct blood away from certain organs Shunts Connected Vessels or Chambers Organ Bypassed Foramen Ovale Right atrium to left atrium Lungs Ductus Arteriosus Pulmonar artery to aorta Lungs Ductus Venosus Umbilical vein to inferior vena cava Liver Take Aways 0 Gas exchange in fetus occurs across the PLACENTA H 0 Fetal lungs do not function till birth 9 0 TORCH ES gt set of pathogens that have the potential to cross the placental 3 V9 rs barrier UV 0 UMBILICAL ARTERIES gt carry DEOXYGENATED BLOOD with waste products Chapter 3 Embryogenesis and Development Page 17 l VD all 34 Gestation and Birth l l 1 S 1 Gestation First Trimester 1 Organogenesis Second Trimester 1Tremendous growth 2 Movement begins 3 Face becomes more human 4 Digits elongate Third Trimester 1 Rapid growth 2 Brain development 3 Transfer of antibodies to fetus Birth First Phase 1 Cervix things out 2Amniotic sac ruptures Second Phase 1 Uterine contractions 2 Coordinated protaglandins and oxytocin 3 Birth of fetus Third Phase 1 Placenta and umbilical cord are expelled Take Aways Chapter 3 Embryogenesis and Development Page 18 Review Questions Tuesday March 33 2 15 PM 527 94 y w 6 61 1 The Blastula has the largest nucleus to cytoplasm ratio a Blasted out center cytoplasm 2 Ectoderm differentiates to ATTRACTOderm a Fingernails The NOTOCORD comes from the MESODERM INDUCTION is the influence of specific groups of cells affecting the differentiation of another group of cells The barrier of the placenta only has SUPER SMALL pores for hormones and some VERY SMALL proteins to pass through Paracrine is when the signal is produced locally Cell senescence DOES NOT occur in the presence of telomerase Totipotent cells can become PLACENTA or Plurpotent cells Pluripotent stem cells will retain the potency if harvested from selected organs 10 Webbed toes results in a failure of apoptosis 11 When organs regenerate without using the same cell type INCOMPLETE REGENERATION occurs 12 Nervous structures and the skin are derived from the NOTOCHORD 13 Morula gt Blastula gt Gastrula 14 Development Cycle a lst Tri gt Organogenesis b 2nd Tri gt c Last gt Lung Development 15 Ductus arteriorsis vs Ductus veinious vs Foramen Ovale SDP gt39 PquotPW Chapter 3 Embryogenesis and Development Page 19 41 Cells of the Nervous System Wednesday February 189 2 1S 1159 AM Cells in the Nervous Svstem 0 Neurons 0 Astrocytes nourish nerons and form the bloodbrain barrier which controls the transmission of solutes from the bloodstream into nervous tissue 0 Ependymal Cells cells that line the VENTRICLES of the brain and produced cerebrospinal fluid which physically supports the brain and serves as a shock absorber 0 Microglia phagocytic cells that ingest and break down waste products and pathogens in the CNS 0 Oligodendrocytes CNS produce myelin around axons 0 Schwann Cells PNS produce mvlein around axons Parts of the Neuron 0 Axon 0 Axon Hillock 0 Dendrite 0 Myelin Sheath 0 Soma 0 Synaptic BoutonNerve Terminal Collection of cell bodgz PNS gt Ganglia CNS gt Nuclei Collection of AXONS PNSgt Nerve CNS gt Tract Take Aways Chapter 4 The Nervous System Page 20 42 Transmission of Neural Impulses Wednesday March 4 2015 740 PM 0 Axon Terminal39s Role in Transmission 0 Axon Hillock39s Role in Transmission Where the AP is initiated 9 Resting Potential Maintenance 9 0 NaK ATPase Channels mediate AP gt 3Na OUT 2 K IN a o 70 mV x990 Summation L 0 Temporal integration of multiple signals close to each other in time I 0 Spatial integrating multiple signals close to each other in space Steps of Action Potential o Depolarization 10 39qu 0 Ion Channel Na Channel opens at 50mV 5 Nos 0w 0 Regulation Inactivation at 35mV L A i 0 Effect on Polarization causes cell Depolarization 1 U4 0 Repolarization A 0 Ion Channel K Channel opens at 35mV 9N3 5 1 0 Regulation Low potentials like 70mV 0 Effect on Polarization causes cell repolarization 0 Hyper Polarization 0 Ion Channel I quota potential 0 Regulation ndm m 5 time dunng39 an x 0 Effect on Polarization mm pawnquot 39 Absolute Refractory Period the cell is unable to fire an AP regardless of the intensity of a stimulus 0 Relative Refractory Period can fire an AP ONLY IF it is higher then normal Ways to stop a NT 1 Enzymatic Degradation 2 Reuptake 3 Diffusion 0 Temporal Summation the addition of multiple singles 0 Spatial Summation the addition of multiple signals near each other in space Take Aways 0 Ca2 is responsible for the binding of NT to the terminal membrane 0 Intensity of ACTION POTENTIAL are related to the FREQUENCY At max DEPOLARIZATION K INCIDENTS vs PREVALENCE o Incidents New Cases 0 Prevalence New existing gt all living with disease I Prevalence will increase BEACAUSE of people surviving with it Chapter 4 The Nervous System Page 21 43 Organization of the Human Nervous System Wednesday March 4 2 15 72 PM Parts of the CNS 0 Brain 0 Spinal Cord Parts of the PNS Afferent vs Efferent Neurons 0 Afferent Neurons send sensory signals towards the brain ASCEND to the BRAIN 0 Efferent Neurons send motor signals to muscles EXIT to the MUSCLES Somatic vs Autonomic Nervous Svstems Somatic Nervous System REST AND DIGEST 0 Autonomic Nervous System FIGHT OR FLIGHT Effects of the Svmpathetic and Parasvmpathetic Nervous Svstem 0 Sympathetic 0 Parasympathetic Pathwavs of Reflexes Monosynaptic Reflex there is a single synapse between the sensory neuron o EX Knee Jerk Reflex Polysynaptic Reflexz there is at least one interneuron bt the sensory and motor neurons 0 EX Withdrawal reflex Take Aways 0 lst Neuron in AUTONOMIC System is the PREGANGLIONIC NEURON 0 2nd Neuron in AUTONOMIC System is the POSTGANGLIONIC NEURON Chapter 4 The Nervous System Page 22 Review Questions Wedmeedayp Apr 1 2 15 L8222PM D 4 e L A b Lalo a Q 0 Chapter 4 The Nervous System Page 23 51 Mechanisms of Hormone Action Sunday March 222 2 15 125 PM 0 Hormones Classes 0 Peptide Hormones Second Messenger Signaling Cascade Amplification rapid onset but short lived do not require a special carriers 0 Steroid Hormones derived from cholesterol Minimally polar Bind to intracellular and intranuclear receptors slow onset but long lived must be carried by a special protein 0 AA Derived Hormones modified aas shares features with peptide hormones EX epinephrine norepinephrine and throxine 0 Direct Hormones majore effects in non endocrine tissues 0 Tropic Hormones major effects on other endocrine tisseus Cahpter 5 The Endocrine System Page 24 52 Endocrine Organs and Hormones Sunday March 22 2 15 129 PM 0 Negative Feedback 0 Homeostasis 0 GnRH Gonadotropireleasing hormone promotes the release of FSH and LH 0 GHRH eroth Hormone releasing hormong promotes the relase ofGH 0 TRH Thyroid releasing hormone 0 CRG Corticotropin releasing factor promotes release of ACTH 0 PIF Prolactin inhibiting factor 0 Anterior Pituitary O FSH promotes the dev of ovariean follicles in females and spermatogenesis in males LH promtoes the ovulation in females and testosterone production in males ACTH promtoes systhesis and release of gluccocoritcoids from the ADRENAL CORTEX TSH promtes the synthesiss and release of triiodothryronine and throzine from the thyroid Prolactin promote mile production Endophines decrease preception of pain and can cause euphoria GH promotes frowth of bone and muslce and shnts glucose to these tissues gt raises blood glucose levels 0 Posterior Pituitatary O ADHVasopressin secreted in response to low bllod volume or increase blood osmolarity gt increase reabsorption of water in the collecting duct of the nephron gt increase blood volume and decreases blood osmolatiry O Oxytocin secrete during chilbirth and promotes uterine concentrations I Promotes milk ejection and may be involvedin bonding behavior I POSTITIVE FEEDBACK 0 Thyroid located at the base of the neck in front of the trachea gt produces 3 hormones 0 T3 and T4 Thyroxine increase basal metabolic rate and alter the utilization of glucose and fatty acids gt required for proper neurological and physical development in children I Produced by follicular cells 0 Calcitonin decreases plama calcium by promoting CA2 excretion from kidneys gt decreasing CA2 aborption in the gut gt PROMOTES CA2 storage in BONE I Produced by parafollicular cells 0 Parathyroid Gland relases PTH which increases blood CA2 concentration I decreases excretion of CA2 I Activates Vit D I Pomotoes resorption of phosphate from bone and reduces reabsorption of phosphate in the kidney 0 Adrenal Cortex O Glucocorticoids increases blood glucose levels gt reduce protein synthesis gt inhibits immune system I Stimiulated by ACTH I Cortisol I Cortisone O Mineralocorticoids I Aldosterone OOOOOO Cahpter 5 The Endocrine System Page 25 I Reninangiotensinaldosterone system REGULATES not ATCH O Cortical Sex hormones I Androgens I Estrogens Adrenal Medulla derived from the NS and secretes catecholamines into the blood gt promote glycogenolysis gt increases the basl metabolic rate gt increases heart rate gt dilate bronchi gt alter blood flow 0 Epinephrine O Norepinephrine Panrease produces hormones that regulate glucose homeostatsis O Glucagon alpha cells 0 Insulin beta cells I Inhibits glucagon synthesis 0 Somatostatin inhibit insuline and glucagon secretion Pineal Glad O Melatonin helps with circadian rhythems Stomach O Secretin O Gastin O Cholecystokinin Kidney o Erythropoietin stimulares bone marrow to produce more blood cells Heart 0 ANP atrial natriuretic peptide promoates excretion of salt and water in the kidneys Thymus O Thymosin promotes proper T cell dev and differentiation Cahpter 5 The Endocrine System Page 26 Help with Hormones Friday Mareh 272 2 15 1245 PM Anterior Pituitary FLAT PIG F FSH L LH Posterior Pituitary Audio Osmosis A ACTH A ADH T TSH O Oxytocin P Prolactin G Growth Hormone Adrenal Cortex and Adrenal Medulla M5 C Cortisol A Aldosterone Thyroid T3 and T4 N Norepinephrine Parathyroid PTH E Epinephrine M Pancreas Insulin Glucagon Ovaries Menstrual Cycle Testis Testosterone Estrogen Cahpter 5 The Endocrine System Page 27 Review Questions Wedmeedayp Apr 1 2 15 V 0857 PM 6 a we Pag 3A 50 A 67 043 395 Aquot 3 D Cahpter 5 The Endocrine System Page 28 62 Functions of the Respiratory System Monday March 232 2 15 844 PM 0 Pulmonary Arteries Deoxy blood with a high C02 concentration is brought to the lungs 0 Pulmonary Veins Oxy blood with a low C02 concentration leaves the lungs 0 Types of Respiratory Protection a Vibrissae b Mucous Membranes c Mucociliary Escalator O Lysozymes the nasal cavity and saliva attacks peptidoglycan cell walls of grampositive bacteria Macrophages Mast Cells have Abs on their surface that when triggered can promote the release of inflammatory chemicals gt often involved in allergic reactions 0 Bicarbonate Buffer system helps control the pH 0 Respiration increases pH decreases 0 Chapter 6 The Respiratory System Page 29 61 Anatomy and Mechanism of Breathing Monday March 23 2 15 12 2 PM Nares gt nasal cavitypharynx gtlarynx gt trachea gt 2 bronchi gt bronchioles gt alveoli Alveoli small sacs that interface with the pulmonary capillaries allowing gases to diffuse across a one cell thick membrane Surfactant the alveoli reduces surface tension at the liquidgas interface preventing collapse Pleurae the cover of the lung and chest wall 0 Visceral Pleura lies adjacent to the lung itself 0 Parietal Pleura lines the chest wall 0 Intrapleural Space lies bt these two layers and contains a thin layer of fluid which lubricates the two pleural surfaces Diaphragm a thin skeletal muscle that helps to create the pressure differential required for breathing Inhalation an active process of breathing 0 External Intercostal Muscles the muscles that expand the thoracic cavity I gt INCREASING the Volume of intrapleural space I gt DECREASEING the intrapleural pressure 0 Negative Pressure Breathing the mechanism defining the pressure differential that expands the lungs causing a drop in pressure and drawing air in from the environment Exhalation active AND passive process 0 Pass exhalation the relaxation of the muscles of inspiration and elastic recoil of the lungs allow the chest cavity to decrease in volume reversing he pressure differentials see in inhalation 0 Active Exhalation the internal intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles can be used to forcibly decrease the volume of the thoracic cavity pushing out air Spirometer instrument used to measure lung capacities and volume 0 TLC Total Lung Capacity the MAX volume of air in the lungs when one inhales completely RV Residual Volume The MIN volume of air in the lungs when one exhales completely VC Vital Capacity the difference bt the Min and MAX volume of air in the lungs TV Tidal Volume the volume of air inhaled or exhaled in a normal breath ERV Expiratory Reverse Volume the volume of additional air that can be forcibly exhaledafter a normal exhalation O IRV Inspiratory Reverse Volume the volume of additional air that can be forcible inhaled after a normal inhalation Ventilation center where ventilation is regulated by a collection of neurons in the medulla oblongata O Chemoreceptor responds to the levels of C02 I gt increasing the repiratory rate when there at HIGH C02 concentrations in the blood hypercarbiahyperacapnia I gt increase ventilation rate when 02 is low hypoxia 0000 Chapter 6 The Respiratory System Page 30 71 Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System Wednesday February 18 26315 1159 AM 0 Cardiovascular System 4 chambers of the heart blood vessels blood 0 Heart cardiac muscles supporting the pulmonary circulation and systemic system 0 Each side has I Atrium III Tricuspid on the right III Bicuspid on the left I Ventricle III Semilunar Valves 0 Pulmonary right 0 Aortic left I Atrioventricle Valves 0 Pathway vii viii Arteries Arterioles xi xii xiii xiv xv Right atrium III Tricuspid valve Right Ventricle III Pulmonary valve Pulmonary Artery Lungs Pulmonary Veins Left Atrium III Mitral Valve Left Ventircle III Aortic Valve Aona Capillaries Venules Veins Venae Cavae Right Atrium Electrical Conduction to heart i Sinoatrial Node SA Node gt ii Antrioventricular Node AV Node iii Bundle of His iv Purkinje Fibers o Systole refers to the period during ventricular contraction when the AV valves are closed 0 Diastole refers to the heart is relaxed and the semilunar valves are closed Cardiac Output the product of heart rate and stroke volume 0 Description of Vasculature o Arteries I Arterioles III Capillaries O O o Veins I Valves 1 Venules 0 Portal System 0 Hepatic Portal System blood traveling from the gut capillary beds to the liver capillary bed via the hepatic portal vein 0 Hypophyseal Portal System blood travels from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary 0 Renal Portal System blood travels from the glomerulus to the vasa recta through an efferent arteriole Chapter 7 The Cadiovascular System Page 31 72 Blood Monday March 23 2 15 832 PM 0 Composition 0 Blood Plasma Aqueous mixture of nutrients Salts Respiratory Gases Hormones 0 Blood Proteins 0 Erythrocytes red blood cells lack mitochondria a nucleus and more to make room for hemoglobin 02 carrier 0 Carry out anaerobic respiration 0 Hematocrit the of clood composed of erythrocytes 0 Leukocytes white blood cells formed in the BONE MARROW gt critical part of the immune system 0 Granular neutrophils eosinophils basophils gt nonspecific immunity 0 Agranulocytes 0 Thrombocytes platelets cell fragments from megakaryocytes that are required for coagulation 0 Surface Antigens A B and O as well as Rh factor 0 Positive Rh factor more dominate gt negative Rh factor will only be created when postive Rh factor cells are present OOOOO Chapter 7 The Cadiovascular System Page 32 73 Physiology of the Cardiovascular System Monday March 232 2 15 923 PM 0 Blood Pressure force per unit area that is exerted on the walls off blood vessels by blood 0 Sphygmomanometer be 0 WM 0 Low Pressure Increased Aldosterone and ADH U m3 Lquot 3c L 0 High Pressure ANP release f WA M P L 0 Gas and Solute Exchange 0 Starling Forces I Hydrostatic Pressure I Osmotic Pressure 0 Cooperative Binding when hemoglobin binds to RBC I Each additional 02 increase affinity for more oxygen 0 C02 is carried as carbonic acid I lncraesed C02 temp Cuases shift to oxyhemoglobin dissociation 0 Coagulation Activation Cascade 0 Tissue factors produced by endothelial O Platelets bind to the collagen and are stabilized by fibrin activated by thrombin 0 Broken down by PLASMIN Chapter 7 The Cadiovascular System Page 33 81 Structure of the Immune System Wednesday February 18 2 15 1159 AM 0 Innate Immunity nonspecific immunity composed of defenses that are always acteive but that cannot target a specific invader and cannot maintain immunologic memory 0 Adaptive Immunity Specific Immunity composed of defenses that take time to activate but target SPECIFIC invaders and cal maintain immunologic memory 0 Immune System Components 0 Bone Marrow where immune cell come from O Spleen Lymph Nodes sites where immune responses can be mounted and in which B cells are activated 0 Thymus the site of TCell maturation O GALT gut associated lymphoid tisue includes TONSILS and ADENOIDS 0 Leukocytes White blood Cells involved in immune defenses Chapter 8 The Immune System Page 34 82 The Innate Immune System Tuesday March 242 2 15 1 245 AM 0 Nonspecific Defenses 0 00000 Skin secretes antimicrobial compounds like defensins Mucus traps pathogens gt propelled upward by cilia and can be swallowed or expelled Lysozymes tears and saliva Stomach produces acid Complement System punch holes in the cell walls of bacteria making them unstable Interferons secreted by infected cells that prevent viral replicationa nd dispersion in nearby cells 0 Cellular Defenses O Macrophages I MHC Class 1 present in all nucleated cells and displays endogenous antigen to cytotoxic T cells I MHC Class 2 present in professional antigen presenting cells and display exogenous antigens to helper T cells Dendritic Cells Ag preenting cells in the skin Natural Killer Cells attacks cells not presening MHC molecules including virally infected cells and cancer cells Granulocytes include neutrophils eosinophils and basophils I Neutrophils ingest BACTEIA particularly marked BACTERIA I Eosinophils used in ALLERGIC reactions gt release histamine I Basophils used in ALLERGIC rxns Mast Cells related to basophils and found in the skin I IgE is presented at the surface of Mast Cells and cause them to degranulate resulting in an immue response gt DEGRANULATION III Occurs after and during the first reaction no real reaction Chapter 8 The Immune System Page 35 83 Adaptive Immune System Tuesday March 24 2 15 316 PM 0 Humoral Immunity centered on Ab production by plasma cells activated Bcells 0 Antibodies I Constant Region I Variable Region III only the TIP binds to the antigen III Hypermutation III Both Heavy and Light chains contain variable regions that bind to the Ag surface I Isotypes IgM IgD IgG IgE IgA I Opsonizing Pathogens marking pathogens for destruction and agglutination gt ingested by phagocytes 0 Memory BCells secondary response wait for a second exposure to a pathogen and can then mount a more rapid and vigorous immune response 0 Antigens 0 CellMediated Immunity cytotoxic center on the functions of the TCell O Maturation ofT Cells occur in the THYMUS via I POSITIVE SELECTION presenting MHC or not I NEGATIVE SELECTION apoptosis in T Cells that are self reactive O Helper T Cells CD4 respond to Ag on MHC2 and coordinate the rest of the immune system secreting LYMPHOKINES O Cytotoxic T Cells CD8 respond to Ag on MHC1 O Suppressor T Cells regulatory tone down the immune response after an infection and promote selftolerance O MemoryT Cells Memory B Cells 0 Autoimmune a selfAg is recognized as foreign and immune system attacks normal cells Chapter 8 The Immune System Page 36 91 Anatomy of the Digestive System Wednesday February 182 2 15 1159 AM 0 Intracellular Digestion the oxidation of glucose and fatty acids to make energy 0 Extracellular Digestion occurs in the LUMEN of the ALIMENTARY Canal 0 0 Mechanical Digestion the physical breakdown of large food particles into smaller ones Chemical DigestionL the enzymatic cleavage of chemical bonds 0 Pathway of DigestionL 0 00000 0 Oral Cavity Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Rectum 0 Acesssory Organ Digestion the salivary glands panres liver and gallbladder 0 Entric Nervous SystemK the wall of the alimentary canal and controls parastalsis O O Upregulated by Parasympathetic Down regulated by Sympathetic Chapter 9 The Digestive System Page 37 92 Ingestion and Digestion Tuesday March 242 2 15 52 7 PM 0 Hormoneslnvolved O PromoteThirst I ADHVasopressin I Aldosterone causes kidney reabsorption of Na 0 Promote Hunger I Glucagon I Ghrelin 0 Promote Satiety I Leptin I Cholecystokinn 0 Oral Cavity O Mastication begins the mechanical digestion of food 0 Salivary Amylase and Lipase begin chemical digsetion of food 0 Bolus 0 Pharynx connects the mouth and posterior of nasal cavity to the esophagus 0 Esophagus propels food to the stomach using paristalsis 0 Lower Esophageal Sphincter 0 4 Parts of Stomach O Fundus 0 Body 0 Antrum O Pylorus I Pyloric Sphincter end of stomach gt connects to the duodenum 0 Cells in the Stomach O Mucoous Cells produce bicarbonate rich mucus to protect the stomach 0 Chief Cells secretes pepsinogen I Pepsinogen a protease activated by the acidic environment of the stomach I PEPSIN IS ACTIVATED pH 2 O Parietal Cells secrete HCl and intrinsic factor I Intrinsic Factor needed for Vit BlZ absorption 0 G Cells secrete Gastrin I Gastrin a peptide hormone that incerases HCl secretion and gastric motility o Duodenum the first part of the small intestines involved in chemical digestion I Disaccharidases I Enteropeptidases I Secretin stimulates the release of pancreatic juices into the digestive tract I Cholecystokinin stimulates bile release from the gallbladder Chapter 9 The Digestive System Page 38 93 Accessory Ogans of Digestion Tuesday March 242 2 15 526 PM 0 Acinar Cells cells in the pancreas that produce pancreaticjuices that contain bicarbonate and pancreatic amylasespeptidaseslipases 0 Liver synthesizes bile which is stored in the gallbladder o Bile emusifies fats making them soluble by increasing their surface area 0 Bile Bile salts Billirubin Cholestrol 0 Gallbladder stores and concentrates bile Chapter 9 The Digestive System Page 39 94 Absorption and Defecation Tuesday March 242 2 15 523 PM 0 Jejunum and Ileum parts of the small intestines that are involved in absorption 0 Lined with Villi I Microvilli cover the villi I Villi Capillary Beds Lacteals III Capillary Beds absorb sugars aa wits small fatty acids and water III LactealsL absob fats choleterol and fatty vits 0 Large Intestine Absorbs water and salts forming SEMISOLID feces O Cecum an outpocketing that accepts fluids from the small intestine and contains the appendix 0 Colon divided into 3 portions 0 Rectum stores feces and includes the anus 0 Gut Bacteria produce Vit K and Biotin Chapter 9 The Digestive System Page 40 101 The Excretory System Wednesday February 18 2 15 1159 AM 0 Excretory System serves many functions including regulation of blood pressure blood osmolality acidbase balance removal of nitrogenous waste 0 Kidney produces urine which dumps into the URETER at the RENAL PELVIS O Hilum a collection of the renal artery vein and ureter O Glomeroui located in Bowman39s Capsule consisting of renal arterioles 0 Bladder where urine is collected and then excreted throuh the URETHRA 0 Portal System found within the kidney having two sets of capillary beds in series Chapter 10 Homeostasis Page 41 Prokaryotic Genetics qud 2amp7 chdmggdayy Fbruary 182 2 15 1122 AM M Lu 9 Wad a EDNXVWA 6T1 va W a Ammwm gash pugguykm 61 WVQVW o Pvg Adl wt Wm mgrI1 W 90 W 244 u 4 3 51A my was W WW wW W m HYPSG Page 42 Menstrual Cycle Tucggdguyy Mgwdm 32 2 15 817 PM pm WW 6 RD 4quot 1 WWW K H LXA UVA W 6 QC JQVM W 4 Rbbl 0 342 i Db MK 0 Vbx a g vwl 939 Y 3 L3lt D MP quot 0 Q WW b53ny C7 33m WW 75 5 HYPSG Page 43 The Resipiratory System chdmgdayp Mamh 25 2 15 654 PM HYPSG Page 44 121 Fundamental Concepts of Genetics Tuesday March 31 2 15 128 PM 0 Chromosomes 0 Genes 0 Alleles alternative forms of genes 0 Dominant Allele requires only one copty to be expressed o Recessive Alle requires two copies to be expressed 0 Genotype the combo of alleles one has at a give genetic locus o Homozygous o Heterozygous o Hemizygous having only one allele I EX male sex chromosomes I Phenotype the observable manifestation of a genotype 0 Types of Dominance 0 Complete dominanceL one dominant allele and one recessive allele 0 Codominance more than one dominant allele 0 Incomplete DominanceL no dominant alleles gt hets have intermediate phenotypes I EX pink roses 0 Penetrance the proportion of a population with a given genotype who express the phenotype 0 Expressivity the varying phenotypic manifestation of a given genotype 0 Mendel o lst Law segregation states that an organism has two alleles for each gene which segregate during meiosis resulting in gametes carrying only one allele for a trait 0 2nd Law independent assortment satates that the inheritance of one allele does not influence the probability of inheriting a give allele for a different trait 0 Important Experiemnts o Griffith Exp demonstrated TRANSFORMATION gt using virulent bacteria to infect nonvirulant bacteria 0 AveryMcCarty Exp showed that DNA IS THE GENETIC MATERIAL o HersheyChase Exp Confirmed Avery Exp using radiolabeled DNA Chapter 12 Genetics and Evolution Page 45 122 Changes in the Gene Pool Tuesday March 312 2 15 138 PM 0 Gene Pool 0 MutaitonsL 0 Point Mutation 0 Silent mutaiton no effect 0 Missense Mutation substitution of aa for another aa 0 Nonsense Mutation addition of STOP CODON o InsertionDeletion 0 Frameshift Mutation Deletion MutationL Duplication Mutation Inversion Mutation when a seg of DNA is reversed Insertion Mutation o Translocation Mutation DNA segs are swapped 0 Leakage the fow of genes bt species through hybrid offsring 0 Genetic Drift whe the composition of the gene pool changes as a result of chance 0 Founder Effect 0 Bottle Neck 0 Inbreeding 0000 Chapter 12 Genetics and Evolution Page 46 123 Analytical Approaches in Genetics Tuesday March 312 2 15 142 PM 0 Punnett Squares 0 Parent Generation 0 Filial Generations O Monohybrid Cross 0 Dihybrid Cross 0 SexLinked Crosses 0 Recombination Freq the likelihood of 2 alleles being separated during crossing over in meiosis 0 Genetic Maps made using Recombination Freq O Centimorgans 0 HardyWeinberg Principle p2 2pq q2 0 Allele Freq Chapter 12 Genetics and Evolution Page 47 124 Evolution Tuesday March 31 2 15 145 PM 0 Natural SelctionL 0 Fitness 0 Modern Synthesis Model neoDarwinism accounts for mutation and recombination as mechanisms of variation and considers varied reproducting a success 0 Reprdocutive Differential 0 Inclusive Fitness cosiders an organism39s success to be based on the number of offspring support and ability of offspring to support more offspring 0 Punctuated Equilibirum considers evotlution to be a very slow process with intermittent rapid burst of evolutionary activity Stabilizing Selection keeps pheotypes in a narrow range gt excludes extremes Directional Selection moves the average pheotype toward one extreme Disruptive Selection moves toward two different phenotypes at extremes and can lead to speciation Adaptive Radiation the rapid emergence of multiple specieis from a commoon ancestor each of which occupies its own biological NICHE O O O Niche Species the largest group of organisms capable of breeding to form fertile offspring Reproductiviely isolted PrePost zygotic mechanisms Divergent Evolution occurs when two species sharing a common ancestor become more different Parallel Evo occurs when 2 species sharing a commmon ancestor evovle similar ways due to analogous selection pressues Convergent Evo Occures when 2 species not shring a recent ancestor evolve to become more simlar due to similar selection pressues 0 Molecular Clock Model the degree of difference in the genome between 2 species is related to the amount of time since the two species broke off from an common ancestor Chapter 12 Genetics and Evolution Page 48 Chapter 1Kinematics and Dynamics Thursday February 12 Z 15 52 9 PM iwre MANN a TM An Ra 3ro3vnfmo The M 5s N T MAP 9th Gravity is a CONSERVATIVE FORCE Veolocity w e 39 an object falls and experiences air resistance that is equal in magnitude to the weight of the object and the object falls at a constant velocity VVW nab QUWUgt 9 g g 000mm 2 m5 em PMWMW a mob 0038 Chapter 1 Kinematics and Dynamics Page 1 Chapter 2 Work and Energy Thorgday February 129 26315 518 PM P V MW 1 Vgnw Q 0WM 9 v wbk 9 quot Evoke 9 U dlg x K 3r k G 5 WV Smlbmb Vima U0 2 be omwbn f gt36 EV KEV 390 V30 Work is only done when things are NOT Perpendicular Chapter 2 Work and Energy Page 2 Review Questions Tuesday Marcia 31 2 15 836 PM Me 33mg 8quot Vquot 3 v DAKM if F 3 l Arc5v g uo L 939 91503 gig u 375 S be 39 7e We 039 4Uwa wcFi Aw 50 a r 939 quotquot 9 D a a gt65 me 3900 1 3 0quot 5 sl VDG 00 e 1 Rut V8 30quot D 0 10 1 95M a3 P 7 WM OQ V x Q c to 391 amp 0 ODDSY w w 95 quot5 0W9 0quot r 39 Yaw l f b 9 N no N Va 0 3 M aniolg 15quot 3 quot mums T105 n 2 t 5 Q9 3 c E 9 390 7 lt LDOONmU39lbWNH Nl P Terminal Velocity equal work done by gravity and air resistance Mechanical Advantage sets up ratios bt forces gt efficentcy is a ratio of work performed 5 Chapter 2 Work and Energy Page 3 31 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Thursday February 129 2 15 523 PM Key Terms Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 11 am we ogg WA 06c 0 States that objects are in thermal eaulibrium when they are at the same temp 0 These experience NO NET EXCHANGE OF HEAT 0 Temperature 0 Qualitative measure how hot hor cold 0 Quantitative the average KE of the particles that make up a substance Thermal Expansi mz heyga gubgancepangelsgim rg gn or volumegals uptilgn35fthe change in TEMP l C 1 6 C Q 313 33 WAN 0W TWPM AV 2 8 VAT TCMP Key vamlesr tric Ex 39 pansnon 39 W When temp of an object changes its length changes A LOT C DR L 0 Accuracy depends on the INTRUMENT not the SCALE Chapter 3 Thermodynamics Page 4 32 Systems Saturday Mareb My 2 15 1 215 AM Key Terms 0 Thermodynamic System the portion of the universe that we are interested in observing 0 VS Thermodynamic Surrounding everything that is not part of the system 0 O 0 Isolated Systems DO NOT exchange matter or energy with the surrounding Close Systems exchange energy but not matter Open Systems exchange energy and matter 0 State Functions pathway INDEPENDENT and are not defined by a process 0 000000 0 Pressure Density Temp Vdume Enthalpy Internal energy G Entropy 0 Process Functions describe the pathway from one equilibrium state to another 0 0 Work Heat Chapter 3 Thermodynamics Page 5 33 First Law of Thermodynamics rch 14 1 cl L L oi i r E Key Terms 0 First Law of Thermodynamics a statement of conservation of energy gt the total energy in the universe can never decrease or increase AU 395 U 5 W WM 2 who W 5 9quot Variable Positive Value Negative Change in Internal energy Increase TEMP Decrease TEMP Heat Into System Out System Work Done by the System EXPANSION Done on the system compression 0 Close Systems the total internal energy is equal to the heat flow into the system minus the work done by the system 0 Heat the process of energy transfer bt two object at different temps that occurs until the object come into thermal equilibrium 0 Specific heat The amount of energy necessary to raise one gram of a substance by one degree C or K I Changes the U and Entropy but not Kinetic Energy I Heat of Transformation there is not change in temp M 0 ET Questionzhow much het is requiredto completely melta Miss 1kg silver chain at 20 degree C 0L m L Vina 9 s m NM VJ I W A 64 obgw v Y quot m Y 9 mob L w x W V vs 9 S lt L a l39 39YVquot P V 1 39 1w b as 9 quotf l mquot 932 725 mm 1m V um tl is 39 I 9 MSM 117 OSKS I H20 gt 1cagK 39 1 v w r 3 De 0 SpeciaIThermodynamic Systems amp OM I lquot v rm 5 o Isothermal processes the temp is constant and the change in internal energy is O o Adiabatic Processes no heat is exchanged o Isobaric Processes the pressure is help constant 0 Isovqumetric isochoric Processes the volume is help constant and the work is O Process First Law of Thermodynamic reduces to Isothermal I G w I 39Adiabatic AU 7 Isobaric I Isovqumetric bu Q Key Concepts 0 Heat energy transfer that will continue until the thermal equalibrium is reached by the two object o 1 cal the herat required for 1 GRAM to raise 1 degree CeIcius 1 Cal the heat required for 1 KILOGRAM to raise 1 degree CeIcius Chapter 3 Thermodynamics Page 6 34 Second Law of Thermodynamics and Entropy Saturday Mareh My 2 1S 1 224 AM Key Terms 0 Second Law of Thermodynamics states that in a closed system energy will spontaneously and irreversibly go from being localized to being spread out 0 Entropy S a measure of how much energy has spread out or how spread out energy has become RM akaMei w to I v 0 gt5 39 in musw 17 r 39 Qw W3 0 we T W m7 loDS 173 x 3 r quotl 3 P g 535 3 7 aWW 115 bwm 5mm 4r b5 Sight Chapter 3 Thermodynamics Page 7 Review Questions Tweedayy Mamh 31 2 15 PM 59 H 3 L7 19 DL 7 639 L 5T XwBLEOB u o39b 1k39wwx no quot39 9 47 39 E LLWWXLM 5T W lt D KM 08139 15591 r low in Q wwu h Ty AP DD 5 6 WM 600003 936 5 I a f 4 K Y MLB YC 6 wa 5 ESELRWQL e aK C M 2 3 I ID 0quot arDv 70 D 25quot 39 vvmbb r 5 02 Q83 1 ML K E3763 ttswaguv gt m9 quot 1 m355mo 39 xzvvr iz o lbgs 1500 E bkx wr v quot 00k 7 w va 123 hgo a 9 th quotW Aquot 39 10 T IDll Eb 9 5 i Equot 9164 x 1 m c TM a M a llguskK NS l I v 8 x CONWM M f kurV w m xv b wvx so VOW A9 D r Chapter 3 Thermodynamics Page 8 41 Characteristics of Fluids and Solids Wednesdam February 18 21115 1134 AM Fluids Solids Density the mass per unit volume of a substance fluid and solids A anM s V l W vP 3 am MW WM Specific Gravity scar 1 no M d Pressure measure of force per unit area gt exerted by a fluid on the walls of its container and on objects placed in the fluid 1 N 9quot 757 77 7 Fe Pl 0 Scalar quantity gt value has magnitude only no direction 0 Always perpendicular to the walls Absolute Pressure the sum f all pressures at a certain point within a fluid gt equal to the pressure at the surface of the Cid the pressure due to the fluid itself ZDkuow v P i33 MA 3012er 0 Gauge Pressure Absolute pressure Atmospheric Pressure 94 resw 5 Q39Wm Chsz 393 473 Key Concepts lo 762 Jrst J AM L l 013 mag 760 was 393 Chapter 4 Fluids Page 9 42 Hydrostatics Sunday February 22 2 1S 1219 PM 0 Pascal39s Principle an applied pressure to an incompressible fluid will be distributed undiminished throughout the entire volume of the fluid I 5 P A v vM AI pflAA AAV r r KS 0 Hydraulic Machines a machine that works based on the application of Pascal39s principle Archimedes Principles the rules around BOUYANT FORCE F 5 FMVM 3 ngV Ws 64 i The direction of buoyant force is always OPPOSITE the direction of GRAVITY ii If the MAX buoyant force is LARGER then the force of GRAVITY the object will float gt the object is less dense than the fluid it displaces iii If the MAX buoyant force is SMALL then the force of GRAVITY the object will sink gt the object is more dense then the fluid it displaces 0 Cohesive Forces 0 Surface Tension Cohesive forces are responsible for this 0 Adhesive Forces Key Concepts 0 ALWAYS use density of fluid not the OBJECT 0 an object will float if the objects density is less than the density of the fluid w PM P LC wet may mm P Wm WM 001m 9 oa 3 60quot7 mw3 3 mkw Y5 chv s Ezmwsc av v 609K351 Vail Bll g F 3 1 9s W l w 1 3 L3 artsigfmkas wzi a a 2037 3 V gia fPWL 9 as Chapter 4 Fluids Page 10 43 Fluid Dynamics Sunday February 22 2 15 1219 PM KeyTerms 9 I Us 0 Viscosity quot m9 gt o Viscous Dra x g V 0 Laminar Flow determined by the relationships In POIseUIlle s Law ws av W G 39r quotI L39 9rbw 11 V Nil g WWW M Q Tca W I W W W otsam tw n39f 6 o Incompressible fluids are assumed to have laminar flow and very low viscosity while flowing gt energy is conserved 0 Continuity Equation states that the conservations of mass as applied to fluid dynamics 0 Bernoulli39s Equation an expression of the CONSERVATION of ENERGY for a FLOWING FLUID quot4 l I V 4 okv m 9 WVI 4ka gww I o r W 195 quot x I m Q X 3 0 Linear Flow 9 a V p VDz AVV 14 5 ys 5x 6 0 States that the sum of the static pressure and the dynamic pressure will be constant bt any two points in a closed system 0 Horizontal Flow an inverse relationship bt pressure and speed in a closed system 0 Direct relationship bt cross sectional area and pressure exerted on the walls of the tube knon as the VENTURI EFFECT 0 Dynamic Pressure pressure associated with flow 0 Static Pressure pressure associated with position 0 sacrificed for dynamic pressure during flow 0 Pitot Tube instrument that measures static pressure during flow to calculate speed 0 Viscosity measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow 0 Laminar Flow the flow in which there are no eddies and in which stramlines roughly parallel each other 0 Turbulence the presence of back flow or current eddies 0 Bernoulli Equation describes the relationship bt height pressure and flow 0 Continuity Equation describes the relationship of flow and cross sectional area in a tube 0 Venturi Effect the direct relationship bt cross sectional area and pressure and results from the combined relationship of the Bernoulli and continuity equation Chapter 4 Fluids Page 11 44 Fluids in Physiology Sunday February 222 2 15 1219 PM Key Terms Resistance decreases as the total cross section area INCREASE o INCREASES as the air exits the body bc there re fewer airways in parallel with each other 0 Arterial Circulation is primarily motivated by the heart 0 Venous circulation has 3X the volume of arterial circulation and is motivated by the skeletal musculature and expansion of the heart Key Concepts the circulatory system behaves as a closed system with nonconstant flow lnspiration and expiration create a pressure gradient not only for the respiratory system but for the circulatory system as well Air at the alveoli has essentially zero speed the CONTINUITY EQUATION does not apply to the circulatory system the flow of blood in the VENAE CAVAE is slightly less then in the PULMONARY TRUNK bc blood from coronary heart circulation gets added to the pulmonary trunk and enters the right side of the heart Chapter 4 Fluids Page 12 41 Characteristics of Fluids and Solids Wednesday February 189 2 15 1134 AM 0 Fluids 0 Solids 0 Density the mass per unit volume of a substance fluid and solids 39 mu x vow f Volw t P V3 6W I am we WM 0 Specific Gravity 6 L M wk 5 d 0 Pressure measure of force per unit area gt exerted by a fluid on the walls of its container and on objects placed in the fluid 97 L tla 7 i159 o Scalar quantity gt value has magnitude only no direction 0 Always perpendicular to the walls 0 Absolute Pressure the sum f all pressures at a certain point within a fluid gt equal to the pressure at the surface of the fluid the pressure due to the luid itselfw Z 4N quot39 quoto v P l P W a 3m 9quot M 0 Gauge Pressure Absolute pressure Atmospheric Pressure em Q Em 3193quot quotan or 6quot Key Concepts LA 013 m a 760 mm s 746 W Wm Chapter 4 Fluids Page 13 51 Charges Wednesday February 182 2 15 1135 AM 0 Coulomb the SI unit for charge 0 Protons L9 vco quot6r Electrons w 4 Wowquot 0 Both have a charge of e16 X 1039 L9 C 0 Conductors allow the free and uniform passage of electrons when charged 0 Insulators resist the movement of charge and will have localized areas of charge that do not distribute ove the surface of the material Chapter 5 Electrostatic Magnetism Page 14 52 Coulomb39s Law Monday February 239 Z 15 913 PM charges Mm c 0 S MKWL xvu 0 Electric Field stationary charge that exerts forces on other charges 2 WW W my 75 E FCfK EZS M WW 9 xgcsm olk 0quot 3 0 Field Lines the vectors of the electric field that radiate outward from positive source charges and radiate inward to negative source charges 0 source charges will move in the same direction as the field lines o H source charges will move in the direction opposite the field lines o Coulomb39s Law the magnitude of the electrostatic force vector bt two p I K CL Ctr 6 Take Aways Chapter 5 Electrostatic Magnetism Page 15 53 Electrical Potential Energy Monday February 239 215 916 PM 0 Electrical Potential Energy the amount of work required to bring the test charge from infinitely far away to a given pointin the vicinity of a source charge amp r Vat W a The work necessary 397 U quot 5 7 to move a test charge k Q q from infinity to a AUT UU ital 6988 3 pointin spacein an O NCREASES when 2 LIKE charges rhove toward each other electric fied O NCREASES when 2 OPPOSITE charges move further apart surroundinga source charge Chapter 5 Electrostatic Magnetism Page 16 54 Electrical Potential Monday February 239 26315 918 PM 0 Electrical Potential the electrical potential energy per unit charge 0 different points in an electrical field will have different electrical potential energies QDMWV V g Owl61 E 0 WW 0 Voltage Potential Difference the change in electrical potential that accompanies the movement of a test charge from one position to another 0 Path Independent gt only depends on the initial and final position of the charge 0 Measure in VOLTS t b b 0quot 0LLquot939Mvsb 0 Test Charges moves in whichever direction creates a decrease in electrical potential energy 0 test charges move from high potential to low potential o H test charges will move from low potential to high potential X s r ellveg WarV 100w W kW VW39a Take Awavs 0 Mnemonic The quotplusquot end of a battery is the high potential end and the minus end is the low potential end Positive charges moves from to 0 EP is the ratio of the work done to move a test charge from infinity to a point in an electric field surrounding a source charge divided byt eh magnitude of the test charge Chapter 5 Electrostatic Magnetism Page 17 55 Special Cases in Electrostatics Monday February 23 2 1S 923 PM Equipotential Lines designate the set of points around a source charge or multiple sources charges that have the same electrical potential 0 Always PERPENDICULAR to ELECTRICAL FIELD LINES 0 WORK is done when a charge moves between Equipotential Lines 0 NO WORK is done if it moves along the SAME EOUIPOTENTIAL LINES Electric Dipole what generates two charges separated by d o In an EXTERNAL electric field it will experience a NET TORQUE until it is aligned with the electric field vector 0 Electric field WILL NOT induce any translational motion in the dipole v liq we Katrye A T rcpk A 393 I 0 Dipole Moment P 1 7 mam Dipole Torque pr 3 F Esm 3 3 Take Aways xxx xy Mwir Chapter 5 Electrostatic Magnetism Page 18 56 Magnetism Mondan February 23 26315 934 PM Magnetic Fields created by magnets and moving charges Tesla the SI unit for magnetic Field to v s T WV a External Magnetic Fields forces exerted on charges moving in any direction except parallel or antiparallel to the field 0 Direction is determined using the RIGHT HAND RULE 7 1 My WM Mb QV 3 2 Point Charges charges that undergo uniform circular motion in a uniform magnetic field wherein the centripetal force is the magnetic force acting on the point charge Diamagnetic Materials no unpaired electrons gt slightly repelled by magnets Paramagnetic Materials have some unpaired electrons and become WEAKLY magnetic in an external magnetic field Ferromagnetic Materials have some unpaired electrons and become STRONGLY magnetic in an external magnetic field Lorentz Force the sum of the electrostatic and magnetic forces acting on a body Current carrying wires create magnetic fields that are concentric circles surrounding the wire Force of a moving Charge a i Force on Current Carrying Wire 1 A L b SHAQ Take Aways 0 Mnemonic Right Hand Rule Thumb gt direction of velocity Fingers gt field lines Palm gt force on a positive charge Back of Hand gt Force on a negative charge 0 000 Chapter 5 Electrostatic Magnetism Page 19 61 Current Wednesday February 18 21115 1135 AM 0 Current The movement of charge that occurs between two points that have different electrical potentials a UAbg UMquot Mes DO vgt 0 defined as the movement of positive charge from the high potential end of a voltage source to the low potential end 0 REALISTICALLY negatively charge participles move in a circuit from low potential to high potential 0 Conductive Materials the only materials capable of carrying current 0 Metallic Conduction relies on uniform movement of free electrons in metallic bonds 0 Electrolytic Conduction relies on the ion concentrations of a solution 0 Insulators materials that DO NOT conduct current 0 Kirchhoff39s Laws the conservation of charge and energy 0 Junction Rule the sum of currents digcted into a point within a circuit equals the sum of the currents directed away from the point m kw c J tws SW 0 Loop Rule in a closed loop the sum of voltage source is always equal to the sum of voltage drops 7l swzvb Chapter 6 Circuts Page 20 61 Resistance Monday February 233 2 15 945 PM 0 Resistance opposition to movement of electrons through a material f L quotUQMI UM rsquot f s Cl39m K v WW WWM P W 7 AN quotA39oVz 0 Resistors conductive material with a moderate amount of resistance that slow down electrons without stopping them 0 calculated using the resistivity length and cross sectional area od the material in question 0 Ohm39s Law for a given resistance the magnitude of the current through a resistor is proportional to the voltage drop across the FGSlStOF VIAW 51wm193 W w ULI39M O Resistors in circuits can be combined to calculate the equivalent resistance of a full or partial circuit I Series resistors that are ADDED together to create the total resistance of a circuit I Parallel causes a decrease in equivalent resistance of a circuit I across each resistor there is a certain amount of power dissipated based on the current through the resistor and the voltage drop across the resistor 0 Internal Resistance causes the voltage supplied to a circuit is reduced from its theoretical emf value by some small amount gt most batteries on the MCAT will have this V c Ean 39IEMr e mm 8Mlt WM Q U x u l1 0 Isb s I kw rvg Qx Qx RS 39quotW R 9 m 61 k 05 NW Q 0 04 3303 Chapter 6 Circuts Page 21 63 Capacitance and Capacitors Monday February 239 2 15 92 PM 0 Capacitors Materials that have the abilbi jy to store and discharge electrical potential energy 5 x F v gt0 2 UM Faraday39s Constant b 45 aWn e 0 Ln Series causes a decrease in the equivalent capacitance of a circuit I O r wbj J39J39L YL39a39quot O 39 c s at c w 0 In Parallel sum together to create a larger equivalent capacitance CH 1 quotC quot 0quot 0 Capacitance in parallel plate capacitors it is determined by the AREA of the plates and THE DISTANCE bt the plates 0 Dielectric Materials insulators placed bt the plates of a capacitor that increase the capacitance of the capacitor by a facor equal to the merial39s DIELECTRIC CONSTANT Take Aways Chapter 6 Circuts Page 22 64 Meters Monday February 23 2015 953 PM 0 Ammeters Current measurement inserted into a series with negligible resistance 0 Voltmeters Voltage measurements inserted in parallel with very large resistances 0 Ohmmeters Resistance measures by inserting around a resistive element gt self powered and have negligible resistance Chapter 6 Circuts Page 23 71 General Wave Characteristics Wednesday February 189 2 1S 1135 AM 0 Transverse Waves have oscillations of wave participles perpendicular to the direction of the wave propagation 0 Longitudinal Waves have oscillations of wave participles parallel to the direction of wave propagation 0 Sound Waves 0 Displacement Equations Ampntude 0 Speedfrequencyand wavelength 1 0 Crest I V 8 Trough 0 PerIod and frequency f 0 Wavelength quot S Frequencyzmeasurein Hertzmz 0 Angularfrequencylinearfrequencyand perIod atch 9 0 AngularFreq 1 0 Period 0 Interference a description of the ways in which waves interact in space to form a resultant wave 0 Constructive Interference when waves are exactly in phase with each other The amplitude of the resultant wave the sum of the amplitudes of the two interfering waves 0 Destructive Interference when waves are exactly out of phase with each other The amplitude of the resultant wave is equal to the difference in amps bt the 2 interfering waves 0 Partial Interference Both constructive and destructive gt when 2 waves are not quire perfectly in or out of phase with each other gt the displacement of the resultant wave is equal to the sum of the displacements of the two interfering waves 0 Traveling Waves continuously shifting points of max and min displacement 0 Standing Waves the product of constructive and destructive interference of 2 waves of the same freq traveling in opposite directions in the same space 0 Antinodes points of max oscillation o Nodes points where there is no oscillation 0 Resonance the increase in amplitude that occurs when a period force is applied at the natural freq of an object 0 Damping a decrease in amplitude caused by an applied or nonconservative force gt attenuation 0 Natural Frequency the object will resonate and the AMPLITUDE of oscillation will increase when applying a force Take AanS 0 Transverse waves have particle oscillation PERPENDICULAR to the direction of propagation and energy transfer 0 Longitudinal Wave have particle oscillation parallel to the direction of propagation and energy transfer 0 Interference o Perfectly in phase Amplitudel Amplitude 2 o Perfectly OUT of phase 0 if equal Chapter 7 Waves and Sound Page 24 y February 72 Sound 0 Sound the product of mechanical disturbances of a material that creates an oscillation of the molecules in the material 000 0 Pitch related to FREQUENC a 39 DQPPIer Effect 3 8 V Vb im 3 v Lv 239 39 seas IN N 139 594 V9 i k sz s k W 0 Open Pipes E 0 Closer Pipes 0 Ultrasound n A sa Mm c xr iiwugerLgt UM M quot x I lt9 immarg 9M 5 39 mm L vaea p e I 5t v2 7 90 3 X a VMquot Vt lb 5 propagates through all forms of mater BUT NOT IN A VACCUM amp a fastest through solids with low density and slowest in very dense ga5 5 S g 30 4 When density of a medium increases speed of sound decreases quot 0 f6 0 LOUDNESS is related to INTENSITYgt r la t wgt 90quot 1 WM Uch I 139 ef we 9 v v g 5 Dec39bels ID In gtk39 Ik 0 7amp3 0393 quotInquot an 4 9 aw ID 03 m mus 0quot 6396 pswile D 03 01 1 5 WW t M 4 W M Standing Waves and Open Pipes 0 St39 W f I ring aves l I 39 fhv 5 a1 0 String Frequency sails 71 a kit I o Freq 8 9 Take Aways Mnemonic Conventions in the Doppler Equation 39 0 Top sign for TOWARD 0 Bottom sign for AWAY 5 an 5355 63l03 Ew n harmonics the number of wavelengths within the string L the length of the string V the wave speed Ultra Sound 0 Sound Production via mechanical vibrations 0 Phenomena Detected generated by solid objects a Prenatal screening bells or vocal chords and occasionally by fluids b Diagnosis of gallstones 0 Sound Transmission transmitted as a c Breast and thyroid masses longitudinal wave Never in a vacuum d Blood clots 0 Used in Needle guidance 0 Treating certain deep tissue or small tumor problems End Questions Properties of Sound 0 Amplitude related to the VOLUME 0 Frequency related to the PITCH Doppler Affect Perceiv Original Signs ed Freq Freq Towards each other HIGHER Away from each other HIGHER One objet follows the other EITHER EITHER or 0 Mnemonic Nodes are places of NO DISPLACEMENT 0 Attenuation damping negliable in test day unless either term is directly used 0 The number of ANTINODES will tell u which harmonic it is IN STRING 19 4m 39 0 The number of NODES will tell you which harmonic an open pipe wave is OPPSITE Chapter 7 Waves and Sound Page 25 Intensity Chapter 7 Waves and Sound Page 26 Review Quetsions Saturday February 28 2 15 4 PM We 03K MW MW m a G 3 c X I gy P P PP P 99 10 11 12 13 14 15 MD 2quot WK A 3 rs 2 0 A 13 In order for something to shatter it MUST have EQUAL Applied Freq and Natural Freq When going from an OPEN pipe to a CLOSED pipe the PITCH goes DOWN Angular Freq 2piefreq gt always going to be larger then normal freq ULTRA SOUND calculated distance based on TRAVEL TIME of REFLECTED SOUND In a Doppler shift if the PERCIEVED FREQ 2X then the period is 12 Ln of 2 100 Less hair cell movement decreased VOLUME 180 degree out of phase the difference bt the wavelengths In order for the perceived freq 0 then the velocities and directions must all be somewhat equal Solids carry sound the fastest Sonic Booms occur when the object is traveling at exactly the same speed of soud gt above this the shock wave is mitigated by other wave fronts Velocity of waves increases with volume39 Always Use 4pierquot2 as the area intensity problems Chapter 7 Waves and Sound Page 27 81 Electromagnetic Spectrum Wednesday February 182 2015 1136 AM 0 Electromagnetic Radiation Hierarchy radio waves lt micro waves lt IF lt visible lightltultravioletltxraysltgamma rays 0 FREQUENCY follows the SAME trend Electromagnetic Waves transverse waves that consist of an oscillating electric field and an oscillating magnetic field the two field are perpendicular to each other Electromagnetic Spectrum the range of frequencies and wavelengths douns in EM waves EM Spectrum includes radio waves lt micro waves lt visible lightltultravioletltxraysltgamma rays Visible Spectrum approx 400nm violet to 700nm red 53 502115 V0 034 0 WAVELENGTH follows the OPPOSITE trend Take AanS 0 Mnemonic ROY G BIV 0 00000 0 Red gt HIGHER wavelength Lower FREQUENCY Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet gt LOWER wavelength HIGHER FREQUENCY 0 Visible Spectrum 400nm 700nm and is only a SMALL portion of the full electromagntic spectrum 0 Light waves are TRANSVERSE Chapter 8 Light and Optics Page 28 82 Geometrical Optics Monday February 23 2 15 1 21 PM 0 Reflection the rebounding of incident light waves at the boundry of a medium 0 Law of Reflection states that the incident angle will equal the angle of reflection Spherical Mirrors 0 Centers 0 Radii of Curvature O 0 Focal Points A M W Concave Everything looks larger and closer b 90 III ConM gt like looking into a cave v 0mm III CONVERGING Mirrors gt causes parallel incident light rays to converge after they reflect 9 Focal point will ALWAYS be positive 0 I Convex everything appears smaller and further away III Passenger side mirrors III DIVERGING mirrors gt cause parallel incident light rays to diverge after they reflect 9 Focal point will ALWAYS be negative Drawing Ray Diagrams Where the image is 0 Ray parallel to axis gt reflects back through FOCAL POINT Plane Mirrors Refraction the bending of light as it passes from on medium to another 0 the speed of light changes depending on INDEX OF REFRACTION o the speed change causes refraction Dispersion when the various wavelengths of light separate from each other gt the tendency for different wavelength of light to experience difference degrees of refraction in a medium Chromatic Aberration a dispersive effect within a spherical lens that depends on the thicknes and curvature of the lens 0 The alteration or distortion of an image as a result of imperfections in the optical system 0 PROBLEMS with Optical System Snell39s Law Law of Reimctinn L 9 n 3 Slhel r 9 5 A 9 0 Total Internal Reflection occurs when light cannot be refracted out of a medium and is instead reflected back inside the medium 0 happens when light moves from a medium with higher index to a lower index 0 Critical Angle the minimum incident angle at which total internal reflection occurs 0 Incident Angle always measured relative to the NORMAL Lenses reflects light to form images of objects 0 Symmetrical lenses have focal points on both sides 0 Convex Lens FARSIGHTED I CONVERGING lens III FOCAL point will always be POSITIVE o Concave Lens NEARSIGHTED DIVERGING lens I I III Focal point will ALWAYS be negative ll Cn 3 r a x o Lensmakgrs Equation lenses with nonnegligible thickness require this correction factor quot39 Chapter 8 Light and Optics Page 29 Drawing Ray Diagrams Where the image is 0 Ray parallel to axis gt reflects back through FOCAL POINT of FRONT FACE of the lens 0 Ray through or toward focal point BEFORE reaching the lens gt reflects back parallel to axis 0 Ray to the center of lensgt conti ues straight through with no refraction z Power 9 1 5 I Multiple Lenses Magnificaiton m m1 x m2 X T33 x m4etc T 5 P 9 quot10 13 r a gt Q 2 3 Mirrors Symbol I Positive Negative Io object Object infront of mirror Object is behind mirror 39 RARE I i image Image is in front of miror real VIRTUAL r Radius of Curvature Mirror is concave converging DIVERGING ffoca length Mirror is concave converging DIVERGING m magnification Image is upright erect INVERTED Lens Symbol Positive Negative 0 object Same side as light source rare i image REAL VIRTUAL r Radius of Curvature CONVERGING DIVERGING ffoca length CONVERGING DIVERGING m magnification ERECT Inverted Take Aways Passanger side mirror CONVEXgt everything appears smaller and further away 0 Makeup Mirrors CONCAVE mirrors gt everything appears closer Mnemonic ConCAVE is like loking into a cave 0 Concave mirrors Converging Mirrors Convex Mirros Diverging miros Anytime an object is at the FOCAL POINT of converging mirror the reflected rays will e parallel and thus the image will be at INFINITY When light enters a medium with a higher index of refraction it BENDS towards NORMAL perpendicular Bifocal Lens a lens that is divided into 2 regions 0 Myopia correction for nearsightedness o Hyperopia correction for farsightedness Chapter 8 Light and Optics Page 30 83 Diffraction Monday February 232 2 15 216 PM 0 Diffraction the bending and spreading out of light eaves as they pass thorugh a narrow slit 0 may produce a large central light fringe surrounded by alternating light and dark fringes 0 Young39s double slit experiemnt Take Aways Chapter 8 Light and Optics Page 31 84 Polarization Monday February 232 2 15 1 217 PM 0 Plane Polarized Light all the light rays have electric fields with parallel orientation 0 Circularly Polarized Light the light rays have electric fields with equal intensity but constantly rotating direction Take Aways Chapter 8 Light and Optics Page 32 91 Photoelectric Effect Weolnesolayp February 189 21115 1136 AM 0 Photoelectric Effect the ejection of an electron from the surface of a metal in response to light 0 Threshold Frequency the minimum light frequency necessary to eject an electron from a given metal W W M S Lyl um WEE gavKtxw 5 0 ll 0 Work Planks Constant X threshold L w 9 SM 0 If Energy of Incident Photon gt threshold energy greater KE 0 The magnitude of the current created by the ejected electron is proportional to the intensity of the incident beam of light we m6 I a WW Take AanS Chapter 9 Atomic and Nuclear Phenomena Page 33 92 Absorption and Emission of Light Tuesday February 242 2 15 524 PM 0 Bohr Model states the electron energy levels are stable and discrete corresponding to specific orbits O Absorbing an electron jumping from a lower energy to a higher energy by absorbing the energy difference bt the orbits o Emitting an electron going from higher to lower energy levels emits THE DIFFERENCE bt two orbits 0 Absorption Spectra impacted by small changes in MOLECULAR STRUCTURE 0 Fluorescence 0 Ground State Take Aways Chapter 9 Atomic and Nuclear Phenomena Page 34 93 Nuclear Binding Energy and Mass Defect Tuesday February 242 2 15 527 PM 0 Nuclear Binding Energy the amount of energy that is RELEASE when NUCLEONS protons and neutron join together 0 Increase binding energy Increased stability 0 4 Forces I Weak Nuclear Force I Strong nuclear force I Electrostatic forces I Gravitation 0 Mass Defect the difference bt the mass of unbound nucleons and the mass of bound nucleons O The unbound constituents have more energy gt thus more mass I Energy is proportional to Mass 0 The amount of mass converted to energy during nuclear fusion Take Aways Chapter 9 Atomic and Nuclear Phenomena Page 35 94 Nuclear Reactions Tuesday February 242 2 15 52 PM 0 Fusion when SMALL Nuclei COMBINE into a larger one 0 Fission when a LARGE nucleus splits into two 0 Radioactive Decay O O Wlt50M mew Alpha Decay the emission of alpha particles with a HELIUM l7 nucleus Beta Negative Decay decay of a neutron into a proton with the emission of an electron Beta Positive Decay decay of a PROTON into a NEUTRON with the emission of a positron Gamma Decay emission of a GAMMA RAY converting a high energy nucleus into a stable one Electron Capture 0 HalfLife the amount of time required for half of a sample of radioactive nuclei to decay 0 Exponential Decay the rate at which radioactive nuclei decay is proportional to the number of nuclei that remain Take Aways Chapter 9 Atomic and Nuclear Phenomena Page 36 111 The Scientific Method Wednesday February 18 2 15 1137 AM The Scientific Method 1 Generate a testable question Gather data and resources 3 Form a hypothesis a Hypothesis proposed explaination to a testable question b Ifthen statements Collect new data EXPERIMENTATIONOBSERVATION Analyze the data Interpret the data and existing hypothesis Publish a Peer Review 8 Verify Results Iquot NF The Finer Method Five Questions gt Will the research add to the body of scientific knowledge 1 Is it feasible Do other scientist find it interesting Is it something someone asked before Novel Would it obey ethical principles Does it contribute outside of the scientific community P1Pquot Proper Scientific Method 1 Clear Hypothesis Measureable Repeatable Large sample Controllable variables 91quot Chapter 11 Reasoning About the Design and Executio Page 37 112 Basic Science Research Wednesday February 182 2 15 1 2 4 PM Controls Causality An ifthen relationship and is often the hypothesis being tested Independent Variables the portion of an experiment that can be manipulated XAxis Dependent Variables the portion of the experiment that is being observed YAxis Error Sources AccuracyValidity the ability to get the rightintended number Precisionreliability the ability to hit the same spot even if its not the intended target Chapter 11 Reasoning About the Design and Executio Page 38 113 Human Subject Research Wednesday February 18 2 15 219 PM Experimental Approach Randomization The method used to control for differences between subject groups in biomedical research the spliting of groups randomly into two groups Blinding Prevents the bias of individuals knowing which group they are apart which may influence the outcome Single Blind Exp only the patient or the assessor is blinded Double Blind Exp the investigator subject and assessor all do not know the subjects group Data Analysis Regression Analysis demonstrates linear parabolic exponential Observational Approach Observational Studies Cohort Studies where subjects are sorted into two groups based on differences in risk factors CrossSectional Studies attempt to organize patients into different groups at a single point in time Case Studies taking two groups with and without that had a particular ooutcome and looking back to see how many subjects had exposure to a particular risk factor Hawthorn effect observer effect Hill39s Criteria gt Describes the components of an observed relationship that increases likelihood of causality in the relationship Temporality gt the independent variable MUST occur before the dependent variable Strength gt when more of the variablity is explained the relationship becomes more causal DoseResponse relationship gtproportiona relationship between the study variables and the response Consistency gt the relationship is similar in multiple settings Plausability Consideration of alternative explanation Experiment Specificty Coherence Error Sources Selection Bias Detection Bias Observation Bias Everyone is susceptible to this Confounding Chapter 11 Reasoning About the Design and Executio Page 39 114 Ethics Weeimeeeieyp February 18 2 15 112m PM 4 Core Ethical Test in Medicine 1 Chapter 11 Reasoning About the Design and Executio Page 40 121 Measures of Central Tendency Thursday February 192 2 15 1133 AM Measures of Central Tendency provide a single value representation for the middle of a group of data Average Median the value that lies in the middle of the data set Mode the data point that appears the most often Chapter 12 DataBased and Statistical Reasoning Page 41 122 Distributions Thursday February 19 2 15 1135 AM features that are exemplified by their shape Classified by measures of central tendency and measures of distribution 0 Normal Distribution SYMETRICAL the mean median and mode are all the same 0 Standard Normal Distribution a normal distribution with a mean of ZERO and a standard deviation of ONE 0 68 occur w in 1 SD 95 in 2 SD and 99 in 3 SD 0 Skewed Distribution differences in the mean median and mode 0 the skew directions relates to the direction of the TAIL distribution 0 Bimodal Distribution having multiple peaks but maybe not different modes gt should assess the groups separately Chapter 12 DataBased and Statistical Reasoning Page 42 123 Measures of Distribution Thursday February 192 2 15 135 PM 0 Range difference between the smallest and largest values of a data set 0 lnterquartile Range the difference between the value of the 3rd and lst quartile gt useful in determining outliers 0 Standard Deviation 0 Outliers 0 Procedures for handling these are handled PRIOR and thought about to the study Chapter 12 DataBased and Statistical Reasoning Page 43 124 Probability Thursday February 192 Z 15 138 PM 0 Independent Events the probability never changes 0 Dependent Events the prob changes based on other events 0 Mutually Exclusive Outcomes events that cannot occur simultaneously Chapter 12 DataBased and Statistical Reasoning Page 44 125 Statistical Testing Thursday February 192 2 15 141 PM 0 Hypothesis Testing uses a known distribution to determine whether a hypothesis of no difference null hypothesis can be rejected 0 PValue Whether or not a finding is statistically y significant 0 Confidence Intervals a range of values about a sample mean that are used to estimate the population mean 95 is common 0 Wider interval is related to higher interval Chapter 12 DataBased and Statistical Reasoning Page 45 126 Charts Graphs and Tables Thursday February 192 2 15 145 PM Pie Charts Bar Charts used to compare categorical data Histograms Box Plots used to compare numerical data 0 Linear 0 SemilogLog Log L M 19 Lo 52gt quotto 50 p m 1 quot4 S 10quot 10quot lb 3 layJ i9 0 Slope can only be calculated from linear plots Chapter 12 DataBased and Statistical Reasoning Page 46 127 Applying Data Thursday February 192 Z 15 337 PM 0 Correlation and Causation separate ideas that are linked by Hill criteria 0 Data must be interpreted in the context of the current hypothesis and existing scientific knowledge 0 Statistical and practical significance are distinct Chapter 12 DataBased and Statistical Reasoning Page 47 Inclined Plane Mmdayy Fcabwary 16 2 15 122 1 PM 0 m MS quot A 3 0 34 HYPSG Page 48 to m ll l 977 fry Ll Chapter 7 Doppler Effect l l e 1 2 41 Dr Tantrwa a w quotrD V V5gtLU75gt 3253 gt3 mgr V 0 5 3 250 V v 3M5 SE W60 2 Llfgl UM 5 K l g L 1 3mm gym 1 3w w 5 WL Doppler Affect I Perceived Freq 39 Original Freq I Signs Towards each other I HIGHER I 39 39Away from eachother I I HIGHER l I One objet follows the other39 EITHER EITHER 39 or I 0 Separate these questions into 2 parts 0 The effet of the source 0 The Effect of the observer 0 If the dector is ahead of the source the detector will be moving away from the srouce while the sourve is movin towards the detector 0 If the source is ahead of the detector the source will be moving away from the detector while the detector is moving toward the source HYPSG Page 49 Atomic Structure Wednesday February 112015 810 PM Quanta electromagnetic radiation bundles Planks Equation I c h c l 3 quot 3r 1 PANKscNSTANT a 6 wo w All systems tend toward minimal energy bow Maw WWW anu eh die L amp We 2 SPEED OF LIGHT m iLow rs E w lquot 9 9amp L V M G Ah f E39 93 tw gqbyg G 591 man Lam L5 L K S 3 39 i 5 L 9mem39f 93999 e a l WWW3quot b 50 M l 3 aww LL 900 W Heisenberg uncertanty principle It is imposssible to simultaneously determine with perfect accuracy the momentum and the position of an electoron Qumlwm Nome 0439 Ln amp eiwvi W rco lo wbm w mm is 3 aquot 9 5mu 5 on Com lit e 65 SUVN S 1 L90 5 114 L915 Lgscf Q3 ma om inwrvlr June 1 I O off 939 quot 439 39 quot 139 Paramagentic when atoms have unpaired UM kaaor 9 electrons that creats a slight magnetic pull M M quotquot 5M moh n L mmg Wrquot Hunds Rule In any given subshell the maximum number of orbitals need to be half filled with parrelle spins Mg g hlqggs Etmsqsl u Chapter 1 Atomic Structure Page 1 rpm Wwa mews 4 y 2 E rj e kg vo i 53 393 L o e P c as swam 5695a sxw nm Wt g L9ampW 3 Lx 39 d 67190 3 1 1i 3 99 4 4 9 etagreat 9 o 33 f a a 9 139 3 3 993 ate 2 quot s a egg omE m Nmgt 0 gt993 coszEQ UUUU mm 8 328m gt926 m5 quotgt903 2 uuuuu o m om HHHHHHHH m mmmmmm omgtgt 53 28 Bonding and Chemical Interactions Wednesday February 112015 0 Qsz WW5 lO39SPlVl sl H x dag v 77 gu gb atom OM m bamp3 399 MW sum L0 u JR Ionic Bonds One or more electrons from an atom with low ionization energy typically a metal are transferred to an atom with high electron affinity o Q typicallyanonmetal quotMF 0 L a ommmm 0M Covalent Bonds When an electron pair is shared between two atoms typically nonmetals that have relatively similar values of electronegativity a I M F F u Covalent Bond Length the average distance bt the 2 nuclei Covalent Bond Energy the energy required to break a bond by separating its components into their atomic states Polarity when two atoms have a relative difference in electronegativity Comer bl 53 PolarNonpolar Covalent Bonds When atoms of moderately different electronegative share electron pairs VS When atoms of VERY similar electronegative share electron pairs Dt pvtp W we cgt W EL vi i M CootAMA M R UFES o W MW 3 m xvi wa mm um ow MW Formal Charge 7 LW M e3 MV M 9 ok e gt 50M 06 Qbo3 4 5 W 5 x 3 M 90 GM 56 Wt MS39 t Q0 3939 X 9quot 17 33 m 0 c 0M 03 i MT 7 Uh w Qua by 33 DipoleDipole Interactions When a ionic compound like HCL interacts with another HCL 1 3 F c quot1 39c Simiar to LondonDispersion forces but STRONGER at 539 5 a Chapter 3 Bonding and Chemical Interactions Page 3 About 5 Dv 97 35 Pt 3Q A4 Me559139 13 A g tber lquot r 1quot Compounds and Stoichiometry Thursday February 12 Z 1S 443 PM mbhb muss osr somxpw Us mow Wu3 m0tnw w Dl n Equivalence How many moles of the thing we are interested in will one mole of a given compound produce EWWZ7 must I ntg xepmwcquot Ony discussed with acidbase rxns oxired rxns and precipitation rxns Useful in titrations Normality the measurements of concentration eW VVW L motduA x 5 OWLMr FIDOon Empirical Formula provides the simplest version of the molecule to the nearest whole number ratio of the elements Molecular formula gives the EXACT number of atoms of each element in the compound Percent Composition y PP E 3 y F M50 2 42 9 our 39 o 2 93 337 9W 3 quot W wonr ywraSb ogtr cofw 5 w e dobum 39 M A p QMWXN39D IS 9 err Why W 3 94 Combi tion Rxn Decomposition Rxn Combustion Rxn SingleDisplacement Rxn when an atom or ion in a compound Is replaced by an atom or ion of another element DoubleDisplacement elements from two different compounds swap places with each other to form two new compounds Neutralization Rxns 0KWMgt ud avb stg Stoichiometric Coefficients the numbers placed in front of each compound gt Indicates the relative number of moles Chapter 4 Compounds and Stoichiometry Page 4 Fr T 51 Chemical Kinetics Re Aquot K6 9 6quot U D U K increases with smll exponent value Saturday February 21 Z 15 5r Onhlf a K EWW i 1 PM 11 t oe Q MW Kc 5 DinaMW Gibbs Free Energy glvg e39ther or not a reaction is SPONANEOUS M but as 1 emmsmuw inhumanQ A W 6QW smuhw 0 Chemical Mechanisms when a series of steps makes up an overall reaction K 5 a 60 O Intermediates molecules that exist in the course of the reaction 0 Rate Determining Step limits the maximum rate at which the reaction can occur QM b 9amp2 A 3N5 a Ape am Lamb cues M 3 gt 94 s Liner 0 Collision Theory the reaction rate is proportional to the number of effective collision between the reacting molecules 0 Activation Energyz 9 runsum a aw m any m a 0 m w W W x m a O Arrhea ius Equation M39vquot 2 If y dunk quot W quota 39 1 may a r 5 m M relatIve to reactants and products the tranSItIon state has the highest energy gt cannot be Isolated I 9H o m T m 0 Transition State Theory A A A A A a o Transisiton State 9 b 393 i i a o Activated Complex 5 E Q 6 0 Intermediate actually exist 0 Factors Affectin Transtion States i INCREASE react i Changing medium can INCREASE or DECRASE ii Changing Pressure ONLY FOR GASES iii Adding a catalyst will INCREASE 1 Homogenous catalyst catalyst that is in the same phase 2 Heterogenous catalyst catalyst that is in a different phase Chapter 5 Chemical Kinetics Page 5 52 Reaction Rates Saturday February 219 21115 114 PM 0 Reaction Rates rate of disappearance of reactant OR appearance of product A quot ELK S My a m MK 13 quotm w m I M 1935 V be mu 1 6 3 hL C3 m 0 Wquot 5 Ce rtCG 0 0 Rate Law budge 796 JB W K DA Uzle Mt m 53 Find the two trials where all but one of the substances are held constant Assess the order attribution to the reactant concentrations Plug and chug to find the K VALUE i ii iii 0 Rate Orders I NOT equal to stoichiometric coefficents o Zeroorder Reactions when in a given trial the substances have constant concentrations but the rate does not change 3 396 quot upr Ttmp 0 Ce 5 Ar m 9 W 53593 0 First Order Reactions when in a agivent trail the substances are constant and the rate DOUBLES X2 to 1 quot Ara 0 V 0 Second Order Reactions When the RATE QUADROUPLES X4 s tug M Al riutk Rm Kl l 3 3 K 0 Broken Order Reactions E J 0 Mixed Order Reactions NON INTEGER orders fractions 6 7 EM Ki DEE 53quot A3 0 BrokenOrder Reactions specifically fractions Chapter 5 Chemical Kinetics Page 6 Review Questions Memdayp Mamh 2 2 15 a Chapter 5 Chemical Kinetics Page 7 Saturdayp February 21 2 15 22 PM 61 Equilibrium Kw 0 Reversible Rxns rxns that eventually reach a state in which ENERGY is MIN and ENTROPY is MAX 0 Dynamic rxns occuring at a constant rate 10 XL 3 when forward and reverse rates are equal K r u A 5 so A P o may 0 Law of Mass Action provides the equation for the EQUALIBRIUM CONSTANT Keq vx 9W 3 93 b Clint mug gmquot c man E92v I Mfg d39mca LA 0 Reaction Quotient Q calculated value that related the reactant and product concentrations at any given time during a b egg 9N0 EFFlt C Y rxn 5 W3 t lt ATV k w m 3 3 w V Var Q X W o Keg the ratio of products to reactants with each concentration raised to the stoichiometric coefficient at constant temps 0 only related to GASes and AQUEOUS Solutions 0 Comparison of Q and Kg k at v a quot 7 POMquot 1 39 Qlt Keq then G lt 0 gt FORWARD direction of rxn W I Q Keq then G 0 gt dynamic equalibrium a W 39 Q gt Keq then G gt 0 gt REVERSE direction of rxn quot quot 61 Take Awavs 0 At equalibrium the rate of the foraward rxn equals the rate of the reverse rxn gt ENTROPY is at a MAX while FREE ENERGY is at a MIN 0 Fpr dilute solutions Keq Kc 0 Different from rate law bc we DOuse the COEFICIENTS as the exponents 0 The pressure is proportional to the concentration of the products and reactant gt they can use the same exponents Chapter 6 Equalibrium Page 8 62 Le Chatelier39s Principle Saturday February 21 Z 15 236 PM Le Chatlier39s Principle when a chemical system experiences a stress it will react to restore equilibrium 0 ypes of Stress i Change in concentration ii Pressure 1 Increasing gt shifts to side with FEWER MOLES 2 Decreasing gt shifts to side with MORE MOLES iii Volume 1 Increasing gt shifts to side with MORE MOLES 2 Decreasing gt shifts to side with FEW MOLES iv Temperature 1 Exothermic a Increasing gt shifts rxn to the left b Decreasing gt shifts rxn to the right 2 Endothermic a Increasing gt shifts rxn to the right b Decreasing gt shift rxn to the left Take Aways 0 The principle applies to a wide variety of systems Chapter 6 Equalibrium Page 9 63 Kinetic and Thermodynamic Control 7 0 Thermodynamic and Kinetic Products can be controlled by TEMPERATURE and CATALYST Kinetic Products x 0 Higher in free energy 131 0 Can form at lower temps o FAST PRODUCTS Thermodynamic Products 0 Lower free energy 0 IVIore STABLE o IVIore spontaneous More G 9ch 6mm 3 an masz 1 W W mm Chapter 6 Equalibrium Page 10 Review Questions Mmdayy Mamh 2 2 15 725mm 1 Chapter 6 Equalibrium Page 11 71 Systems and Processes Saturday February 212 Z 15 317 PM Classifications of Systems W 0 Isolated Systems neither MATTER nor EVNERGY 0 Closed Systems ENERGY but not MA39I39I39ER 0 Open Systems both ENERGY and MA39I39I39ER bk 7quot Processes Characterizing Systems y wWK Isothermal Constant TEMPURATURE WWW MW quot M t 593 0 3 Wk LT 11 t as 93 1739 i D A 1 V Adiabatic exchange no HEAT with environment C K R J 7 39 I x c lsobaric occurs at constant PRESSURE lsovolumetric occurs at constant VOLUME Chapter 7 Thermochemistry Page 12 72 States and State Functions SaturdayD February 21 2 15 3317 PM 0 State Functions describe the physical properties of an equilibrium state o Pathway independent 0 QC I Pressure I Denshy I Temp I Column I Enthalpy Q I Internal Energy I Gibbs free energy I Entropy 0 Standard Conditions gt 0 298K 0 1 atm o 1 Molar lt Lg 0 Standard State the state at which an element is more prevalent in 0 Phase Chanqes Fusion freezing or some type of solidification VaporizationCondensation evaporation and boiling SublimationDeposition solid to gas phase Critical Point a point between gases and liquids when their indistinguishable Phase Diagram OOOOO Chapter 7 Thermochemistry Page 13 73 Heat Saturday February 219 26315 317 PM 0 Temperature a scaled measure of average kinetic energy of a substance 0 Heat the transfer of energy that results from differences of temp bt two substances m wtW PM gt 1 ti wsg MM r W Mb3 First Law of Thermodynamics L AH T Mb Calorimeters U ADHW b SW bumw 5quotva a 575 9 quot imbs Constant Volume Decomposition vessel gt Bomb calirometer Constant Pressure an insulated contained covered with a lid and filled with a solution in which a reaction or some physical process such as dissolution is occuringgt COFFEE CUP DUNN 539 EU NQMX BUgtwX3gt Heating Curves Specfiic Heat the amount of energy required to raise a temp of one gram of a substance one degree celsius Heat Capacity Chapter 7 Thermochemistry Page 14 74 Enthalpy 939 Saturday February 219 2 15 326 PM 0 Enthalpy H a measure of the potential energy of a system found in intermolecular attractions and chemical bonds A by Mung 9 quot ROMS m E I bus cum 0 Hess39s Law the total change in potential energy of a system is equal to the change of potential energies of the individual steps of a process MA Jr m Ba 5n 5 bQ M 37M 4MMA h 5 LJ or 5 bmz Igti 393 M 5 gig 99M MW 4b 5W 5 h M 0 Can be calculated using heats of formationcombustion and bond dissociation energies A 0 Standard Heat of Combustion 0 Bond Dissociation Energies o The larger the alkane reactant the more products there will be W W U Chapter 7 Thermochemistry Page 15 75 Entropy Saturday February 21 2015 328 PM 0 Entropy 5 through of as DISORDER gt a measure of THE DEGREE to which ENERGY has been SPREAD throughout a syste4m or between the system and its surroundings A5 3 Q m b M 3 quotquot bquot O Freezmg gt decrease In entropy 1 z Boiling gt large increase in entropy Esm Sublimation gt will always have the GREATEST Increase 3955 m quot ASP the ration of heat transferred per mole per unit Kelvin Maximized at EQUALIBRIUM State Function Db 34F 63 My L V WL 4 3w a 35 wl l ABM 00000 Second Law of Thermodynamics Energy is spontaneously disperses form being localized to becoming spread out if it is not hindered from doing so Chapter 7 Thermochemistry Page 16 76 Gibbs Free Energy c t u 0 Gibbs Free Energy a derivative from enthalpy and entropy for a given system b C L O 9 B T ES 9M Ago 139 r us Tm39hW NWM 0 Km 0 changes determine whether the rxn is SPONTANEOUS or NONSPONTANEOUS D 914 L o o G lt 0 rxn proceeds forward and is SPONTANEOUS EXOGON IC 0L lt o G 0 rxn is at dynamic equilibrium o G gt 0 rxn proceeds in reverse and is NONSPONTANEOUS ENDERGONIC Q fm qgtU0 Mc I Dependent on gt cc be M AG Q QAL L 1 Temperature EndogonicVS Exogonic m G b 5 Vquot CC V 014quot S G 39 high Temps Goldfish ARE 139 Horrible WITHOUT a temps Tartar Sauce at low temps Chapter 7 Thermochemistry Page 17 Review Questions Mmdayp Mamh 29 2 15 836 PM Pg 219 Pg 223 Chapter 7 Thermochemistry Page 18 81 The Gas Phase Saturday February 21 2 15 82 PM 0 least dense phase of matter conform to the shape of their containers easily compressible 0 described by the variable TEMPERATURE PRESSURE VOLUME and NUMBER OF MOLES Equivalence o 1 atm 760 mmHg 760 torr 101325 kPa 0 Simple Mercury Barometer measures incident pressue O as pressure decreases mercury leaves the column under its own weight decreasing the height 0 Standard State 298K 1atm 1M 0 STP 273K at 1atm Take Aways 0 Standard State 25 degrees Celsius 298 K Chapter 8 The gas Phase Page 19 82 Ideal Gases Saturdayp February 21 2 15 843 PM r 4 so w vxquot M ideal gas laws assume mass and volume are negligible vquot 53quot P in KT c 0 Standard State 298 K or 25 Degrees Celsius 0 Standard Temp and Pressure STP 273 K at latm o For all gases gt equimolar amounts of 2 gases take up the same volume gt 224L at STP 0 Ideal Gas Law describes the relationship between the four variables of the ideal gas law 0 Avagadro39s Principle shows a direct relationship bt the number of moles of gas and volume 0 Boyle39s Law shows the inverse relationship between PRESSURE and VOLUME 0 Charles39s law shows a direct relationship between TERMPERATURE and VOLUME PV 9 0 GayLussac39s Law shows a direct relationship bt TERMERPARTURE and PRESSURE quot7 3quot 3 9 0 Combined Gas Law combination of the three laws showing all of their interactions 0 Dalton39s Law of Partial Pressure individual gas components will exert pressure in proportion to their mole fraction A 0U was 0 5 0 Total Pressure um of Partial Pressures lt a PA PR Wtquot 5 W 39 PA 7 YA 1 Y9 hH MM 3 0 Henrey39s Law amount of gas dissolved in solution is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas at the surface of the soluti n 11K f Pp bk C973 n Eben3 l a 3 03 3quot Wm 63 9 Pa 0 Density the ratio of the mass per unit colume of a substance 3 M ma rcssv4 NV IN35gt J C V0w L 60 TCWY gt L betb L LW M Cj w VU 9 Eye v f lt Q ngQ T w 1 US JU Q9Q L q x 9 L Take Awavs 0 When there are multiple gases each contributes equally so act as though there is only one gas in the container 0 Ideal Gass Deviation 0 High Pressures low volume 0 Low temperature Chapter 8 The gas Phase Page 20 83 Kinetic Molecular Theory Saturday February 219 2 15 855 PM 0 Kinetic Molecular Theory explains the behavior of gas particles Assumes that 0 Gas have negligible volumes 0 Gas particles do not have intermolecular attractions or repulsions 0 Gas particles undergo random collisions with each other and the walls of the container 0 Collisions bt gas particles are elastic o The Average kinetic energy of gas participles is directly proportional to TEMPERARTU RE Kat71 9 RW H f Twp Botman39s Constant IS used for was 53m bridge macroscopic with microscopic 0 RootMean S uare urms the s eed correlate o the a era e kinet39c ener er r 39 KNEWquot 7 aM q 335 v tu batshi39g I ltw 594 QwsLinfmmgy wp ma U gum UN 1 WWW 39 D 7 quot Rtquot0 5 quot 5quot so 393 539 v23 08 m m T M3 on LK39sl w gm tga33t M 715 m m tug 9 0 Graham39s Law describes the behavior of gas diffusion and effusion o Gases with LOWER MOLAR MASS will diffuseeffuse FASTER then ones with larger molar masses v We u L 77 o DifquIon the spreading out of particles from high to lowgncfcfgavtrznbw D Wavy 1w quotP Wu 3M 9 a 7M fa JV Take Aways 0 Diffusion when gases mix with one another 0 Effusion when a gas moves through a small ole under pressure 0 Both Slower for LARGER particles 0 Both use the same equation Chapter 8 The gas Phase Page 21 84 Real Gases Saturday February 219 2 15 859 PM 0 Real Gases gases that are different from ideal gases under HIGH PRESSURE and LOW TEMPERATURE O Occupy less volume then ideal gases bc of particles intermolecular attractions 0 Van der Waals Equation of State an equation used to correct for real gases compared to ideal gases 39 If a and b in are zero the van der waals equation becomes the ideal gas law 39 A is the van der Waals term for the ATTRACTIVE FORCE 39 Bb is the van der Waals term for BIG PARTICLES 5 we 0quot 9 IV39 b5 Take Aways 0 At high temps and low pressures are when these occur gt generally can still use the ideal gas law 0 In the Chapter 8 The gas Phase Page 22 Review Questions Sunday Marer 12 2 15 53 PM W 3 Y w 1 D Q J A 6r qu 397 6 Chapter 8 The gas Phase Page 23 91 Nature of Solutions Saturday February 21 26315 946 PM 0 Solutions a homogenous mixture composed of two or more substances 0 Solvent the majority of a solution 0 Solute the minority of a solution 0 SoIvationDissolutionchLration when the solvent surrounds the solute gt more specifically with water 0 Ideal Solutions a solution for which the enthalpy of dissolution is equal to zero 0 Solubility the maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a given solvent at a given temp o Saturation when the maximum amount of solute has been added the disolved solute is in equalibrium with its undissolved state 0 Molar Solubility the molarity of the SOLUTE at SATURATION o Solubilty Rules I All salts containing Ammoonium NH4 and Group 1 metals cations are water soluble ii All salts containing nitrate NOBl and acetate CH3COOl are water soluble g iii Halides Cl Br and excluding florides are water soluble unless theyre formed With Ag PbZ lt and HgZ iv All salts of the sulfate ion 04 2 are water saluble gt except Ca2 Sr2 Ba2 and Pb2 v All metal oxides are insoluble unless they can hydrolyze to form solutions of the corresponding metal hydrozides vi All hydroxides are insoluble vii L carbonates phosphates sulfides and sulfites are insoluble 0 Complex Ions coordination compounds LIGANDS gt molcles in which a cation is bonded to atleast one electron pair donor 0 inrease the solubility of otherwise insoluble ions gt common ion affect o forming a complex requires electron pair donors and acceptors gt like the ones in coordinate covalent bonding Colloid Mixture A mixture that has a solute that is not very soluble so it forms a heterogenous mixture Take Awavs 0 Because most solutions in the real world involve water as the solvent it is not a surprise that they are common on the MCAT These solubility rules are not bad to know but memorizing them all may be a little excessive It is never a bad thing to know facts but being able to apply them is more important 0 Know rules 1 and 2 for sure 0 Know common insoluble exceptions like Pb2 and Ag Chapter 9 Solutions Page 24 92 Concentration Saturday February 219 26315 947 PM Expression of Concentration 0 Percent Composition by Mass 0N0 k MW y tw lo Mmgs as Sogtlt39 Mole Fraction Y mm Dir R R I g 3 1 some seem r 0 Molarity V moms o Lolt m I Cwu ck sbKOh A Molality mbLzo 6A Sob m q3 oquot sbkuUx v 0 Normality equal to the number of equivalents of interest per liter of solution 0 Dilution WM quot4quot 16039 gm O I O i g S39wK NM3O I Taob Cobhf 3 msL gtGIW M 39 5 3 C a W 1 9 b a J l k T Wu 0 gt 9 5 x K9 Fquot53 W LN 1 7 fog2 0 v I MSW m w Take Aways quot 0 important to have a good idea of how to work with all of these ways of expressing concentration because more than one may show up 0 When you come to a problem with normality this of it as molarity of the stuff of interest in the reaction Chapter 9 Solutions Page 25 93 Solution Equilibria Saturday February 219 2 15 947 PM 0 saturated solutions are at equilibrium at that particular temp 0 Ksp Solubility Product Constant simply the equilibrium constant for a dissolution reaction 3 st 393 kmm XXX Lquvw ahy 0 Comparison of Ksp and IP ion product determines the level of saturation and behavior of the solution I lP lt Ksp solution is unsaturated gt if more solute is added it will dissolve I IP Ksp the solution is saturated at equilibrium gt there will be no change in concentration I lP gt Ksp the solution is supersaturated gt a precipitate will form 0 Common Ion Affect the decrease in solubility when a solution already contains one of the ions in the compound 0 Stability Constant Kf the formation of the complex ion Take Aways 0 For Salts with the general formula MX gt Ksp xquot2 0 For salts with the gerneal formual MXZ gt Ksp 4xquot3 0 For salts with the gerneal formula MX3 gt Ksp 27xquot4 Chapter 9 Solutions Page 26 94 Colligative Properties Saturday February 21 2 15 948 PM 0 Colligative Properties physical properties of solutions that depend on the concentration of dissolved particles but not on their chemical identity Vapor Pressure Depressions RAULT39S LAW vi f a S fb n r new M m O The presence of other solutes decreases the evaporation rate of a solvent wihtout affecting its condensation rate gt DECREASES VAPOR PRESSURE 0 As the vapr pressure decreases the temperature required to oil the liquid must be increased 0 Freezing Point Depression a shift in the phase equilibrium that depended on the molality of a solution 39 that J 39 5Tb c KEN Keck 5 8 s 6 lt5 m f 39A w H MDVLMqu 7 VarL Low 0 Boiling Point El ition a shift in the phase equilibria that depends on the molality of a solution 0 Osmotic Pressure dependent primarily on the molarity of a solution MK 3 ll8quot vw O L J 39 N 050980 quot A 0 Van39t Hoff factor i a factor used in calculating freezing point depression boiling point elevation and osmotic pressure Take Aways 0 The lowering of a solutions vapor pressure would mean that a higher temp is required to match atmospheric pressure therebyy taising the boiling point 0 Boiling Point Depression calculates the amount that the normal BP is raised gt value calculated is NOT the BP itself Chapter 9 Solutions Page 27 101 De nmons Saturday February 21 2015 947 PM Most Reactive 0 Arrhenius Acids dissociates t o produce excess H ions 0 Arrhenius Bases dissociates to produce an excess of OH ions Semi Reactive 0 BronstedLowry Acids proton donators 0 BronstedLowry Bases proton acceptors Not Reactive 0 Lewis Acids electron pair acceptors 0 Lewis Bases electron pair donators 0 Mnemonic A Lewis Acid is an ACCEPTOR of electron pairs Water Amino Acids and Partially Deprotonated Bicarbonate and Bisulfate 0 Amphoteric species that can behave as acids or bases 0 Amphiprotic species that specifically can behave as BronstedLowry acids or bases 0 Metal oxides and hydro 0 Water is amphoteric and amphiprotic I Accepts hydrogen ions I Can donate hydrogen ions 0 Conjugate species of polyvalent acids and bases can also behave as amphoteric and amphiprotic species AcidBase Nomenclature Take Aways 0 All Arrhenius questions will be comparisons to Bronsted Lowery 0 Most question will be about BL acids and bases All MORE restrictive types can be categorized as a Less Restrictive All EQUALIBRIUM CONSTANTS are dependent only on TEMP Neutral pH 7 is only NEUTRAL at standard temp Chpater 10 Acids and Bases Page 28 102 Properties Saturday February 212 2 15 1157 PM 0 KW water dissociation constant 10quot14 at standard state 298 K 0 pH calculated using the H30 0 pOH calculated using OH 0 Strong Acids and Bases both completely dissociate in solution 0 Weak Acids and Bases neither completely dissociate in solution and have corresponding dissociation constants Ka and Kb 0 once protonated or deprotonated gt forms CONJUGATE ACIDS AND BASES o REMOVING a proton produces a CONJUGATE BASE 0 Strong acids and bases have very weak conjugates 0 Weak acids and bases have weak conjugates 0 Neutralization Reactions the formation of salts and occasionally water Take Aways Chpater 10 Acids and Bases Page 29 103 Polyvalence and Normality Saturday February 212 2 15 1157 PM 0 Equivalents one mole of the species of interest 0 Normality the concentration of acid or base equivalents in a solution 0 Polyvalent Acids and Bases those that can DONATE or ACCEPT multiple electrons gt molarity of the Acid or Base X the number of protons it can donate or accept 0 Normality the number of equivalents of H or OH ions X of moles o Roughly equals the pH if the acid is MONOPROTIC Take Aways 0 Isolated changes in pressure concentration or volume DO NOT change Kw 10quot14 Chpater 10 Acids and Bases Page 30 104 Titrations and Buffers Saturday February 21 21115 1158 PM 0 Titrations used to determine the concentration of a known reactant in a solution 0 Tirant the substance with the known concentration that is added slowly to the titrand to reach the equivalence point 0 Titrand an unknown concentration but known volume 0 Half Equivalence Point the midpoint of the buffering region which half the titrant has been protonated gt HA A 0 Equivalence Point indicated by the STEEPEST SLOPE in a titration curve gt reached when the NUMBER OF ACID EQUIVALENTS the NUMBER OF BASE EQUIVALENTS 0 Strong acids and strong bases have equivalence pts at pH 7 0 Weak acids and strong bases have an equivalence pt at pH gt 7 0 Weak bases and strong acids have an equivalence pt at pH lt 7 0 Weak acids and weak bases have an equivalence pt at pH above or below r o quot P DEPENDING ON the relative A MW ram V w 3 00 K 6quot A 9 of each substance m t Q I 33 o The amount of H20 will not 3 i 5 5m 45w 43 3 NE The equivalnce pt 9 A at UN 0 Indicators 9 M i Know the pH equivalence point 91 51 ii Select the indicator with the CLOSEST pKa m3 0 Endpoint O polyvalent molecules have multiple equivalence pts and buffering regions 0 Buffer Solution a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate salt or weak base and its conjugate salt gt resist large fluctuations in pH 0 Buffer Capacity the ability of a buffer to resist changes in pH gt MAX buffer capacity is 1pH pt of pKa 0 Henderson Hasselbach Equations quantifies the relationship between pH and pKa for weak acids and between pOH and pkb for weak bases gt when optimally buffered pHpKa and pOHpr Take Aways Chpater 10 Acids and Bases Page 31 Question Review Mmdayi Mgnmh 22 2 15 313 PM C90 450 C973 3 0 69 c 92 1b U mm 395 0051 Msm Us 005 5 3 swanquot 3 s39 5 pk 7 our 51quot lm1 Vovrr X 3939 M O39N 13 29 45 oa emitsquot qt MKS k l Chpater 10 Acids and Bases Page 32 111 OxidationReduction Reactions Sunday February 222 2 15 1239 AM 0 Oxidation the loss of electrons O Oxidizing Agents the substance that is reduced in the process I Most contain oxygen or a similarly ELECTRONEGATIVE element 0 Reduction the gaining of Electrons 0 Reducing Agent the substance that is oxidized in the process I Most contain metal ions or hydrides H Determining Oxidation State 0 Any FREE ELEMENT or DIATOMIC species has an oxidation number of 0 0 Monatomic ions have oxidation numbers EQUAL TO THEIR CHARGE 0 When in compounds Group 1A has 1 and Group 2A has 2 0 When in compounds Group 7A has 1 0 Hydrogen is 1 unless it is parried with a less electronegative element gt then its 1 0 Oxygen is usually 2 except in peroxides or with more electronegative elements 0 The sum should add up to the overall charge of the molecule Balancing Redox Reactions 1 Separate two half reactions 2 Balance the atoms of each halfrxn gt start with all the elements besides H and 0 a in acidic solutions balance the rxn with water and H b in basic solutions balance the equation using OH and water Balance the charges of each rxn by addition electrons as necessary to either side Multiply the rxn as necessary to obtain the same number of electrons in both rxns Add the two rxns canceling out terms on both sides of the rxn arrow Confirm the MASS and CHARGE are balanced 991 Chapter 11 OxidationReduction Reactions Page 33 112 Net Ionic Equations Sunday February 22 2 15 1249 AM 0 Complete Ionic Equations accounts for all the ions present in a reaction 0 To Write I Split al aqueous compounds into their relevant ions gt keep solids intact Net Ionic Equations 0 To Write I Ignore spectator ions and FOCUS ON THE SPECIES THAT ACTUALLY PARTICIPATE in the rxn I Subtract the ions appearing on both sides of the rxn Spectator ions I For rxns with no aqueous salts the net ionic equation is generally the same as the overall balance rxn I For rxns with double displacement rxns do not form a solid salt thee is not net ionic rxn bc all ions remain in solution and do not change oxidation numbers 0 Disproportionation Rxns dissemination a redox rxn where one element is BOTH oxidized and reduced gt forming at least two molecules containing the element with different oxidation numbers 0 OxidationReduction Titrations similar to acidbase titration in methodology gt follow transfer of charge 0 Indicators used when certain voltages of a solution are reached gt changes color 0 Potentiometric Titrations form of redox titration in which a volt meter measures the electromotive form emf of a solution I No indicator Equivalence pt is determined by sharp change in voltage Chapter 11 OxidationReduction Reactions Page 34 121 Electrochemical Cells Sunday February 22 2 15 1217 AM 0 Electrochemical cell any cell which oxidationreduction rxns take place 0 Shared Characteristics i Electrodes stripes of metal or other conductive materials placed in an electrolyte solution ii Anode always the side of OXIDATION gt attract ANIONS iii Cathode always the site of REDUCTION gt attract cations iv eectrons flow from ANODE to CATHODE v current flows from CATHODE to ANODE 0 Cell Diagrams shorthand notation that represent the rxn taking place in an electrochemical cell 0 Written from ANODE to CATHODE with electrolyte solution bt 0 single vertical line represents a phase boundary 0 double vertical line represents a salt bridge or other physical boundary 0 Galvanic Cells voltaic house spontaneous rxns G lt 0 with a positive electromotive force 0 Electrolytic Cells house nonspontaneous rxns G gt 0 with a negative electromotive force gt used to create useful products through electrolysis 0 Concentration Cells specialized form of a GALVANIC CELL in which both electrodes are made of the same material 0 Electrode Charge dependent on the type of electrochemical cell one is studying o Galvanic Cells Electrode Charge the anode is negatively charged and the CATHODE is positively charged 0 Electrolytic Cells Electrode Charge the ANODE is POSITIVELY charged and the CATHODE is NEGATIVELY charged 0 Rechargeable Batteries electrochemical cells that cen experience charging electrolytic and discharging galvanic states 0 ranked by energy density 0 LeadAcid Batteries 0 NickelCadmium Batteries 0 NickelMetal Hydride 0 Surge Current an aboveaverage current transiently released at the beginning of the discharge phase gt wanes rapidly until a stable current is achieved Take Aways 0 Mnemonic Electrode in a electrochemical cell AN OX and a RED CAT 0 The ANode is the site of Oxidation REDduction occurs at the CAThode 0 Electrons move through an electrochemical cell opposite to the flow of current I 0 Galvanic Cells are used in batteries gt in order to work they must be SPONTANEOUS 0 The purpose of the salt bridge is to exchange anions and cations to balance or dissipate newly generated charges 0 Mnemonic Electrons flow in an electrochemical cell Agt C order in the alphabet o Electrons flow from Anode to Cathode in ALL types of electrochemical cells 0 make sure to know the short hand notation of the cells 0 eectrolysis can consist of any material so long as it can resist the highest temps and corrosion of the process 0 Faradayu39s laws state that the liberation of gas and deposition of elements on electrodes is directly proportional to the number of electrons being transferred during the oxidationreduction reaction 0 Normality is used 0 Observations used as proxy measurements of the amount of current flowing in a circuit 0 1F 96485 Columbs 0 Mnemonic Electrideposition equation gt Calculating MOELS OF Metal IT is NOT Fun 0 In a galvanic cell the anod is negative and the cathode is positve In an electrolytic cell the anode is positive and the cathode is negative This is bc an external source is used to reverse the charge of an electrolytic cell 0 In both types of cells reduction occurs at the cathode and oxidation occurs at the anode Chapter 12 Electrochemisty Page 35 122 Cell Potentials Sunday February 222 2 15 1229 AM 0 Reduction Potential quantifies the tendency for a species to gain electrons and be reduced gt the HIGHER the potential the MORE a given species wants to be reduced 0 Standard Reduction Potential 0 the standard hydrogen electrode has a standard reduction potential of O Volts 0 Standard Electromotive Force 0 for galvanic cells the DIFFERENCE ofthe reduction potential ofthe two half reactions is POSITIVE 0 for electrolytic cells the difference is negative Chapter 12 Electrochemisty Page 36 123 Electromotive Force and Thermodynamics Sunday February 22 2 15 1232 AM 0 eectromotive force and Gibbs Free Energy ALWAYS have OPPOSITE Signs 0 For Galvanic Cells Ece and G O For Electrolytic Cells Ece and G 0 Concentration Cell When Ece and G O 0 Nernst Equation describes the relationship bt the concentration of species in a solution under nonstandard conditions and the electromotive force Relationship bt Keg and Eceu 0 Keq lt 1 then Eceu 0 Keq gt 1 then Eceu 0 Keq 0 then Eceu 0 Chapter 12 Electrochemisty Page 37 Atomic Weight and Mass a cquot 397quot 6 QMAKH emc 31 193 M v i if 95 3 c 10va m a 5 439 g MW 9V 23 39 439 to Zo o H mquot MW 55773 V0 C k39s our Mars 6 Wquot a m I 138 20 pl 392 at 5 cm Pm 0xk 7 LR 1 O 93 as w waft quotL 4 5 Y 8 juxb m J a New W W W O HYPSG Page 38 Reaction Energy Profiles Me dav February 16 2015 1 25 AM CD C x b mob MOHWKVLL b Vv g tm MW 57551 CPr 5 may enwwOMWW 6 C Olc Ur Ls WM hvkL Q wen aU QM olo W C aser 3 Maw DL bg9 Q Tl K7 RODer 1M 39Pdl QBZWQTVWQ L SWH M 1593 393 va 7 we ENS be 6 OK r quot RowM lboo 37 2 Ewell397M pp No Mn AQ C9 amp pr bxAM Mm HYPSG Page 39 Periodic Trends fl 53 WW Kch 13 NW W W C 7 3 ark L 5b 39 CM 393 Rb L Q onyx RUM 5 my 010 b P L CD 4lt 54414M 56quot4Q 4 60ltOaw c 55 Ream MAM MW 0 Q M vw 9 2w Di Mi HYPSG Page 40 VSEPR Theory and Geometry w my waudm W M lt QM L s Lu C5 EULVWQBLX 5 3W 175 GM ebw an hiya43 W Wt 0M wyw 5 Xu ampW 61 CV0 Llr0351 AV 2 o 3 mg m ma Loot 43 WW t W i I exam6 WWW NOE ERW Re YR lt1 3 1 0 two 5 V sHW Px 0W 0 U7 A bVO 1 3W3 W23 0 9 WMJW V 0W2 w w 3 my M W 0 3 10w 5 7 V3019 wquot l 1 1025 x 393lt LT g TBF W VI PFH I OW LULPALquot 65 W H 6 NMM 63 mm a 90 10 Q 3 E HYPSG Page 41 Y bwb WMWv V5 SqL9 AVA5 BM HYPSG Page 42 Stoichiometry Monday February 16 2015 1 1 28 M u D 6squot gnm 05quot 7 F9 090 3 99 230 gUOv39S gw39u MQO 1 quot M rvw V IL Wamp 5 as 3cm 0 33 1 M 8 9 3 WM 3 a a a5 M W Dc 391 L95 m 390 5 m m mva mow M mot 5 679m L 33 M Hg D 5 x7 nasm W530 4 3 W3 7 WV 3 perm 1 13quot 3 j92mwa quot7 W era ma SJV L 2S39WL Qa x lfay 0x4 213 90 k Hg ah Izyym 960V 3 As gt V531 Graf D 3 uS L 3 3gt 1 3 E gm 3905 UW S 0 73 it Uquot awvsns 6 WA 5 ax M 1903 9 As vwx x 59 37rw v v39x 13w N GQW 1 HYPSG Page 43 SY O HYPSG Page 44 Rate Law 112415 AM 96me Q wk DRNO39B Louv ESELT My le CLOWWW wg l 9 Q XL L P0630 QA Q4902 m 7 A PM Q 03 b4 pogqt C Q 9 39 NW 339 Q32 1 x 739 397 9a z J V g 1 WMTI K E ij vaaff lt Dwoalquot WV p Q Ma K LQPFQO CmNogf 3 PM K Cw oa j S39 quot Y w gws K Lana 57 wig 5 4 LAwo equot 339 K k 0 W M 5 VW mm s K CNTB 1 C945 Two39 5 3 4 t avb ji 1M5 W m Y rquot 3300 59 KW39WD q gw 5 4ro own J HM 75 quotm 15 0 C5 w W13 K cc r 9973 5 a 3 w 22 gt v 1 5 th K t oquot3t9 M l HYPSG Page 45 90mg Ktw 3L1a w 3 Lb aw 932 9quotCD g M HYPSG Page 46 Molar Solubility Mommy March 02 2015 4106 PM 31 Fatwa 7 50 930w 9 Q v v a m MX 937 x 313 L mo 3 3 km WBL W39 3 at yd 5K Q W vlb 9MP v03f M3 C H5 QDQ 1 1 UH b w C n0 1 gt9 Ftquot391 t 0M5 me x 3 T34 w D 39 Pr w 33 M r o39 9 3 331 391 be b 33 fl 0 1 o w L m 9WM L C WM m 5 5N SM L BRA QsQ 3 If 9 S W W V1 WWW VII V5 0quot 58 6ch 9 KW f g Ss w L9 4R WW HYPSG Page 47 Hess 3 Law J Lnegdam rah 1 i D ngwos 4100 v C DK Av wac DA 2 mm Aw W sulw Dvr 5013 s 6 9 quot lkM39K a 353 4 st 5393 astb 5 20106 Arr awnUquot G Gaul Ol 7 SANA kg Mb 3 Q QWOS X Lil z 395 gtgt Ibbo 9 IgtB b A quot Lo Bu 3 2 HYPSG Page 48 Ideal Gas Law L 3 34 q 66 6fo M a 9 A 2L SP vmif L42 g3 E 12735 W 9quot Baum CNSquot 99 0 mm W9 I F 0V 5Kf g LDbLKKDm 3 g UCvSMg H 1D 139 WL 35 MK 7 75k39b 7503 5 04 mom L 31 F3 W 9 ltc5M 3 R 7344 V QL 99 iquot W1 C Q b39srltaL ng k Vt ile m LgMBU h 1 2quot W0 gt Y Q BJvA 3 03 Tg ww 33gb ww M313W2W mbsbvkm hwy 1 L H P 0 K 7 a do OD M 31 wlt w HYPSG Page 49 we 6910 2 L00 LLRQQBL W 07 7 M J MiaDo 3 X0V Vaquot WW I uwb HYPSG Page 50 mom Eggmommgw 392 Fwy NEW Mwmg WU m w MVVE Cle 47 u J 9 71 0 Ax vk c of T 9K d nw fr Mix X szx m 5 m Oiv 5Y0 va Id EVOLJ wa er uE n it u 9 Vx TA CXZOHW aUI l A gunINY I ASN0 x 0 anV H 0 Ida K I r CfRro H rvqavohqw M Y J M W U l C M901 05am W v x0 r09 v x90 nu X 39 QUJ 159 1W l Kai 4an MmprCJ mayquot IN ZQIOV rV lt1VM waxwretz l MOETug III I I 3 7Vqu xywxv Iltv V v r6 K6U vytwdp0w Use El w KIM WI 00va 02 0 m 017 I VA Hmng Hummo a HYPSG Page 52 Balancing Equations 7129M Dr Zrocom1 arse 5 37 2 369quot 939 bow k of v V Oq939wL ab a39 gtlt9 Mxq wwk ZrOLolkB Zr 5 WW 0 95 r I W A 9503 7 950 74 M FM quotZrOCW Bh c u 2L a 7roco3 gt 2r wsouquot we 8 Ou 5 Pb 6 4 30062 X J 051 w vPh4saf 31223 Vb go 3 100 Lam 0 WW1 Wu A 9VDD KQO OU 4 Qb QBDAA HYPSG Page 53